IT bachelor projects. January A Tangible Enhancement of. Enhance the Experience of Golf. for Tangible Representation

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1 A Tangible Enhancement of Movie Experiences Can Tangible Computing Enhance the Experience of Golf Motivating teens to understand and generate electricity Monitoring Dogs Activities for Tangible Representation OP-Blocks: A Tangible Approach to Surgery Scheduling IT bachelor projects Aarhus University January 2010 A Critical Design Approach: Combining Persuasive Technology and Tangible User Interface to Create Energy Awareness

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3 IT bachelor projects January 2010 Can Tangible Computing Enhance the Experience of Golf, side Motivating teens to understand and generate electricity, side Monitoring Dogs Activities for Tangible Representation, side OP-Blocks: A Tangible Approach to Surgery Scheduling, side A Critical Design Approach: Combining Persuasive Technology and Tangible User Interface to Create Energy Awareness, side A Tangible Enhancement of Movie Experiences, side

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7 Can Tangible Computing Enhance the Experience of Golf Andreasen, Kristian IT Bachelor, Aarhus University Åbogade 34, DK-8200 Århus N ABSTRACT In this paper we explore whether or not a Tangible User Interface (TUI) can enhance the experience of golf, without interfering with the normal flow of it. By integrating technology into the equipment already used, we want to make the implementation as seamless as possible, still benefiting the user. We focus on the game of golf and will explore the possibility of using technology to enhance the playing experience. Our ideas are tested with both low- and high fidelity prototypes, with users ranging from amateurs to professionals. Additionally, we also aim to find out which user groups, if any, can benefit from our system. Author Keywords Golf, augmented sports, position tracking, tangible user interface, RFID, spatial tracking, Social dogma. DANISH ABSTRACT I dette projekt har vi arbejdet med at indtroducere Tangible User Interfaces i golf. Mange af nutidens digitale produkter til til golfspillere bryder spillernes koncentration, når de skal bruges og forringer derigennem både spillerens performance og flow. Vi sigter i projektet efter at lave concept hvor oplevelsen af at spille golf holdes komplet samtidig med at der drages nytte af digitale teknologier. Vores ideer bliver testet med både low- og high fidelity prototyper, og evalueres i samarbejde med en bred vifte af personer fra golfmiljøet. INTRODUCTION New advances in sports technology often come from a commercial background and focus on aiding the user, but usually compromise the context of use. These new technologies often result in some new kind of PDA-like gadget the user has to interact with and interrupting normal game flow [5]. In golf, one of the most important means of playing well, is to stay focused throughout the round, know every section of the 18 holes and maintain a steady swing. Many of the Markussen, Jacob IT Bachelor, Aarhus University Åbogade 34, DK-8200 Århus N Kähler, Nils IT Bachelor, Aarhus University Åbogade 34, DK-8200 Århus N before mentioned gadget helps the player keeping track of these things but require active user input and to make sense of the given feedback users have to focus their attention on the gadget, taking it away from the game and thereby interrupting the flow of golf. Using a TUI-solution could give the user the same kind of statistical data-collection without interrupting the game. Putting data collection in the background makes the system more intuitive, giving the user a better overall experience of interacting with technology while playing golf. The feedback given to the user while playing golf must remain in the background and should, if the user decides to, be easily ignored thus being unobtrusive. Instead of getting the users to interact with a new gadget and to adapt to a new gadget, we try to exploit the interaction that already exists, in the sport, with the equipment, so that our solution does not disturb the flow of the game. In this way we get a tangible user interface which adds a value to the user without forcing him/her to learn how to use a new gadget. Paul Dourish tries to unravel the direction that tangible computing is heading. Explorations in tangible computing have attempted to capitalise on a new range of skills, the tactile and physical skills that we employ in dealing with the world around us. Research into tangible computing has taken a step back and realised that, while we currently interact with computers through physical objects (such as keyboards, mice and displays), we can better exploit our natural skills if we focus on interacting with the physical objects themselves. The physical objects no longer stand as proxies for purely computational entities like cursors and insertion points, but can begin to take on a more direct role in the interaction. [12] We use the physical objects that are already associated with golf and augments them with computing power. We leave room for the natural skills that human beings possess and use them to enhance the experience of the game. By making extra information and hints available. We are taking the JANUARY

8 focus away from the extra equipment and back on the game. Van den Hoven et al. argues on broadening the Tangible interaction-perspective[4] from a purely scientific perspective to include a design perspective. The interest to also design Tangible Interaction starting from existing physical activities instead of only as add-ons to digital applications. In our case golf has been the existing physical activity we designed for. We have coupled the interaction with the physical golf equipment to digital information that is communicated by outputs on the bag and the wristband. This leads us to our chosen research question. Research Question Can tangible computing enhance the experience of golf, without interfering with the normal flow of golf. USER AND CONTEXT STUDIES The context Our first task, when designing to a very specific scenario, was to find out exactly what the scenario was all about; We needed to understand the rules and the customs. In order to do this we met with some very experienced golfers from different parts of the golfing community, including elite players, trainers and managers from some of the Danish golf clubs. From these semi-structured interviews [8, ch. 7.4] we learned that even though obeying the rules of golf is the main thing to keep in mind when playing golf, playing by and understanding the well established customs and etiquette matters even more for most players. Most of these customs and etiquettes are caused by golf being a gentleman's sport where all competitors have a great amount of respect for each other and will not, by any means, disturb each other while playing. Things like "never stand directly behind a player about to shoot" and "do not cross other players putting lines" show this very clearly. These are not situations that most of the players we interviewed would mind or even notice, but all players know these things and follow strictly to honour the game and its customs. Talking to the players had given us a good idea on which rules our future users had to live by when on the course, but we wanted to get a better understanding of the game and decided to try it out for ourselves. With Markussen already being a registered golfer, he started training Kähler and Andreasen in the fine arts of golf. Learning, teaching and playing golf got us involved with the game, the context and some of the potential future users of our concepts. It showed us some of the most important aspects of golf as a game and as a social activity, giving us all a common understanding of the, for us, relatively new field of work. By going out and trying to play golf without any previous experience in the field, we were able to put ourselves in the unique position of the golfer. We had the same questions and problems that beginners in the field have, while always asking ourselves how this problem could be solved or how the experience could be improved. Some of the important lessons we learned was how difficult it were to estimate the distance to the green and what selection of clubs would be most appropriate based on that distance. It was very difficult to hit the ball correctly, there are a lot of variables to a good swing, and most of the basic tips are hard to follow in the moment. [8, ch. 11.3] The users To better understand the possible future users of our concepts, we performed a series of quantitative surveys [8]. Not sure which sub-group of players we wanted to focus on in our concept, we did both a wide range quantitative questionnaire with 50 answers received and 3 more qualitative group-specific interviews. The questionnaires were placed in the front hall of a golf club, for all members to attend. We did these very wide range surveys to gather some general information about golfers and their habits on the course and training facilities. The first set of questions we handed out were very general and had questions on for example the users' level of ambition, their current handicap and what kind of accessories they use while playing and training. We used the results of the first set to find out whether or not golf players were already using any extra equipment and, if any, which groups of players were most likely to use technological equipment. We received 50 answered sets of the first survey and found some general profiles of golf players. We used these profiles to create some personas [8, ch. 10.3] that were used in our idea generation and design processes. The personas helped us define some of the major aspects of golf that we had to consider in our work. Together with our initial research they clarified that the most important thing to have in mind, when designing electronic equipment to golfers, is that they should be as non-intrusive as possible. At the same time they helped us get a better picture of who our final users could be. We had personas in all the different groups of players, and together with the questionnaires we could define our main focus group, the ambitious amateur. From the answers on our initial survey we saw that it was mostly the ambitious amateurs who already used electronic gadgets and who kept statistics. Most of the elite players also did this, but we found that there were too many rules in elite and higher skilled tournaments, restricting our possibilities of designing a system the players could benefit from without being disqualified. The answers also showed us that a surprisingly low number of the participants used any kind of extra gadgets when playing golf. Even though 8 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

9 the number of devices available keeps rising, and the devices get more and more advanced, combining lots of features in one, they do not seem to be very popular. Our more qualitative interviews suggest that the unpopularity is mainly because all these devices are very intrusive, taking away the focus from the game and the experience when using them. After our initial surveys pointed us in the direction of a more specific user group, we made some more qualitative interviews with golfers from this group. We used these interviews to get a better understanding of why these players were playing golf, what they wanted from their golf and what they were possibly missing when playing. Our findings in these interviews matched our previous conclusion well. The ambitious players were very interested in new products that could help them get better at their game and get even more pleasure from it, they just did not see these qualities in any of the products already on the market. Some of them had a so called PinSeeker [7], to help them measure distance, and were quite happy with its performance. But they also wanted some kind of product that could give them feedback on their swing (as they could not bring their trainer with them on the course every time), a more intuitive way of keeping track of their scores and general status (both while training and on the course), a location based system that could give them information and hints about the course as they go and more training specific equipment to help them keep track of their training programs and progress. The interviews confirmed that, even though different kinds of equipment for these specific tasks are available, they are too intrusive and take too much time to use on the course. Some of the more multifunctional gadgets also has "way too many confusing functions" on the small screens and took too many steps of input to get a desired output. Our user- and context studies left us with a series of demands and wishes from the users regarding a new technological system that should help them improve their golf. Throughout our surveys we intentionally never asked the user which specific technologies or solutions they wanted, but focused on what their needs where, hopefully making their answers more valid giving us a better picture of which features our design needed and which we should definitely leave out. Summing up on these user demands our chosen user groups main focus on new products for their favourite sport, is that it does not interfere with their own or other player's game and that it is fairly easy to use and interact with. That being said there are some features that seem to be a must have: Statistics (club usage, shot length, stability etc.) Distance to green and/or hazards Club recommendation Live feedback on performance Ability to compare statistics with other users/pros Some of the users had a more training minded perspective than others and suggested more individual features like a virtual trainer keeping track of exercises and schedules, a digital notebook to make personal notes on the course and simple suggestions such as a music player and a video camera. As we will describe in the following there has not been carried out a lot of technological research especially in golf, and therefore our findings in our user surveys will be our primary focus in our design. RELATED WORK In the area of sports and more specifically golf, there has not been much research in the category of TUI. But there has still been made various other projects that have either tried to add technology to different aspects of sports. In our research we have looked into these projects and following are some of the most relevant to our projects. isport The focus for isport [6] is to take the knowledge gained from working with tangible and physical interaction and use it to enrich the experience of the social context that is a part of the physical interaction. "The isport project is focused on exploring the challenge of designing and using computers in ways that enhance and support physical and social capabilities and experiences" Figure 1: When looking at sports this are the three areas that isports are concerned with isports has a 3-part focus on the exercise of the athlete to perform better, the spectator and their experience and the learning aspect of team sports. isports mainly look at how those three parts are connected together on an overall level. JANUARY

10 The aspects of the participators and the ability to integrate academic learning into the game is unimportant in the area of golfing that we are working within. None of the interviews we had showed that the ambitious amateurs have any public spectators when they are playing and most players are no longer attending school. The resemblance to our project is mainly around the social context that is an important part of golf. Previously there has been a large focus on individuals when designing technologies and the social mechanics that are at work during a game of golf have been largely ignored in previous products. We have realized how important it is to respect and integrate this context into our proposed solution. Using Dual Number Method For Motion Analysis of Left Arm in a Golf Swing As Kiat Teu et al.[11] describes The traditional method of capturing human motion is by a camera, but there are some problems with that like quality, lighting and refresh rate. This article tries to use electrogoniometer to obtain the joint angles. The golf swing is an important asset of golfing, most golfers tend to associate the improvement of their games with the improvement of their swing. Even though there are some problems calculating the precise movement of the golf swing with electrogoniometers, there are some other benefits by recording the golf swing this way such as eliminating analysing errors and digitizing video errors. Our concept does not need the massive amount of data that this method outputs, as we are not aiming to analyse the swing in detail, but merely to record the timing of it. Also we strive not to break the flow of golf and a system using electrogoniometers takes a long time to set up and use, it is not fit for our kind of system. These are some of the major problems that made us pick an accelerometer to gather our data instead of the more complex technologies. The problem with a camera is that it is not stable enough to be used on the golf course because the golfer would be required to set up the camera every time he should swing and there is no guarantee that the environment and lighting on the course is fit for camera usage. Sonic Golf The reason for making sonic golf [2] is because within the mechanics of a golf swing there is a natural tempo and swing rhythm, irrespective if the swing is fast or slow. Sonic Golf is a product that tries to alter the users mechanics of the swing by converting the live swing tempo into an audio feedback. It works by recording data from an accelerometer in the grip of the club and converting the data to a corresponding audio stream. This feedback can help the user get a better and more steady swing tempo. Shootball Shootball [10] utilises tangibility in a ubiquitous computing ball sport. Shootball is a team game that is played in an indoor arena with 6 big screens on the walls. The goal of the game is to score nine by shooting the big screens on the wall. Their vision of the future is to have computers embedded in the environment where people can play around. Shootball is using tangible technologies just as the golfbag and wristband we are using and shows that it is possible to utilise ubiquitous computing in sports. A PinSeeker In our initial user survey people who used electronic devices almost exclusively used a device called a PinSeeker. This is a monocular with a laser distance measurer and is mostly used to measure the distance to the green/flag. Our interviews suggest that the reason this is the most widely used electronic aid is that it only displays the necessary information, and it is easy to use. While this is fast and easy to use it is still a disruption in the flow of the game, you have to get it from the bag, measure the distance and then decide which club or iron to use based on this information. The use of a PinSeeker however illuminates a need to measure distance to the green and a relevant suggestion based on this information. Combining what we learned from our user and context studies with knowledge others have contributed in these articles we started our design work. In the following we will argument our design phase and design-choices regarding both the final concept and the technical solutions we used. OUR PROJECT Design phase In our design work we used some different methods to come up with ideas, develop those ideas and separate the good ones from the bad ones. Brainstorming We started the process with a series of no rule brainstorming [8, ch. 9.2] to get as many ideas as possible on the table. All the ideas were on post-it notes that were used in different ways. Combining the post-its according to different groups e.g. using the same technology, solving the same problem or desired by the same persona (as mentioned in our user studies) helped us pick out the best ideas. These combinations where then developed further in with new, more specific brainstorms getting us closer to the most suitable concept. 10 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

11 A negative brainstorm In addition to the ordinary brainstorms we used in the idea generation, we did a negative brainstorm to see which solutions we could come up with that would ruin the values of golf completely. There is a lot of unspoken rules as to how you play golf and by trying to deliberately breaking those rules we would get a idea of the design area we are operating within. Some of the ideas we came up with were very outlandish; like a golf bag that could perform the swing for you. But some ideas like tracking the ball with GPS was a plausible solution for the concept but would have been a faux pas if ever used in a real game. Lead Users In order to refine our ideas and develop new ones we took some of our best and a few of our worst ideas and presented them to a few select lead users [1]. Their feedback helped us realise which parts of our ideas to go on with, and which parts that were either completely irrelevant or just not important enough to spend time on in our project. We used the lead users several times throughout our design process as their experience and knowledge of the game helped us in all aspects of our work. Combining their input with our own ideas and limiting it with what our chosen user group wanted and needed gave us a perfect combination of using new and beneficial technologies to fit the user's needs in the best possible way. Low fidelity prototypes Apart from the plain ideas that we discussed with the lead users we also made some low fidelity prototypes [8, ch. 11.2]. We used both video prototypes and the Wizard of Oz technique to describe our ideas to both the lead users and other possible future users. Concept Concluding on our design work we ended up with a complete concept, that had been tested with users from our main focus group, lead users from the world of golf, professional golf trainers and, as a more commercial aspect, salesmen of golf equipment from Golf Experten. The concept consists of an intelligent golfbag (Figure 2) that has a series of functions and comes with a wristband (Figure 3) that also has some special features. The bag records the player's location throughout the golf course with a GPS and combined with the wristband registering shots, the player's route on the course is saved. Adding to that information the bag registers which clubs are being used to keep statistics on how long the player shoots with each club. This information is constantly updated to stay accurate as the player's performance in- or decreases. Knowing the player's average shot length enables the bag to suggest which club to use according to the distance to the green. The feedback is given to the user by lighting up the corresponding club in the bag (with a green light). Additionally it suggests a club for a harder (a red light) and softer (a blue light) stroke than normal, so the user can choose the club that matches his/her mood. As a more live feedback on the user's performance the wristband has an accelerometer that measures the rhythm of the swing. In golf, the relation between back- and downswing is best at 3 : 1 (according to our interviewed trainers). The wristband compares the measured rhythm to this relation and gives the user feedback with a series of lights (going from red to green red) telling the user to slow down or speed up the swing rhythm. Figure 3: Technical illustration of wristband Figure 2: Technical illustration of golfbag All the data is recorded in the golfbag's memory and can later on be viewed on a computer. This enables the user to see where he/she has improved and where to keep working harder. The information can also be transferred to other JANUARY

12 users to compare performance users in between, and see which routes other users take on specific courses. As the desired features of our concept was in place, we started the more technical part of our work, as described in the following. Technological possibilities Club recognition To read which clubs are in use, and which are in the bag, our main idea was to insert RFID tags in the clubs and a reader in the bag. The RFID tags would enable us to register and keep track of any number of clubs wanted in the system. We also considered some kind of buttons in the bottom of every tube in a tube bag. But this solution would require the player to only have one club per tube, placing the clubs in the same tubes every time and adding or replacing clubs would take too much effort. The next challenge was how to install a RFID reader/antenna in a golf bag without altering the main function of the bag; carrying the clubs. This meant that we had to place the antenna somewhere in the existing bag without blocking any of the holes, so we either had to place it in the chassis of the bag or in the girders that make the holes. Working with a very specific design of the golf bag our possibilities were quite limited, and, in an attempt to make as generic a system as possible, we decided to look into the possibilities of installing a customized RFID antenna in the bag. We succeeded in making an new antenna with a piece of wire with a length similar to the length of the PCB tracks on the Phidgets RFID unit. Though it gave us a more flexible antenna, we were not able to scale it up to cover the entire bag with only one antenna. This lead us to try to install more than one reader in the bag, which resulted in that none of the readers were reading anything. There seemed to be too much interference between the readers when they were closer to each other than 30-40cm. So we were only able to use one RFID reader in our prototype and could therefore only cover four tubes. Fortunately, our final tests were planned to be on a par-3 course where four clubs are enough and can fit into the four tubes. Club selection One of the reasons why golfers use electronic help such as PinSeeker to measure the distance is to know which club would be best to use at that distance. Our concept will be able to recommend which golf clubs would be the best to use depending on the range to the green and how you usually play in a similar situation. Our implementation of this has three LEDs with the colours: green, blue and red (Figure 4). This is a symbolic representation of which club to use based on the distance, we have decided on this representation since golf players already know the game and have time to learn the meaning of the selected colours, and thus there would be no added benefit of having an iconic representation [3]. As an example: if there is 170m to the green a green light will light up the club you usually hit 170m with, a red light means that you have to hit the ball harder and blue that you have to hit it softer to shoot the ball 170m. This will help the player select the right club for any given distance (recorded by the GPS mentioned later). It also guides the player in his club choice if he feels like hitting the ball hard, or he has an off day and wants to take it slow. We have chosen the colours of these LED's by interpreting the meaning of colours which is described by Penteado et al. [9]. Figure 4: Illustration of the lights installed for club recommendation Positioning During our brainstorm we came up with different ways and means of registering the position of the users as they progress through the golf course. We discussed both which technologies to use, and where to put it. As choice of technology GPS seemed to be the obvious way to go, but we also discussed if the courses should have some kind of local positioning system. Having a local system could make the system more reliable and more precise, making it able to track even very short shots (eg. puts). But the downside of a local system is that it requires courses to spend a lot of money on installing the sensors for the players to use the system, making the system very local instead of generic as we wanted it to be. Our other ideas had similar problems, being either too expensive or inaccurate. Therefore we ended up choosing GPS as our location technology, leaving us with a new challenge; where to put it? We basically had three different places in which we could place the GPS unit; on the player, in the bag or in the ball. 12 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

13 Placing the GPS in the ball would give the system some very unique features enabling the users to track their ball at all times evidently ruining some of the key features of golf. Suddenly it would be no problem ending in the rough or in a forest, so the risk of taking a blind shot would not really be a risk any more. This however would be both technically hard and would be against several rules. Putting it in the bag would take care of some technical problems with power and communication between the computer and the GPS. Since the player usually takes the bag with him around the course the bag would be close to the position of the ball when the GPS position is needed and the distance between the player and the bag is approximately the same as the error range for the GPS. Swing feedback One of the areas of feedback that has been a lot of work representing to the user, is the the relation between the backwards and forwards swing of the golf club [11]. It has been measured that the optimal relation is for the backwards swing to take three times as long as the forward. This maintains the maximum control over the swing regardless of the power you put behind it. We looked at several ways we could track this movement and the relation between the back- and downswing. We were looking at some different tracking technologies and among them were camera tracking, but we encountered several problems. Having to set-up the camera at the right place and angle every time you take a swing for it to work properly, would be a huge distraction to the flow of the game and is the main reason why we abandoned this recording method. We settled on using an accelerometer mounted in a wristband to track the changing G-force in the golf swing. Once the back swing starts the accelerometer will peak up to three Gs and we start a timer that runs until it goes back to zero, this interval is the time it takes for the complete back swing. The forward swing is a bit more difficult, you have to perform what is called a follow-through which is when you let the club continue along its path for a bit after you hit the ball. The problem is how you track the time till the club hits the ball and not the whole swing. With a better accelerometer you would see a G-force spike when you hit the ball, but for this prototype we are working with the assumption that the time after you hit the ball, will be constant so we just have to subtract this time from the whole forward swing to get the time from the back position till you hit the ball. Figure 5: Illustration of the wristband giving swing feedback We have looked at different ways to present this information to the player in a way that is both easily understood while remaining in the player's peripheral vision. We decided to use five LEDs to represent how close to the optimal swing, the player is. There is a green zone when the swing is close to the optimal ratio and an indication when the swing is too fast or too slow represented by different colour LEDs on either side of the green. The colour ranges from green in the middle over yellow to red when the swing is far from the optimal 3:1 ratio. The colour is deliberately different from what we are using to represent the different clubs to use. This is because the power you put behind the swing can vary greatly depending on the situation while still maintaining the same ratio. This makes it important to distinguish between the colours for club selection and the colour for the swing ratio so you can distinguish between the two. Prototypes In the early phases of the project we made some video prototypes to visualise our ideas and sketches. This was a low-fidelity prototype that helped us move along the design process of the project because we could get feedback and make it clearer to our test group what concept ideas we had. The second prototype is a walk through of a round of golf with one person using our prototype and another person who is using a scorecard and a PinSeeker as the only help to measure distance and make his selection of clubs based on this and help from his friend with our prototype. The second video prototype is mainly to highlight the different aspects of our prototype and how they differ from the JANUARY

14 solutions that are commercially available on the market today. It does not feature any of our test users since it is primarily meant to give an introduction to the features of the concept. Then we started working on a functional prototype using the technologies and ideas mentioned earlier. We installed all of the features in a golfbag and hid them as good as possible. In this way we were able to test whether or not a fully finished system would be useful in a real world context. Our prototyping ended with a functional bag prototype, that we used later on for evaluations. Some of the features of the concept behind the bag worked as intended others needed some help to get the wanted result. In regards of the wristband the implementation using the accelerometer we had, was not successful, as the accelerometer could not handle the power of the swing. To be able to test the wristband anyway, we used the Wizard of Oz technique to control the light feedback. EVALUATION Our evaluation of our concept and prototypes consists of two parts. As described in Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction, 2 nd Edition, the first evaluation: Exploration of a new Design Concept and the second: Evaluation of a Working Prototype [8, ch. 12.2]. We started exploring our concept by testing it for ourselves on the golf course, testing the different parts of our system using either our prototype or acting out the interaction with parts that had not yet been realised as a working prototype. Our initial evaluation showed that our concept as proposed at this stage would satisfy the requirements specified by the users. After this initial evaluation we finalised the prototype focusing on getting a complete and working prototype to evaluate. For the final evaluation we used a lead user to test the prototype and get feedback on it in action. Test was, for the first time, carried out on a full golf course, the user using the prototype on his own, with us standing by to assist. During the tests we experienced a few minor breakdowns, that were solved on-site with system reboots and minor adjustments. But the interaction with prototype was generally successful. It took a few attempts to learn to interpret and trust the feedback given by the bag, and we had to explain the colours a few times. Another minor problem was that, as it was the first time the user used our system, the statistics for his shot length were not calibrated, and sometimes did not match his actual performance. Overall the user was satisfied with the flow of the game while using the system. Off cause the breakdowns of the system did interfere with the flow, but it was a minor inconvenience as it was expected. FUTURE WORK This project has only been the first iteration of a design process. We have not had time to do further work on the prototype based on our evaluations. There has to be more evaluations to make sure the prototype can successfully be integrated into the game of golf. One of the first priorities is to make the system stable to ensure that testing whether or not it interferes with the flow of the game can be validly tested, without breakdowns interrupting the tests. On the technical side, the wristband needs a better accelerometer to give a more accurate and usable feedback. The current solution can give an idea of the concept, but is not accurate enough to give usable data. Another part of the concept, that we have not addressed in our prototype is the interface for representing the statistics and long term progress of the individual player. We have not had the time to work on this part of the project and it was deemed unimportant with regards to the main focus of the project being a TUI. CONCLUSION Our initial work with the users and the context have showed us some problems with the current customs of the game. Interviews with lead users specified one of the more problematic areas - those areas are mainly focused around the opposing desires to; on one hand play the game without interruptions and on the other hand be able to record your statistics for later reference. Our user surveys identified this need as being greatest amongst the middle group of players. This group consists of the players who are amateurs but are regarding their level of ambition as being higher than casual play. The feedback from the users that were presented with the prototype was positive. They regarded the concept as a plausible solution to the problems and have expressed a keen interest in following the continued design evolution. With regards to methods it is the first time we have used a negative brainstorm to try and come up with concepts that would ruin the game so we can avoid those design iterations later on. It has been an effective method in understanding the social dogma and identifying those ideas that would violate it. During the development of the prototype we discovered several important factors that must be respected when designing electronic solutions to golfers. TUI is a very effective way to design interaction when there is a set of rules and predetermined social context [6]. The problem with previous gadgets that our user group has had experience with is the need to focus all their attention on the device when interacting with it. This brakes the flow and the social contract that is in effect within the group of players, since the player is in essence diverting his attention from the game and social aspects of it, to the gadget. 14 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

15 TUI offers a better alternative by augment some of the physical tools already being used in golf to record data in a less intrusive way. When designing for a sport like golf it is paramount to keep an overview of how the different design ideas influence the rest of the game. There are a lot of unwritten rules that one has to respect and if the design is not tested properly, it is difficult to see how the rest of the game reacts to the changes proposed by the new design. This leads to solutions that address a problem but is useless in a real setting since it creates several new problems or fails to respect important unwritten rules. This is some of the major points in which we have gained new information. This first iteration of our prototype has been effective at uncovering some of the important consideration that must be taken into account when designing to a sport with as many rules as golf. While our prototype has gotten a lot of positive feedback it is important to note that this is the first iteration of a design solution. There is a large area that we have not had the time to properly examine. To create a concept that would be an answer to the complex situation of recording game statistics and performance and present it in a meaningful way will take several more iterations on our research question. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to thank Marianne G. Petersen for her guidance during the project and Peter G. Krogh for helping us in the design process. Thanks to Mikkel Bauns of the Department of Computer Science for lending GPS equipment. We also want to thank Skanderborg Golfklub for their cooperation and for sponsoring us, Golf Eksperten for their feedback on the system and other assistance and last but not least Per Ditlev and the rest of our test users for feedback during our design and evaluation phases. REFERENCES 1. Eric von Hippel, Democratizin Innovation. The MIT Press, Saskia Bakker, Debby Vorstenbosch, Elise van der Hoven, Gerard Hollenmans and Tom Bergman, Tangible Interaction in Tabletop Games: Studying iconic and symbolic play pieces, in Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Tangible and embedded interaction (TEI'07). 4. Elise van den Hoven, Joep Frens, Dima Aliakseyeu, Jean-Bernard Martens, Kees Overbeeke, Peter Peters, Design Research & Tangible Interaction, in Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Tangible and embedded interaction (TEI'07) Martin Ludvigsen, Rune Veerasawmy Nielsen, Maiken Hillerup Fogtmann, isport: Varieties of Physical Interactions in Social Contexts. Aarhus School of Architecture. 7.http://www.bushnelloutdoorproducts.eu/www_bushnell/e u/produits/all/laser-rangefinders-golf/ 8. Jenny Preece, Yvonne Rogers, Helen Sharp, Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction (2nd edition) 9. Ana Luiza Dias, Junia C. Anacleto, Luciana M. Silveira, Rosângela Ap. D. Penteado, Formalizing Motivational Patterns based on colors and their cultural meanings for developing Web applications 10. Yoshiro Sugano, Jumpei Ohtsuji, Toshiya Usui, Yuya Mochizuki, Naohito Okude, SHOOTBALL: The tangible ball sportin ubiquitous computing, Proceedings of the 2006 ACM SIGCHI international conference on Advances in computer entertainment technology (ACE'06) 11. Koon Kiat Teu, Wangdo Kim, Franz Konstantin Fuss, Using Dual Number Method For Motion Analysis of Left Arm in a Golf Swing, Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGGRAPH international conference on Virtual Reality continuum and its applications in industry 12. Paul Dourish, Embodied Interaction: Exploring the Foundations of a New Approach to HCI, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center 1999 JANUARY

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19 Motivating teens to understand and generate electricity Tobias Sonne Jensen A new application for tangible interaction Jakob Dam Jensen Department of Computer Science Aarhus University Aabogade 34, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark Morten Boye Mortensen 1. ABSTRACT In this paper we explore how to motivate teens to understand electricity and through that, replace their usage of electricity from legacy power-plugs with electricity generated by themselves. We do so by applying Fogg s Behavioral Model on current solutions to investigate why they are not affecting teens and also to argue why our solution might make a difference. The use of tangible interaction usually relates to Tangible User Interface(TUI)-systems in the field of computer science, however we propose a new application for this kind of interaction. Combining tangibility with consumption connects action to usage and reintroduces some of the physical qualities lacking in modern electrical devices. To explore how tangible interaction can benefit in the context of energy awareness a concept was designed and a prototype was built and tested. A qualitative test indicated that the target audience approves of the concept, but that the physical design needs further work. 1.1 Resume I denne artikel vil vi undersøge, hvordan man kan motivere teenagere til at forstå elektricitet og derigennem erstatte brugen af elektricitet fra lysnettet med elektricitet produceret af dem selv. Vi anvender Fogg s Behavioral Model på nuværende løsninger for at undersøge, hvorfor de ikke påvirker de unges energivaner samt til at argumentere for hvorfor vores løsning kan gøre en forskel. Brugen af tangible interaction relaterer normalt til Tangible User Interface(TUI)-systemer inden for datalogien, men vi foreslår en ny anvendelse for denne form for interaktion. Kombinationen af fysisk håndgribelighed og forbrug forbinder handling med konsekvens og genindfører nogle af de fysiske kvaliteter der mangler i moderne elektriske apparater. For at undersøge hvordan tangible interaction kan bidrage til energibevidsthed, blev et koncept designet og en prototype blev bygget og testet. En kvalitativ test viste at målgruppen blåstempler konceptet, men at den fysiske udformning har behov for yderligere arbejde. 2. INTRODUCTION Environmental protection has received a lot of attention in the past couple of years. People are being told how their consumption habits affect global warming and how we all share the responsibility for protecting the planet. Yet it is still difficult for the average consumer to understand how their usage of electronic equipment has a negative impact on the world. This is due to the fact that electricity, because of its abstract nature, can seem like an inexhaustible energy source. The common approach to solve this problem within computer science related fields has been to show usage-statistics in different ways on displays [4, 1]. Another approach is of the more artistic kind where designers and computer scientists collaborate on a more artistic impression of energy usage [25, 3]. Tangible interaction with entities without a physical form is by definition not possible. However in computer science the concept of Tangible User Interfaces (TUI) has originated, where it has contributed to physical interaction with digital material [6]. As a consequence most TUI systems concentrate on enhancing the traditional on-screen computer interface with different kinds of physical representations or possibilities for manipulation. One obvious way of using tangible interaction in combination with energy awareness, would be to add tangibility to screen based awareness systems. However in this paper the approach is different. Instead of basing the work on digital properties and possibilities, the starting point is the physical qualities in a product. The most electricity consuming part of an average western population is the teens [21]. They have a lot of electrical equipment, they often use multiple devices simultaneously and they don t pay the bill themselves[21]. It is of interest JANUARY

20 if tangible interaction can help to increase awareness in this particular demographic. Therefore the question that will be the foundation for the subject in this paper is: How can tangible interaction help teens between years understand electricity and motivate them to create energy for their own consumption? 3. MOTIVATION Over the last couple of years, the environment has gained an increasing amount of attention. In an effort to decrease pollution and global warming, a lot of measures have been taken and more are sure to come. One of the areas of focus lies within a change in the behavior of the population on the globe. Such a change requires enlightenment and education of people, in particular of the generations to come. This is the main reason that the topic in this paper will be focussed on teens between years. They are the generation of the future and if their behavior can be affected, the foundation for a greater future change stands stronger. The average teenager uses approximately 20 % more energy than the remaining part of the population [21]. Furthermore, they are not economically responsible for their own consumption [21] and therefore they don t face any practical or economic consequences of their behavior. The teens primary type of energy consumption is electricity [21]. Computers, mobile phones, game consoles, televisionset etc. all use substantial amounts of electricity. To top it all of, multiple devices are often turned on at the same time, adding to the overall consumption. The modern youth s way of life with always-on devices and constant accessibility to friends and acquaintances through digital services, leads to an increased consumption of electricity by the devices required. This consumption may not be noticed in everyday life. When a teenager has to charge a mobile phone, the charger is just plugged in and the phone gets charged. There is no need to think about how things work or who made it work in the first place. Likewise it takes no effort to do; it is a great example of convenience. Another example of convenience is the use of automatic light sensors, that automatically turn the light on and off in a room triggered by human activity. On the homepage for The U.S. Department of Energy, the department encourages the use of light sensors: Use dimmers, motion sensors, or occupancy sensors to automatically turn on or off lighting as needed and prevent energy waste [35]. By using automatic light sensors, a normal household can save 20% - 40% on their energy bill [36], but because of this automatization, the awareness of electricity decreases. The objective in this paper is not to make designs that are not convenient, on the contrary the purpose is to create an awareness and appreciation of electricity, while at the same time maintaining the conveniences. The use of tangibility poses a challenge in combination with the abstract and intangible nature of electricity. Where most traditional TUI systems build on existing concepts of files, widgets and icons etc.[6, 29], the nature of electricity offers no obvious elements, parts or features that can easily be reproduced in a tangible way. Perhaps that is the reason that much existing research in energy awareness, focuses on monitoring energy consumption[1] and relies on different kinds of screen-based solutions. The physical and tactile features of the containers and devices, that only used to generate, store, transport and consume electricity can now also be used to support a tangible interaction approach in this field. This is what will be explored in this paper. 4. RELATED WORK In the following we will start by presenting some of the research done in the area of how to visualize electricity and consumption of electricity as well as how our concept differs from the already existing ones. Afterwards we will present a commercial product that relates to the charging situation of our concept. 4.1 Related research One of the main problems of understanding energy consumption is, that consumers have a hard time grasping their consumption in real time [2]. The notion of electricity is abstract for most people, which naturally makes it difficult to understand how much is being used (and thus how to reduce usage), and exactly how big an impact it has on the environment, according to Chetty et al. [2]. The monthly bill from the electricity company gives a status of consumption over a period of time, but to understand and minimize consumption the consumers need to learn when and where they are consuming, and with that knowledge, where to take action. Also the way of indicating consumption per se can be hard to connect to usage. Because although consumers might know what a unit of electricity (1 KWh) costs, very few know how many KWh are being spent when watching television, listening to radio or just by keeping the lights on [1, 2]. Most of the research done so far has focussed on the households visualizing power consumption in different ways, some are screen based like Eco-Eye [26] and The Building Dashboard Displays [27] whereas others try to express consumption in a more physical way, like Vision energy sculpture [24] or The Nuage Vert project [25]. (a) Eco Eye (b) Building dashboard Figure 1: Screen based solutions Eco-Eye and similar products all share the same approach. They are targeting an entire household where every resident of the house shares the concern of minimizing power. But sometimes a family consists of both parents and children and whereas parents have an economical advantage when energy consumption is lowered, the children do not share 20 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

21 this view of the world. Studies have shown that teens are in fact the largest consumers of electricity [21] which is a result of them not suffering any economic burden and therefore tending to be careless about how much electricity they in fact use. For teens screen-based solutions like Eco-Eye [26] would not make much difference and similar solutions will not have any impact on them because of their focus on an entire household. A more physical solution like the Power Aware Cord [19] could work for a teenager because it could be placed in their rooms and thereby take advantage of ambient awareness resulting in the teenager always being aware of increases in power consumption. The Swedish design research project Static! [?] has developed a couple of products focusing on making energy visible i.e. the Power Aware Chord. Static! uses a critical design approach, which is described by Dunne in [7]. Our intent is not so much to be as provocative as the critical design approach, we instead focus on convenience to achieve our goal. (a) Nuage Vert Project (b) Vision Energy Sculpture Figure 2: Physical solutions Vision energy sculpture [24] & Nuage Vert project [25] show data in a completely different way. The Nuage Vert project (Figure 2(a)) traces the smoke coming out of a power plant in Helsinki and depending on how much electricity the local neighborhood is consuming the the smoke will be more or less green. The Vision Energy sculpture (Figure 2(b)) is an artistic barometer for resource efficiency [24] and like the Nuage Vert project the connection to energy consumption is somehow weak, meaning that it does not make sense that a higher consumption of energy should be shown by moving sculptures. Compared to our research question, which states that we want teens to understand and create electricity, previous examples only support the part of making teens understand electricity. We wish to make a strong connection between using energy and visualizing energy usage and research confirms the importance of this connection. [12] suggest a more clear connection between actions and consequences. They argue that bringing back a clear indication of the consequence of using power as a limited resource will automatically make people think about the usage. 4.2 Related commercial products Some products already on the market combine a connection between power generation and action like the Wind Up Battery [5] and the Hand pressing flash light [8]. Wind Up Battery (Figure 3(b)) gives the user the ability to charge a battery by hand with a built-in crank. An indicator light on the battery light will let the user know when the battery is fully charged. Similarly the hand pressing flash light (Figure 3(a)) generates power by pressing the handle in order to turn on the light in the flash light device. (a) Hand pressing flash light (b) Wind up battery Figure 3: Physical solutions These two examples clearly connect actions with energy creations but none of them visualize electricity so even though the target audience can get a clear understanding of the effect of physical labour leading to energy creation the products do not make the energy itself tangible. This is where we aim to differ. We want to combine these two approaches into one concept which will produce a tangible relation to electricity as well as reconnecting actions and consequences. 4.3 Foggs behavioral model The main challenge is to motivate this behavioral change. To do so we need some way of understanding human behavior, which can be obtained using Fogg s behavioral model [9]. Fogg argues that three factors play a role when trying to change peoples behavior. The person must (1) be sufficiently motivated, (2) have the ability to perform the behavior, and (3) be triggered to perform the behavior. The Fogg behavioral model is useful in analysis and design of persuasive technologies which is why it is used in our research. 5. CONCEPT In the following we will present our concept by the use of two scenarios. Afterwards we will more thoroughly explain and discuss the motivation behind our concept. 5.1 Scenarios Julie is 12 years old and she has just finished eating breakfast so now it s time for school. She runs to the basement where her bike is parked and attaches the TangibleBattery on the down tube of the bike-frame. After putting on her helmet she starts biking the usual route to school which is approximately three kilometers. During the whole trip Julie can see how the TangibleBattery is growing in size due to the fact that she is charging it while biking. When Julie arrives to school she moves the TangibleBattery from her bike to the side of her backpack. Walking across the schoolyard Julies hears someone yelling: Hey Julie, wait for me. It s Mette, Julie s best friend, who just arrived to school on her bike. When Mette catches up Julie notices that Mette s TangibleBattery, which is hanging from a key hanger around her neck, is larger that Julies. This is due to the fact that Mette has a longer route from home to school than Julie. In a break later that day Julie receives an SMS from her older brother Brian, who asks her to call him right after school. While reading the text message Julie notices that her mobile phone is low on battery. When class starts again she JANUARY

22 therefore plugs her TangibleBattery into the mobile phone and squeezes the battery until enough power has been transferred to the mobile phone. Julie is now certain that she will have enough power on her mobile phone to make the call to her brother. 5.2 Scenario 2 Allan is 15 years old and like most of his classmates he is very aware of how he expresses himself in the physical as well as the virtual world. Allan has just stepped out of his bed, and turned on his PC and now he is checking to see if there are some funny or important mails in his inbox. He sees, that he has received an mail from Facebook with the subject Your rank in the TangibleBattery competition has changed. Allan knows what this means: that some of his friends have passed him in generating energy. He follows the link to Facebook and can then see that he is now down to third place among his friends, and seventeenth place among the other kids at his school. Allan decides to quickly eat his breakfast and bike a longer route to school today, so he can improve his position in the competition. 5.3 Description of concept Our concept consists of: a battery (TangibleBattery) and an online game/competition. The TangibleBattery is designed to charge other battery driven devices (such as mobile phones or ipods) and the user charges the TangibleBattery by biking. On the bike a charger is installed, which makes the power generated by biking travel into Tangible- Battery. The TangibleBattery will grow in size when it is being charged, giving a physical representation of how much electricity is being stored in it. When the user wants to move electricity from the battery into another device the user must press the electricity out of the battery. The TangibleBattery will keep track of how much has been generated and this information can be sent to an online highscore giving the user the ability to compete with his friends. 5.4 Motivation of the concept Teenagers are not changing electricity consumption habits which from the Fogg s Behavioral Model point of view could be explained by the lack of one or more of the following three independent factors: they are not motivated, they are not being triggered or they lack the ability to decrease their energy consumption [9]. It can t be the lack of ability which is causing the missing behavioral change since all it require of the teens is switching off devices when not used or simply cutting down on the use of devices which requires electricity. So the answer lies in either lack of motivation or lack of triggers. As stated earlier most of the teens do not share the same economic concerns as their parents regarding wasting energy which is why we have to find alternative motivating factors. We wish to make a strong connection between using energy and visualizing energy usage and research confirms the importance of this connection. [12] suggests a more clear connection between actions and consequences. They argue that bringing back a clear indication of the consequence of using power as a limited resource will automatically make people think about the usage TangibleBattery The TangibleBattery is meant to replace the power plugs everywhere in terms of charging battery driven devices like mobile phones or music players. The owner can charge the battery with his bike when driving somewhere and at some point electricity stored within the battery can be moved to another device or a friends battery. The TangibleBattery is capable of showing approximately how much energy is stored within it by its physical size. This means that when TangibleBattery is being charged on the bike it will grow in size and when the user wants to move energy from TangibleBattery into for instance a mobile phone the user will physically press energy out of the battery. Doing so we ensure a close connection between the actions and the consequences which will help the user understand what the energy is and where it came from [12]. The fact that the battery changes its physical shape gives it the ability to be a statement for the owner. When the owner has a large battery hanging from his backpack it shows that he has been physically active and that he does participate actively in reducing energy consumption from legacy sources (like power plugs). In this way the battery could entail the same fashion statement that mobile phones do [34]. This can be categorized as both a trigger and a motivational factor Social aspects What we want to do with our concept is to engage a lot of teens at once by taking advantage of their network of friends, both in the real world and in the virtual world of social sites like Facebook and MySpace. Social sites like Facebook and alike have become very important for young people today [14] and because of that we think it s important to incorporate this part of youth life into the concept in order for them to adopt it into their everyday lives. Our concept does exactly this by inviting Facebook users into a game to determine who can generate the most electricity to charge their mobile devices (research has shown that competition can make people decrease their energy usage[2]). To be a part of this competition the users need a special battery (Tangible- Battery) in which they store green energy, meaning energy which they themselves generate. This is an important part of our concept: if the teens charge the battery with the plugs in the wall they will not get any points, instead they need to generate the power for the TangibleBattery themselves by for example biking (with an appropriate installation on their bike to transfer electricity generated to the battery). The Facebook integration incorporates two features: a highscore and posting to the user s wall. The highscore gives an overview of how much energy the user has generated compared to all of his friends. In terms of the Fogg Behavioral Model these are both motivational and triggering factors. The social aspect of showing how good you are doing by positing on your Facebook wall will motivate teens to make an effort and seeing this post could trigger a teenager to bike and charge next time he is going to school. Also if a teenager notices a friend who is gaining on him on the highscore could spark the motivation to charge even more energy into his TangibleBattery [2]. 22 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

23 6. DESIGN PROCESS The design process through this project has been extremely influenced by the fact that the goal was to give tangibility to something that by nature is intangible. Although we have a successful history of working and designing together as a team, this project posed the greatest challenge for the team until now. Traditional tools and methods for designing, ie. brainstorming, prototyping and making scenarios seemed insufficient in order to advance the process properly. Therefore other methods and techniques were tried out. 6.1 Sketching, Bodystorming and Video Scenarios Sketching, as defined by Buxton [13], is an important tool in the process of developing and refining ideas and concepts. Sketching an idea facilitates communication of the idea to others and it is a concrete and palpable representation of one s idea, which gives a level of understanding supporting the flow in the further process. In the early stages of the brainstorm and design process, we tried sitting around a table sketching ideas on paper and explaining them to each other. But although this method had been a very useful technique in previous projects it quickly proved inefficient, mainly due to the heavy focus on tangible interaction in the concepts (and perhaps because of our lack of sketching skills). It was simply too time consuming compared to how much we were able to convey of the interaction within the drawings. We therefore took an alternative approach to dealing with the tangible interactions and started using our own bodies to play out short scenarios for each other. This is known as bodystorming[10] as opposed to brainstorming. Bodystorming has the same purpose as brainstorming - generating ideas, but rather than relying solely on ones brain, the entire body is brought into play acting out ideas and concepts, giving a new level of experience both for the one acting as well as for those watching. The sketching, explaining and sharing of ideas fuse together and creates a space in which ideas can be discussed and inspire new ideas[10]. The outcome of this was that we could very quickly try out ideas and keep these for future reference. Afterwards we would write down the idea with a few rough illustrations to support the text. So instead of first sketching an idea and afterwards trying to explain it to the rest of the group, we first acted out and explained the idea and then we made sketches of the idea. This caused the idea generating process to speed up and at the same time we got a better feeling of the idea when trying it out in real life. After doing some bodystorming, the most promising ideas were selected and video prototypes based on these ideas were recorded. We found that the video scenarios were a powerful tool in reflecting on and refining the concept as well as a means to communicating our concept to others. The video prototypes helped explore practical and social aspects of the different stages and contexts in which the concept operates. Generating, expressing and consuming electricity would have been very difficult to explore properly in relation to tangible interaction without the opportunity to act out, record and review the interactions with the product. 6.2 Exploring Ethics and Aesthetics Inspired by Exploring Ethics and Aesthetics in Interactive Product Design [11] we tried to incorporate different ethical systems in our design in hope of being inspired to see our design in a different perspective and thereby refine our concept. We made three small videos of what our concept could be like if our view was either kantian rationalistic, nietzschian or romanticistic [11]. We found it inspiring to envision and acting out how the situation we are designing for, would end up if we had a completely different perspective. However, we ended up not changing much about the concept, but one interesting thing we found was, that our ideas were mostly kantian rationalistic with regards to the idea that our users had to make power themselves, in order to be able to use power. Also when playing through the nietzschian ethics, we found that maybe this is the approach teens have to electricity and energy consumption today. They are not directly affected by their use of electricity because their parents pay the bill to the energy company and the power keeps flowing out of the socket in the wall. 6.3 Designing the prototype After generating ideas, documenting them, exploring ethics and deciding on a concept, a concrete physical prototype of the concept was to be designed. In the following the design process of the physical part of the prototype will be described and argued for. Storing of energy is traditionally done with batteries of different kinds. Modern battery technology has improved on battery capacity, charging times, lifetime etc. but the batteries are essentially the same. Most conventional consumer batteries give no indication of their current level of charge and to know how much power is left on the battery, one usually has to rely on the device in which the battery is installed or different kinds of measuring instruments. However in this context how much power is generated and stored in the battery is important to express, in relation to the motivation factor described by Fogg [9]. The social expression has an important role in the use and adaptation of a concept like this, in the same manner as mobile phones as stated in [34]. This creates a need for the battery to display information about the contained power in an apparent manner. Therefore the target of the prototype was to illustrate how a battery, can change its physical appearance and through that, signal its current level of charge. The prototype should explore the possibilities of controlling the shape of an object in order to illustrate the tangible qualities of the concept and not store actual electrical energy. In the following we will describe the main iterations of the prototype design and implementation Pneumatically controlled One selfevident way to let a container show whether it is full, empty or somewhere in between, is to appear bulkier or slimmer than normal. Therefore the first iteration of the JANUARY

24 prototype was based on the same principles of bulkiness and used air pressure to control the shape of the device. The prototype consisted of two parts; a container (hereafter referred to as the TangibleBattery ), that could be inflated in various degrees and thereby change its shape and a dock that could control the air pressure in the TangibleBattery. The two parts were connected through a coupling, enabling a quick and tight connection between the two parts. To control the amount and pressure of air in the TangibleBattery, the dock adjusted a pair of 60ml injection syringes, mounted in a motorized Lego construction. The TangibleBattery itself worked as a balloon pulled over a frame based on one part of the coupling. The frame functioned as a stiff spinal cord and with circular discs in both ends, the TangibleBattery intentionally resembled a traditional circular battery, in an effort to keep the reference and purpose obvious. the prototype Mechanically controlled In the second iteration of the prototype, the idea of controlling the shape using air pressure, was rejected and instead an attempt was made using simple mechanics. This version was a very quick exploration of the use of mechanics instead of air - almost a physical sketch - that used a milk carton as the physical appearance of the TangibleBattery, in which a servo motor was mounted and connected to two opposite sides of the carton by a pair of rods. By turning the servo motor, using a Phidgets[?] driver and pushing or pulling the rods, the sides of the carton would move in or outwards changing the shape of the carton. This worked mostly as intended although the change in shape wasn t quite as large as desired. Figure 5: Pictures of the second version of the prototype. This partial success concluded our investigation into the change of bulkiness of the battery. However since the results were not as convincing as we would have liked, another simpler strategy was tested. Figure 4: Pictures of different stages of the first version of the prototype. The idea was, that when the dock increased the amount of air in the TangibleBattery, this would increase in diameter and appear larger and more bulky. When the TangibleBattery was sucked empty for air, the opposite would be the case and it would be slimmer. However it became evident, that it was much harder than anticipated to create enough air pressure in the TangibleBattery to make it increase in size. Partly because of the compression of the air and partly because of the materials used for the balloon. The first attempt used a piece of rubber sheet rolled into cylinder shape and mounted around the device s frame as the balloon (See figure 4). The rubber material proved not to be flexible enough to stretch and therefore not let the TangibleBattery increase sufficiently in size. The rubber material was replaced with party balloons and condoms, but the pump in the dock still wasn t able to press enough air into the device. A smaller version of the TangibleBattery was constructed to decrease the amount of air required to inflate the balloon sufficiently. This version used a piece of bicycle tube as balloon material which as a downside required a higher air pressure to inflate, which meant that the original dock construction would not be suitable. However when this version was sufficiently inflated, it proved to be difficult to maintain the air pressure inside the prototype. These experiences forced the team to look into other means of controlling the shape of Pneumatically controlled - Alternative approach In the first iteration of the prototype, motor driven syringes were used to press air into the TangibleBattery. This idea was mirrored and the battery would now consist of a small syringe, inflated by a bigger syringe in the dock. When air is pushed into the little syringe, the piston moves out increasing the total length of the syringe. This caused the TangibleBattery not to change its bulkiness, like the first prototype concepts, but instead vary in length, which gave a clear and apparent change in shape. Through the prototyping process different approaches to shape changing devices were explored. The change of shape is a key feature with regards to expressing the amount of electricity created and through that, also motivating the use of the device[9]. The most suitable approach was adopted in the final prototype, which will be described in the next section. 7. PROTOTYPE In order to evaluate the concept as a possible answer to the research question, a prototype was designed and built. The prototype design is focused on evaluating tangible qualities of a device in combination with electricity and digital identity which are both intangible things by nature. In the following section the tangible physical and intangible digital parts of the prototype will be discussed. 24 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

25 7.1 Tangible device The appearance of the physical prototype is essential in order to appeal to the target audience as well as communicating the right signals concerning its state. The main area to explore with the physical part of the prototype is how a device can change its physical form, which can then be utilized to express one s energy production socially, supporting motivation [9]. The prototyping process explored different approaches to building a shape changing device and the result of that process lead to the final prototype documented here. The TangibleBattery itself is based on a 20ml syringe, which is covered in a stretchable piece of soft cloth, which hides the syringe and makes the device appear as a cylinder shape. To charge the TangibleBattery, and through that extend the size of it, a dock was used like in the earlier iterations. The dock consists of a 60ml syringe that is mounted in a telescopic Lego[33] construction operated by a electrical motor. Driving the motor, compresses the syringe, which presses air into the TangibleBattery connected by a piece of rubber tubing. This extends the 20ml syringe inside the TangibleBattery that expands and gains a longer shape, while keeping the same diameter. The cylindrical shape offers an unambiguous frame of reference for comparing two batteries and determine which holds the most power, which serves to support the social and expressive elements. To consume power from the prototype another dock was constructed, also using a 60ml syringe. Consuming power requires action from the user, mechanically indicating how much power to be consumed. Supporting this with the prototype was done by attaching the TangibleBattery to the consuming dock and pressing the TangibleBattery together to a smaller length. When the TangibleBattery is compressed, air from the syringe is transferred into the dock, which registers this by sensing the air pressure in the rubber tube that connects the TangibleBattery and the dock. This sensing is done by a force sensitive resistor mounted on the end of the piston of the 60ml syringe. When air from the 20ml syringe in the TangibleBattery is pressed into the 60ml syringe in the dock, the 60ml syringe extends the piston applying pressure to the force sensitive resistor, which is connected to a Phidgets InterfaceKit controlled by prototype software described next. 7.2 Software The software part of the prototype is made to support the triggering of the target audience and giving them reason to charge their battery driven devices using their bikes. In order to do so we ve constructed a score system which enables the teens to compete with each other. To make this work we ve built three separate components: an iphone application, a Facebook application and a highscore server (Figure 7). In order to make the scores available for all teens we needed to create some kind of web-service from which the teens could see their scores and compare this with their friends. Instead of trying to develop our own community we conducted some research to figure out if the teens already were using a community platform on which we could build our service. This research showed that around 60%-70% of the teens within the age span of our target audience use Facebook (using Facebook s advertisement feature to calcu- Figure 6: Picture of the final prototype: Charger, TangibleBattery and Discharger with connected Phidget. Figure 7: The three parts of the software prototype: iphone app, Facebook app and highscore server. late how many within our target audience use Facebook as well as user interviews). Because of the high adoption rate we decided to use Facebook s API to build the highscore viewer. Facebook is a community built around friendship connections and this foundation makes it possible for teens to show to their friends every time they charge a device using the TangibleBattery (Figure 8). Facebook lets us use the network of friends which teens have already established in order to make the product more popular. But to add scores we need battery driven devices which are able to communicate with the highscore server (eg. a device with an internet connection). In our prototype we ve chosen to develop an iphone application for this purpose. This choice of platform was made because we already had experience with it, so it was quick for us to develop a work- JANUARY

26 Figure 8: Post of score to Facebook newsstream the iphone itself because we wanted the prototype to seem as real as possible and also because we wanted to use the strong connection between the symbol iphone users already connect to battery status in our application. This way we didn t have to teach the users a brand new symbol for battery charge level (Figure 10). ing prototype and thereby test the concept. The iphone app is built to simulate the transaction of energy from the TangibleBattery to the mobile phone. As mentioned earlier it is out of the scope of the research to develop an actual battery. But we still needed to visualize how the transaction of energy from the TangibleBattery to the device would work. Therefore we needed to simulate this part and to do so we opened a network connection using a network socket [32] in which the computer where the Phidgets controller was attached, would send data every time the touch sensor was active. This gave us the needed effect because the battery monitor in the application would react to the tangible interaction with the TangibleBattery itself. The iphone application has two different screens: one for showing the charge level of the battery (Figure 9) and one for showing the highscore list (Figure 9(c)) where the users score is being compared to friends of the user. (a) Not logged in (b) Logged in (c) Highscore (d) Points display Figure 9: Battery level screens. 9(a) shows what i looks like when the user is not logged in. Push the blue connect button, and use a valid Facebook login to see 9(b). 9(c) shows the highscore screen. We deliberately chose to use the same battery indicator as Figure 10: The battery indicator is able to grow. The more green filling indicates more power on the battery in the phone. Figure 9(d) shows how the user is informed about how many battery charge points he has gained so far. These points will increase whenever the phone is being charged with the TangibleBattery and the phone will remember this value as long as the application is installed (when an iphone application is deleted all of its user data is also removed). The user has the option to send these points to his Facebook wall directly from the iphone, which makes it possible to update his current score everywhere within some sort of internet coverage. This can act as a trigger [9] to all friends of the user and make them charge their own batteries in order to beat the score. Figure 9(c)) shows the highscore screen of the iphone application which shows exactly the same information as the Facebook application itself. This is included in the device application because we want to have triggers in as many places as possible and the mere fact that it s possible to compare one s own score with friends scores makes it easier to compete. 8. EVALUATION To investigate if teens between years understood our concept, and to get their feedback, a user study were conducted. The goals of the user study was primarily to get feedback on the concept and the prototype, and secondly to get information about the users energy habits and their knowledge about electricity. 8.1 User studies We would have liked to test our concept with a couple of kids, but even though several schools were asked, no school classes had the time to participate in our user study. Therefore we conducted the user study with only one teenager who was 13 years old. The user study was scheduled to take approximately one hour, and the actual user test took 40 minutes. According to [22] it is important to prevent the user from being anxious, and since the user study took place on the university, we had bought soft drinks and some Danish Christmas biscuits to make the user feel comfortable. We also made it clear that there were no wrong answers, and that it was not him but our concepts that were being tested. 26 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

27 To investigate the user s knowledge about electricity and their energy habits we first conducted a semi-structured interview. This approach was chosen, because of the possibility to have a structure for the interview, but if the participant came with some relevant information, we could ask about this and afterwards turn back to the prepared questions, or continue to enquire into this new and relevant information [22]. After a broader conversation about behavior, electricity and style and fashion, we turned the focus of the user study to our concept. To investigate if the participant could understand and identify himself with our concept, we showed a video of our concept, which we had made earlier while doing bodystorming. After the user had seen the movie, he was asked to explain to us, how he would explain to others, that had not seen the movie, what it was about. Until then we had not mentioned anything about our concept, so we used this method to see how much the user had understood of our concept. After the participant had seen the movie and explained it to us, we had prepared an unstructured interview where the main focus was about pros and cons in the concept. The unstructured interview approach was selected because it was important to get as mush data a possible from the participant about our concept in a natural way, which the unstructured interview allows [22]. To get feedback on the actual prototype the participant was given the prototype, and after a short explanation the participant could by himself conduct a hands-on test, of the charging and discharging situations. 8.2 Test results From the user study we got answers on the goals we had prepared before the user study. First we got confirmation that our concept had potential, and the participant even identified himself with the product, and said it could be cool to have one of these, then I could show all my classmates how far I have biked. The participant also assured us that the competition element in the concept was a valid motivation factor. Also we were told that almost all of his classmates (and the rest of the kids in the school) were using their bike as their primary way of transportation, which supports our choice of using the bike as the power generator, and at the same time this information supports the ability factor with regard to Fogg s Behavioral Model [9]. We also learned, that the participant charged his mobile phone everyday, because he once experienced that his mobile phone ran out of energy, which could support the motivation factor in our concept, as a reason to not be worried about having power on the mobile phone. Generally the participant was positive about the concept, but a source of concern was the shape and the material of the TangibleBattery itself, which the participant did not like. We are aware of the lack of appeal of the TangibleBattery, but in the process so far, we have chosen the priority of the functionality higher then the appearance in the making of the prototype. Another valid point the participant pointed out was, how the concept should fit better into the school. He suggested that a high score system for every class, as well as the Facebook friends found in the prototype would increase the willingness to compete with friends. The idea of not just making a competition among friends, but also among the rest of the school, was a really good idea, and it would help triggering and motivating them to use the TangibleBattery, why we have already incorporated this idea into our concept. Generally we got the information about the participants energy habits, daily life and his school life, which gave us a look inside the world of a teenager, that is useful in the future process with the concept. Also we introduced our concept and the reaction from the participant was very positive, even though the user did not like the shape of the TangibleBattery, he could see the concept as potentially useful in his own life. We are aware of the limitations when testing with only one user, the test results are not as reliable as if we had made the test with several users, but this issue will be discussed in the the following section. 9. DISCUSSION One of the great challenges in providing an understanding of electricity and the use of this, lies in the physical design and tangible functionality of the prototype. Creating an obvious relation between the TangibleBattery, it s behavior and the actions that generate and consume electricity has been a key issue in this project, which demanded a lot of attention and time in the process. 9.1 The process As computer science students influenced by the HCI community we sought to involve users in the design process. By involving users in the design process, the designers get first hand feedback about their design or concept [23]. In the context of this project the users are children and according to [18] there are several ways of involving them in the design process. However our desire to have children participate in the process was twofold. The first part was a design workshop where the children should make suggestions to future ways of generating energy for their own consumption. The second part was about testing the final prototype and evaluating the concept. The approach to recruiting children to participate in workshops and discussions around our concept idea, was to go through the official channels and levels of administration in local schools. Our proposal was to educate the pupils about green energy in return for them participating in the design process by ie. shooting short video scenarios of future situations concerning energy. However following the official process proved to repeatedly delay and finally shelve our inquiry, which left us without proper user involvement at a late point in the project. So instead we found a single teenager (a relative to a fellow student) and did a qualitative user test with him. Obviously testing with only one user does not give as precise results as a test with numerous persons, however the feed- JANUARY

28 back from the test person was relatively exhaustive, which at least gives some indication on the qualities and challenges of the concept. 9.2 The concept In this paper, the presented concept tries to motivate teens to understand electricity through adding extra positive value to the experience of generating electricity, instead of restricting or complicating the use of electricity like the concepts in [15]. This is the classic discussion on whether the Carrot or Stick approach is better and without scientific evidence supporting one or the other, the approach in this project was to support positive behavior and make it visible, contrary to much existing restricting or automating technology. It can be argued, that a restrictive approach of notifying the teenager will motivate the teenager to acquaint themselves with electricity, to prevent them from annoying or inconvenient situations in the future. The Erratic Radio [15] tries to inform the user about his or her energy consumption by making the signal weaker when many devices are connected to the same energy hub. By using a device like The Erratic Radio, the teens cannot avoid understanding of their energy consumption and in this case, also how electricity influences the radio signal. On the other side it can be argued, that these approaches do not provide the teenager with very much information about electricity but only about some invisible limit on concurrent usage. Therefore we argue that instead of just making a product that in theory can be used to make the teens understand electricity, we need to design a product that the teens will like to use and then through use they will learn about electricity and consumption. The way we are providing added value and visibility to energy generation, is to let the teens express their green behavior in the physical and virtual world, share energy with friends and through the ability to charge their electronic equipment everywhere and anywhere, even if there is no power plug nearby. The carrot in this concept is the possibilities to express green behavior and compete with friends online. Following Foggs Behavioral Model[9], this serves respectively as a motivation factor and as a potential trigger for the users. Fogg s Behavioral Model[9] has been used throughout this paper to validate how likely it is that the TangibleBatteryconcept will make teens change their energy consuming behaviour. However the model is not completely unambiguous. Fogg states that ability and motivation need to be present for a behavior to happen, still the behavior needs to be triggered. It can seem unclear why the trigger is necessary, if one is motivated to do something and has the ability to do it. Fogg states that the trigger Tells people to do it now!, in other words it is the push over the edge, that induces a certain behavior. The concept in this project leans against Fogg s model and tries to incorporate motivation and ability as well as triggers in the prototype. 9.3 The prototype The prototype built in this project focuses on the physical functionality rather than the physical form and shape of the device. However, we are very aware that the physical appearance of the device is important in terms of the experience and use of the product as well as for the success in the target audience [16]. The physical part of the prototype ended up being a relatively simple construction yet with the ability to change its shape. The exterior has not been through multiple design iterations but is the direct result of the technical realisation of the prototype. Still the prototype gives an indication of how tangible interaction can be incorporated in a product providing a clear connection between action and consequence[?]. Throughout this paper the scenarios used to illustrate the concept use a bike to generate electricity and a mobile phone to consume the generated electricity. The bike and the phone are only examples. Other devices could be used in the scenario and the concept is open for other ways of generating and consuming energy. Other examples could be that a playground installation, a go-kart or a physics class experiment were used to generate the electricity. The electricity could afterwards be consumed by game console, a remote control or used as backup battery for a netbook-computer. The software part uses Facebook as social platform for connecting and motivating users. However other social networks exist, that may be properly utilised in this context, for example networks targeted at younger people than Facebook. The prototype posts updates on the user s Facebook wall and stores scores which is used by a Facebook application. One way to involve users deeper in the social context could be to develop the Facebook application into a game, but that comes within future work. 10. FUTURE WORK This paper describes the first attempts to utilise tangible interaction in relation to limiting teens energy consumption. Naturally, more research and design has to be done to further explore this area. Successfully using physical appearance and digital identity to motivate and trigger a shift in usage behavior, requires that both the physical design of the product as well as the digital environment appeals to the users. This is the main area of required future work. The current prototype is merely a demonstration of a device capable of changing it s physical size. It does not store electricity and it s physical design is not in any way considered. These factors are essential in order for the concept to develop further. The physical design has to be able to change in size as well as appeal to the teenagers in order to gain acceptance and become popular. To keep the interest and trigger the teens to generate their own electricity, a Facebook application was created as part of the prototype. The prototype implementation posts updated energy scores on the user s Facebook wall, but there is great potential in extending the implementation to incorporate a game and through that, extend the social and competitive properties of the concept. Testing of the prototype was somewhat limited due to the 28 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

29 small amount of available users, so obviously a greater degree of user involvement will benefit the design of the concept and help to further refine the prototype. This in turn, will induce more accurate user feedback helpful for further design iterations. 11. CONCLUSION A concept, namely the TangibleBattery, was developed as a result of the research into how current solutions fail to motivate young people to generate and reduce consumption of electricity. TangibleBattery is a device which can be charged by attaching it onto a bike and thereby when biking transferring the energy created into the TangibleBattery. The size of the TangibleBattery reflects the current charge level meaning that when TangibleBattery is being charged it will grow in size and when power is being transferred to, say a mobile phone the size will decrease. Fogg s behavioral model was a central part of the research both in terms of defining flaws in current solutions but also as a tool to define requirements in our own concept. Throughout development of the prototype different techniques were used including sketching, body storming and video scenarios. These helped keeping the concept focussed and through acting different scenarios we were able to gain new knowledge about the context in which the end product would be used. Research into how to support behavioral change taught us that competition and social interaction could play a strong role in terms of making teens change their habits. Because of this we integrated a score system into our concept which gave the user the possibility of tracking how much energy has been transferred from the TangibleBattery into a device. We did so by constructing an iphone application which keeps track of the score. Research about the target audience showed a strong dependency on social media especially on the internet which was why we included Facebook integration into our concept giving the user the possibility of posting the score onto their Facebook wall. The final concept consists of the TangibleBattery and the iphone application which when combined encourage teens to generate their own electricity for battery driven devices and thereby reduce their usage of electricity from legacy power plugs. 12. REFERENCES [1] Holmes. Eco-visualization: combining art and technology to reduce energy consumption. C&C 07: Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGCHI conference on Creativity & cognition (2007) [2] Chetty et al. Getting to green: understanding resource consumption in the home. UbiComp 08: Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Ubiquitous computing (2008) [3] Kim et al. The tenere: design for supporting energy conservation behaviors. CHI EA 09: Proceedings of the 27th international conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems (2009) [4] Kim et al. Coralog: use-aware visualization connecting human micro-activities to environmental change. CHI EA 09: Proceedings of the 27th international conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems (2009) [5] Crank Up Battery. Retrieved Dec , [6] Ishii and Ullmer. Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms. MIT Media Laboratory, Tangible Media Group [7] Dunne. Hertzian Tales: Electronic Products, Aesthetic Experience and Critical Design. MIT Press (2005) [8] LED Flashlight without Battery and Hand-pressing for Power Generation. Retrieved Dec , /pdtl/LED-flashlight/ /LED- Flashlight.htm [9] Fogg. A behavior model for persuasive design. Persuasive 09: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology (2009) [10] Buchenau, Marion., Suri, Jane F. Experience Prototyping [11] Ross, P, Overbeeke, K. Hummels, C.,Wensveen, S. Exploring Ethics and Aesthetics in Interactive Product Design: A Workshop In Proceedings of DPPI?09 pp [12] Krogh et al. Reconnecting actions and consequences. (2009) pp. 1-4 [13] Bill Buxton, Sketching User Experiences: Getting the Design Right and the Right Design, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, 2007 [14] Boyd, Danah. Why Youth heart Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life. Youth, Identity, and Digital Media. Edited by David Buckingham. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, doi: /dmal [15] Ernevi et at. Erratic Appliances and Energy Awareness [16] Norman, D. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. Basic Books 2003 [17] Karapanos et al. User experience over time: an initial framework. CHI 09: Proceedings of the 27th international conference on Human factors in computing systems (2009) [18] Mazzone. Requirements gathering in designing technology for children. IDC 07: Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Interaction design and children (2007) [19] Static! Increasing Energy Awareness. Retrieved Dec , from [20] [21] Teenagere er de største forbrugere af el og vand. Retrieved Dec , [22] Preece, Jenny; Rogers, Yvonne and Sharp, Helen eds. (2002). Interaction design: beyond human-computer JANUARY

30 interaction. John Wiley. [23] Scaife et al. Designing for or designing with? Informant design for interactive learning environments. CHI 97: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (1997) [24] Vision energy sculpture. Retrieved Dec , 09/vision energy sculpture braun prize.html [25] NUAGE VERT PROJECT. Retrieved Dec , [26] Retrieved Dec 14, 2009, [27] Brun, B. (2007). A kilowatt saved is a kilowatt earned. Sustainable Industries magazine. Retrieved Dec 14, 2009, [28] Danmarks statistik cykler. Retrieved Dec , [29] Reactable, Retrieved Dec , [30] United Nations Climate Change Conference Retrieved Dec , [31] Facebook Connect. Retrieved Dec , [32] Wikipedia Internet Sockets. Retrieved Dec , socket [33] [34] Katz, James E. Sugiyama, S. Mobile phones as fashion statements: evidence from student surveys in the US an Japan. New Media Society 2006; 8; 321 [35] [36] produkter/belysning/lysstyring/find-lyssensorer [37] Jacobs, M., Löfgren, U., and Mazé, R. (2005) Free Energy: Alternative Designs for Awareness and Choice. In: Proceedings of the Conference for Cultural Heritage and the Science of Design (CUMULUS), Portugal, May [38] charter/art32/default en.htm [39] itemlongdetail.cfm?&item id=3241&lang=en [40] Zapico, J. L., Turpeinen, M., and Brandt, N Climate persuasive services: changing behavior towards low-carbon lifestyles. In Proceedings of the 4th international Conference on Persuasive Technology (Claremont, California, April 26-29, 2009). Persuasive 09, vol ACM, New York, NY, 1-8. DOI= [41] Gustafsson, A. and Bång, M Evaluation of a pervasive game for domestic energy engagement among teenagers. In Proceedings of the 2008 international Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology (Yokohama, Japan, December 03-05, 2008). ACE 08, vol ACM, New York, NY, DOI= [42] Shiraishi, M., Washio, Y., Takayama, C., Lehdonvirta, V., Kimura, H., and Nakajima, T Using individual, social and economic persuasion techniques to reduce CO2 emissions in a family setting. In Proceedings of the 4th international Conference on Persuasive Technology (Claremont, California, April 26-29, 2009). Persuasive 09, vol ACM, New York, NY, 1-8. DOI= 30 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

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33 Monitoring Dogs Activities for Tangible Representation Morten Munkholm IT Bachelor Aarhus University 8000 Aarhus C ABSTRACT This paper is a Bachelor project within Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), with four months duration. Our centre of attention has concerned embedded interaction and an attempt to make abstract data more tangible. We have developed three different prototypes by using design methods and techniques acquired through our education. The prototypes monitor and represent dogs activity and location, in a home environment, when left alone. We discuss our prototypes in relation to Tangible User Interfaces (TUI), and the prototypes have been tested in real settings to explore advantages and disadvantages. ABSTRACT PÅ DANSK Denne artikel er om et bachelor projekt omhandlende Informations og Kommunikations Teknologi (IKT) med en fire måneders varighed. Vores fokusområde ligger indenfor embedded interaktion og et forsøg på at gøre abstrakt data mere håndgribeligt. Vi har udviklet tre forskellige prototyper ved brug af design metoder og teknikker tillært gennem vores uddannelse. Prototyperne overvåger og repræsentere hundens aktivitet og lokation i et hjemmemiljø, når de er alene hjemme. Vi diskuterer prototyperne i releation til Tangible User Interfaces (TUI) og prototyperne er blevet afprøvet i virklige omgivelser for at udforkse fordele og ulemper. Author Keywords Ubiquitous computing, dogs, embedded technology, Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. 2009, Århus, Denmark. Paw Nicolaisen IT Bachelor Aarhus University 8000 Aarhus C participatory design, home, sensors, tangible user interfaces, tangible interaction. MOTIVATION Our motivation is grounded in family experiences. Both our parents have dogs, and we have been witness to their concerns and restraints through various situations. This seemed like an area that could use attention, especially due to the lack of current research in that field. However, there has been conducted a great amount of research in related fields like robotic dogs and their influence on people in general [1]. Another motivating factor was the possibilities of smart home development as we had already become acquainted with it several times, which gave us the opportunity to take advantages of earlier experiences and inspirations. The amount of field studies within the field of sensory homes are plenty and could support our study in dog s behaviour when left home alone [3, 4, 5, 7]. INTRODUCTION A Danish saying is Villa, Volvo og Vovse, which translates to Villa, Volvo and Dog, and describes a nuclear family. Many sayings also tell us that a dog is a man s best friend and people spent more and more money on their dogs. Most dogs in the Western world live very comfortable lives, and are often considered a family member. In Denmark 450,000 families owns 550,000 dogs [29], which shows that there are many dog owners, making an accurate research project possible. In this paper we have investigated this field, focusing on supporting the owners in their everyday lives. We used interviews, workshops, observation, inspiration cards, and prototyping for gathering data and evaluating the concepts as a whole. The paper is organized by briefly presenting some related work which inspired us. Then we will describe the method and techniques used to obtain data and to study and examine our ideas. We will afterwards describe how we JANUARY

34 implemented these tools and what results were found, by describing the prototypes made. Finally we will make some conclusions on our work, and give some suggestions for future work. RESEARCH QUESTION What information concerning a dog s activity is valuable to its owner and can this information be tangibly represented? RELATED WORK We needed an overview of the technologies available to gather data about the movement of an object within an enclosed environment. Looking at similar projects, we were capable of identifying advantages and disadvantages with their applied technologies. Following is a review of our findings in relation to our project. Monitoring Inspired by [13, 14] where people are tracked using mobile devices, we attached a mobile phone to a dogs collar to track the activity data through the phones accelerometer sensor. The accelerometer in today s mobile phones gives accurate feedback, and it is possible to recognize resting, walking, cycling or car driving with just the data from a mobile phones accelerometer [13]. We found disadvantages of using a mobile phone as a provider of this information even though it was a prototype. We had trouble with the connection used to send data; Bluetooth needed a handshaking introduction with a computer to establish a reasonable connection. The Wi-Fi connection was not very stable either, and we were unfamiliar with the phones software. Both technologies were also very power consuming. So after our initial prototyping with a mobile phone, which worked to some degree, we decided to develop our own by using electronic components, and use an RF connection instead [31]. One of our concerns was to find a way or solution to track our dog in the home environment, and there is many ways to do this, just by looking at all the papers written on smart homes. A technology often used, is video surveillance, due to its precise and very easy usage. Video cameras can easily be used for motion tracking too [14], where a simple background subtraction is used, as it is in object tracking [15, 16]. Basically it is to subtract the static part of the images, and thereby focusing on the moving part, which is the object we want to look at. Global Positioning System could be discarded immediately because of its imprecise feedback on indoor tracking [18]. We therefore looked at technologies such as Bluetooth and RFID which is often used in similar projects [17, 18, 19]. Bluetooth can be very accurate, which is proven in [19] where they manage to cover 98 % of a room if the object was stationary in the room for about three minutes, but due to difficulties with technology and implementation we did not use Bluetooth. RFID can be a powerful tool, and we considered to integrate an RFID reader in the doorways and a tag on the dog collar, but due to the poor range of the RFID readers we had at hand, we decided not to. Even though we did not want to use video to track the dog, we found inspiration for using video in another way [20, 21] where a combination of low resolution video and acceleration sensors is used. Their reason for low resolution video is due to privacy issues, where our interest is toward the value in representing something poorly deliberately, instead of direct mapping the video information. We have been inspired by some direct cases in our research, and we will briefly mention two of them below. SNIF SNIF [11] is a project done by four students at MIT. It is a social networking for dogs and dog owners. It consists of four elements, a collar, leash, leash station and an online community. It tracks which dogs your dogs meets, and store information about this and other data, like activity levels, humidity and temperature. The data are then uploaded to a database, where the owner can log on, see the data, and surf around the community such as Facebook. The SNIF project mainly has a focus on the social aspect, and tries to enhance the social interaction and relationship pet owners between, instead of improve the quality of dog owner relationship. They collect data about the dog s behaviour and activity, but this is only used as a promoter for social interaction among dog owners. Their concept sounds reliable at first, but there is no technical implementation section where they describe how they will realize it, they only mention some components they are using, but not how. Some of the visions described in the text, like in the scenario section, is not possible to realize, they are for example stating that they will use RF to transmit data to an external server but RF in this kind of state only have a range at 250 meters at most, and can t be used when taking the dog for a walk in the park. Their entire concept relies on the fact that every dog must have their product, else will it only work some few times, and the dog owner s interest will quickly disappear. They have many statements in the text with no references, and therefore purely speculations and personal experience. The data collection they are planning to do is in many ways the same as ours, and they use some of the same technical components as we do. It could therefore have been helpful and useful to build upon their data gathering and tests, but they haven t conducted any data before developing this concept or after testing a prototype. The SNIF developed from a research project to a business [22] called SNIF tag, and we have been in contact with one of the owners by mail correspondence, it turned out the company had to close down because of the financial crisis. They still before and after launch of the firm had not performed any field studies or user tests we could learn from. UNAM-CAN UNAM-CAN [12] is a project concerning a shift from HCI to animal-machine interaction, with focus on wearable computing. They trained a dog for 1½ year to respond to AARHUS UNIVERSITY

35 different commands. They mounted a Palm Pal and a video camera on the dog, and could thereby control the dog with the commands generated by a computer, and sent to the palm pall. They authors argue that wearable computing already are in use on animals, for example with cows, where a sensor can track the body temperature of the cow, and tell the farmer when the cow is ready to be inseminated. Their intention is like ours not to develop design or devices that exploit animals, but instead to try to improve the human-animal relations. The UNAM-CAN project has a very narrow target audience because they only deal with service dogs, where we on the other hand have normal family dogs in sight. They state that symbiosis between a computer and a living being is more feasible for demanding scenarios, which we disagree, because sensors are very functional as non obtrusive ways of monitoring living beings. But the last sentence in the paper implies that their project can be extended to measurement of activity or health and give information about this by monitoring, and perhaps enhance the human-animal relationship which is one of our goals. During our research with related work we have encountered a great deal of inspiration, and noticed technologies we might be able to use. Other researchers have worked with topics related to ours, but we could not find anyone with the exact same, SNIF was the nearest. We had built up a foundation with information and had done a fair amount of groundwork for a design process to begin. DESCRIPTION OF METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Interviews Interviews can be thought of as a conversation with a purpose [32]. How close the interview will be to an ordinary conversation will depend on the type of interview method used. Interviews are good for acquiring detailed information obtainable only through the interactive process between the interviewer and the interviewee. From the four interview methods mentioned in [9], we used unstructured and semi-structured interviews. The unstructured interview is almost an ordinary conversation. The questions asked are open-ended, exploratory and there is no particular expectation about the format or content of the answers [32]. To keep the interview on course a list of questions or topics should be made beforehand. The semi-structured interview, combines features of both the unstructured and structured interviews. The interview is less of a conversation as much as it is a series of questions expecting an answer with certain content. Questionnaires Questionnaires are cheap and easy to organize, and thus very useful for data gathering about a subject unknown to the designer. If both open and closed, clearly written questions are used, the questionnaire can provide valuable answers from a large group of people spread across a large geographical area, in a relatively short time frame. In this project we used [33], a free Danish questionnaire site, and made posts, with a link to our questionnaire, on various discussion forums about dogs. Brainstorm Brainstorming is not only a great tool; it is like a skilful art in which you can always improve. In this project and many before, we were inspired from Tom Kelly s The Perfect Brainstorm [34]. To get the best results from a brainstorm one should utilize all seven of Kelly s secrets of better brainstorming, such as ensuring playful rules, numbering your ideas and getting physical with the ideas. Combined with our brainstorming we used mind mapping to less physical idea generation processes, one being specifying the domain. Observation Depending on the situation and the data needed there are several approaches to gathering observation data [46]. Literally standing in a corner, observing is the most straight forward approach, however this is quite time consuming and can be very intrusive to the individuals observed. Video recording is almost as intrusive as being there physically; however video cameras can be placed in less intrusive places or film a very specific point, a coffee machine for example. Another method is strategically placing sensors, motion sensors for instance, and either monitor live data or save it for later use. Observation data can also be recorded by the participants themselves in diaries, where they are asked to write about their activities on a regular basis. Inspiration Cards Inspiration Cards [6] is a tool developed to enhance the outcome of a workshop. It s a way to make inspiration and knowledge tangible during a project, and especially at a workshop. There are two main types of cards, Domain Cards and Technology Cards. Domain Cards represents findings from domain studies, such as situations, people, settings, and themes. Technology Cards represents various technologies and application that might be usable in the project. The cards consist of a picture, a title and a small description, below there is a comment box for notes, and a reference to where you can find more information. These cards can be combined to create new concepts or they can be used as inspiration for prototypes. Technology Cards is created whenever an interesting technology or application is encountered. Domain Cards is created on the basis of other methods like ethnographic field studies and workshops. Due to simplicity, we limited ourselves and worked only with two kinds of cards, following the example from [6]. The cards can be expanded; the Domain Cards can be subdivided to People Cards, Situation Cards etc. Inspiration Cards are normally used in workshops like in [6], in the early stages of a project, for creating concepts by combining domain- and technology cards. There is not JANUARY

36 just one way to use them, and we found them useful in the brainstorm for prototyping. Workshops Workshops in a design process are essential for the final result, especially in participatory design. Workshops can be used throughout the entire process, but is frequently used at the start phase to generate new ideas and concepts that the researcher had not thought of. These workshops can consist of many different people, a mix of professionals in different areas, and users of some kind. The mixture of skills, knowledge and backgrounds is fundamental for a good workshop [24]. Even though the group must consist of different people, it cannot be too large, because it has to be small enough so that every participant can play an active role. There are different kinds of techniques that could be useful in a workshop, for example a role-playing game, where the participants get an insight of the situation, use prototypes as triggers [23], or Index and Inspiration Cards [25, 6] Another essential place/time to use workshops is to reflect upon a concept or prototype. It is crucial for a design to be well received by the end user, and that is why bringing in users to reflect and evaluate is important. A reflection/evaluating workshop can help redesign the concept or improve prototypes. Prototyping In a design process, prototyping are used for exploring a design space, leading to the creation of meaningful knowledge about the final design [8]. A prototype can be used to explore a certain aspect of a design without having decided other design features, such as functionality, size or weight. A prototype, as long as it fulfils its purpose, is under no restrictions concerning look, feel, functionality etc. The purpose of the prototype is to show an exact set of design qualities and ignore every other aspect of the design, giving the creators free hands and ability to show exactly what they want. Functional prototypes are centred around showing off the technical features of the product, like a Tupperware box with electronics inside. Visual prototypes on the other hand concentrate only on the look and feel of the product. There are two ways for prototyping; vertical and horizontal prototyping. Vertical prototypes implement some final functions as they are intended to work. Horizontal implement functions without detail as in the final product, but uses simulation for some part. Prototyping can further be divided into three broad classes, for exploration, experimentation and evolution. [38] OUR PROCESS Domain As mentioned in the abstract, this is a bachelor project on tangible interfaces and embedded technology. Our first challenge was to specify a domain as we had the freedom to choose within the area of the given assignment. We did this in an iterative process where we started out with a broad spectrum of domain ideas and ended up with a single, specific domain. We used a mind map to note all the interesting domains we could think of, including everything from embedded technology in ceilings to tangible interaction with elevators. After merging some of the domains and then placing them in categories, we agreed that it was time to filter and rank the domains as we had allowed no criticism of any ideas yet. We then conducted a quick brainstorm of everyday pains and annoyances within each domain. Discussing the domains one at a time, different visionary solutions were found, resolving some of the annoyances and pains in each domains. One rule was made; the solutions had to be within the field of either tangible interaction, embedded technology or both. After a second round of narrowing the choices down only three domains remained that we both found feasible. Looking at the challenges and the opportunities for expression, as designers, in each domain we ended up with The Home as our primary domain and Pets as our sub domain. Conducting a brainstorm of personal experiences with pets in homes we found that working with dogs that are home alone would be intriguing. Research We gathered a pile of papers containing keywords such as smart homes, sensor monitoring, robotic pets etc, to get a firm groundwork on the research done within the field we would operate in. We searched the internet for commercial products introducing solutions to questions similar to ours. Finally we borrowed books about dog s behavioural patterns and signals, to study the subjects we were going to work with. It was a new area to us because we had both socialized with dogs in our homes but never gone beyond what a wagging tail or whining meant. It was obvious we had to acquaint ourselves with the field of Ethology before continuing. Initial Interviews By doing the preliminarily data gathering as mentioned above, we had formed a research domain and a question. The key question was if there is demand for researching within Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and dog owners. We knew by personal experience there could be a demand by the people inspiring us, but we had to look more widely. We constructed a basis for some initial interviews, with very open-ended questions, and employed it into a group of seven dog owners around us. It was still a narrow target group, but it was enough to give us an indication of a possible demand. There was a common interest in the group of dog owners we interviewed; to know what their dogs did when left alone. Not based on anxiety for health conditions, but because of curiosity and interest in their dogs [35]. Even though the target group 36 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

37 only consisted of seven participants, we could conclude there would be a purpose for our research. Interviews with Professionals Our main focus concerned dogs being home alone. We did not know much about this area, and based it purely on family experiences. After a couple of interviews with a veterinarian who specialized in dog s behaviour and a dog coach [37], we have a clearer perception on this field pattern. We found out that there were three kinds of situations bound to the dog being left alone. The first situation was the young dog, normally puppy age, where the dog would trash the house, ruin shoes, and urinate inside. The second situation is a dog with separation anxiety, this is an illness, were the dog is sick, and need special treatment to overcome the stage of frighten. That is a seriously problem which we lack the needed knowledge to deal with and there is many ethical dilemmas connected with this situation, we therefore left this area for the specialists. The third situation concerns normal dogs which did not have problems being left alone for an amount of hours. This situation left us to research a normally known area, with a large segment. These interviews opened our eyes, and together with our literature research and initial interviews, we made a shift from our first agenda. Now we would investigate normal dogs with no anxiety and try to support the owners love and relationship toward their dogs. We were now able to specify some parts of our research question, but we were still missing some important angles and knowledge within the domain. The next step was to get an insight in the everyday situation for both the dog and the owner. Observation We decided to carry out observations which should help us clarify that, as some information is not elaborated in interviews [2]. To avoid occupying the dogs concentration by being present, and because our research concerned time intervals where the owners were not home, we needed a method which would not require our presence. We installed a video camera to monitor the dog during a day and looked through the recordings afterwards, commenting on any interesting events. The challenge was how to observe the dog owners, because the situations involves being outside the home, like the office, visiting friends, etc. and therefore impossible for us to tag along and observe. So inspired by observation diaries and cultural probes, we decided to let the participants observe themselves. We equipped them with notebooks and asked them to write down, when away from home, whenever they thought about their dogs, and what they thought of. We were surprised to learn how many times the participants thought about their dogs during the day. The average was about four times during a work day among the participants. The common feeling was guilt and bad conscience for leaving the dog alone for so many hours, in average 7-10 hours. So the thought in general was I wonder what the dog is doing now, combined with a feeling of discomfort for not being there with it [36]. The dog owners also called or texted their partners and asked them to check the dog s activities and its state of mind. This was an area for further study. Questionnaires We had carried out initial interviews with dog owners, and some more thorough interviews with professionals, but we needed a wide and firm knowledge base. It was necessary to reach a greater amount of dog owners, to answer some of our questions. As a result we created an online questionnaire, and posted it on widely known forums for dog owners [26, 27]. The responses were very positive; we had 44 people answering the questionnaire, which was more than expected. The extra effect by using online questionnaire could be called a convenience sampling [28], which indicate that only people who are interested in answering our questions will do so, as it is an online questionnaire they have free choice, compared to the scenario where a physical questionnaire is given to them. The participants dogs varied in age, from two months to fifteen years, and almost every dog had not had any trouble or anxiety in relation to being left alone. There was mutual agreement among the participants as to what information was important for them; the dog s sleep pattern, activity levels and state of mind [33]. The methods used by the participants, to check on their dogs, were calling their neighbour and get them to look through the window and 34 % even monitored their dogs by video- and web cameras [33]. It was clear that the information we would need to provide was concerning the dog s activity, whether the dog was active or asleep. The health aspect was mentioned a few times but did not seem so feasible and vital, because dog owners normally know if their dogs are healthy or not. The issue to be solved was to give dog owners information regarding their dog s behaviour. This defined our research question and we were ready to start conceptualizing. Figure 1: Example of Inspiration Card JANUARY

38 Inspiration Cards To get a solid foundation for concepts and developing of our prototype, we used Inspirations Cards. Inspirations Cards was not a tool we only used at this point of the process but through the entire project, whenever we encountered new information. We had sessions where we collected all cards into two piles, one with technology cards and one containing the domain cards, and started to combine them in different ways. The sessions took place different times in the process, but they showed their worth when we had to find some concepts we could take further, and with the help of technology cards easily get a view on how to prototype it. Figure 1 shows an example of one of our Inspiration Cards. Brainstorming over Concepts With the use of inspirations cards and the amount of data obtained we were ready for a final brainstorm evolving concepts to prototype. We picked about ten ideas/concepts for brainstorming, and every idea would get analyzed. We took it concept for concept, writing pros and cons for every one of them, to find qualities and advantages. We tried to narrow it down, so we only had to realize one concept as a prototype, but due to the many aspects of our research it was not possible. The data we had conducted told us what information dog owners were interested in, but the target audience was so broad, and the ways they preferred to get a hold of this information were very different. Due to the variety and the fact that we would like to investigate the different ways of getting the information and possibility to play with concepts that supported different time aspects, we decided to prototype three concepts. IMPLEMENTATION Building three different prototypes was a comprehensive amount of work. Since our only source of information was the dog, all three individual systems had to be able to pull information from the same source, meaning that if the part Figure 2: Dog collar with attached camera and MDD recording the dogs movement (the Recording System (RS)) failed, nothing would work. This put some pressure on the RS and forced us to ensure that it would be fail-safe and error-tolerant. Due to our limited timeframe, we made a plan which dictated what had to be finished when, and what had to be built and implemented first in order to have the remaining prototypes working. This helped us avoid going back and correct errors or obsolete features, both in hardware and software. As mentioned in related work, we considered different technologies to build our prototypes. The outcome of our studies was that we build most of it ourselves. Following is a technical exposition of the three prototypes and the monitoring backbone of the system. Monitoring Backbone Recording System (RS) Recording movement of an object in a home can be done in numerous ways, and we had to consider most of them to get the best results with the least amount of time spent while being the least intrusive on the privacy of the home. To record the dog s movement we decided to use an accelerometer, we had already done an initial test of this with a mobile phone which turned out as a feasible technique. Instead of firmly attaching the accelerometer to the dog s collar, we decided to hang it hoping that would give the most reliable perspective on the dog s movement. Having determined how to detect motion, we turned our attention towards the dog s location in the house and how to transmit the data to the three prototypes. To ascertain the location of the dog proved difficult. We required quite precise technology, one that could tell us in which room the dog was at any given time. After some research we agreed Figure 3: Floor plan over the two rooms the dog could move in between. The mat which functioned as a contact is in the doorway. 38 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

39 that setting up a laptop computer in each room and have it continually search for Bluetooth devices would be the best option. We would then attach a Bluetooth dongle to the dog s collar and have it constantly run in discovery mode, this meant that to determine the dog s location, we simply had to ask what computer had it within range. Location Determination However, using Bluetooth brought some complications; we had decided to build our system with microcontrollers on circuit boards. We encountered two difficulties; the electronics we had at our disposal were difficult to pair with Bluetooth and Bluetooth s security protocol proved complicated to bypass or implement in the microcontroller. We realized that we had to let Bluetooth go, and find another solution to locate the dog. We chose to go to the opposite extreme and investigated simple electronic solutions and decided on making a mat, functioning as a button. In our particular case, we knew the dog only had two rooms to move around in, and we knew that it would be in the hallway when the owners left the house. By placing the mat in between the two rooms, we could work out in which room the dog was (Figure 3). The mat consists of alternating layers of foam rubber and wire netting starting and ending with foam rubber. When the mat is pressed the two layers of wire netting will connect through holes in the middle layer of foam rubber, make a full circuit and function as a button. Transmitting and Saving Data The reason we had chosen Bluetooth earlier was also because of its capabilities to transmit data easily and safely. The transfer protocol is already present and we would have little trouble gathering the data from the microcontroller on a computer. As we now had to think of alternative solutions we immediately used the same method as we did when creating the location determining mat. We looked at simple solutions and found that transmitting data with a Radio Figure 5: Concept overview, showing communications between prototypes and server using the Internet. Transmitter and serially relay it to a computer via a microchip would suit our needs. We used a transmitter (ER400TS) and a receiver (ER400RS) [31] which worked very well and fulfilled our needs for both low power consumption and transferring speed. The transmitter was bundled with the accelerometer and a microcontroller on the collar and the receiver with another microcontroller and a max202 chip, which made conversation possible between the microcontroller and a computer. The computer s job was quite simple in this setup; we implemented a Java program to handle data on the serial port and relay it into a MySQL database. The motion detection dongle (MDD) would check for movement every second and relay it to the laptop which would save anything received in the database, along with the location of the dog and a timestamp. Functional Prototypes As we had to support various methods of representing the data, the prototypes had to have specific qualities; their design rationale for this is outlined in each section below. SMS Service (SS) This was a prototype of a system that could tell where in the house the dog was and how active it had been lately. Our goal was to make it possible to get up-to-date information anywhere, anytime and easily. To meet these goals, we set up an SMS service where writing PET to a eight-digit number would return a text message with information about the dog s location and its activity level. Since there are more mobile phones than people in Denmark [39], it seems fair to assume that operating a mobile phone is general knowledge. That meant that this prototype would target most people, hence it takes no technological know-how to use the system. The user could then be an old woman afraid to leave her dog home alone or a little girl who wanted to text her dog while she was in school. Figure 4: Screenshot of mobile phone showing interaction with the SMS prototype. JANUARY

40 Figure 7: Toy dog Figure 6: The Picture Representation prototype in context. The SMS Service we used was purchased for a small fee from [30] and employed a PHP script to receive and send data. We wrote a PHP script to access our database and calculate the difference between the dog s activity time and the time of the request. Toy Dog (TD) This prototype was build with remote live information in mind. Our design criteria was that the information should be pushed, the representation should be physical but whenever information was shown the object should remain in the background and not steal focus nor attention from the users foreground. We developed a prototype based on a stuffed toy dog fitted with small servo motors and sticks to move the legs and its body. The servos were controlled by a microcontroller which communicated with a laptop computer via the max202 chip like in RS. The microcontroller, like in RS, was controlled by a Java program with direct access to our database, where it checked for updates every five seconds. We designed TD to show the dogs behaviour; the stuffed toy dog would lie, sit and move its arms according to when the dog lied, sat and moved respectively. The prototype was aimed at usage in an office, placed next to a computer discreetly indicating the activity of the dog at home. It focuses only on the activity of the dog and not the location, the information is very abstract as there is no direct indication of what the dog is doing; only that it is moving around for example. Picture Representation (PR) We wanted a prototype that represented the recorded data asynchronously, so the users could get all the information at once instead of receiving it in small parts when it was collected, as was the case with TD. We attached a small wireless camera to the dog collar and pointed it in the same direction as the dog s nose, so we would get an insight in what the dog was looking at during the day. We were inspired by an article we read from Nestlé Purina [10], a cat food manufacturer. They had attached cameras to the collars of 50 cats and captured still pictures every 15 minutes. We made a program in ActionScript 3.0 which captured pictures every two minutes and saved them directly to our online server. A PHP script would then add an effect to each image and tile them all into one big picture. The effect could be converting the image into an oil painting or a pixilation of it. The intention was to make picture seem more like a piece of art and not so much a big tiling of pictures. We wanted to avoid simply taking pictures of what the dog saw, and deliberately tried to worsen the image to make it more interesting to look at, maybe even try to guess what the dog was looking at. The possible usage of this prototype would be in the afternoon when the users came home from work or school. The picture could be showed on a digital photo frame or on the living room TV where the users could observe, study and discuss it. EVALUTION AND REVIEW OF THE PROTOTYPES Test of Prototypes We had to test our prototypes in a real setting, with people who had no influence on our project. We therefore contacted a family with a dog, and asked them permission to test our prototypes on them and their dog. In their house the dog was restricted to move between two rooms, see figure 3. We had a laptop connected to the household s WI- FI, and the circuit board. We fitted the collar, with camera and MDD, on the dog. A laptop was connected to their television in the kitchen with the only purpose to show a website with a gallery generated by the camera on the dog, so they only had to turn on the TV to see it. The family had planned a visit at some friends, and we placed a laptop at their friend s house with TD connected to it. The dog was left alone for a total of six hours. We provided the family with a mobile number and a media code, and told them how they could write to the dog. We then left the family to themselves, so we would not be an obtrusive element to them. 40 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

41 Review of Prototypes We came back the next day to talk with the family and to get some feedback. We had decided to make a workshop to get every member involved instead of just the one person, who took the lead of talking for the family the day before. We found that the camera had only been live for about 50 minutes with the capacity of a 9 volt battery, so the image gallery did not have the largest variety in pictures, but it had to our surprised urged conversation and discussion due to the poor video resolution, and movement pattern. It was hard to see what the pictures contained, and the family had therefore discussed many of the pictures and tried to identify objects on the pictures. Besides that, it was clear to see that the dog basically stayed in the same spot most of the time, which was indicated by the accelerometer data. It was an old dog that did not move much around, but it still led to a discussion of the dogs sleep pattern, and activities. We asked the family to do a small role-play, to show how they thought the dog s day had been, based on the pictures and data. To evaluate the TD the families friend who they had visited the night before came to participate in the discussion/workshop, because they had found it so amusing, and because they would like to see pictures too. The toy dog had a really good effect, by being left in the background when it did not move, but when it started to move it got everybody s attention which we had not expected, perhaps this was caused by the environment? It was made as an office prototype where only the attention from one person should be addressed, not an entire dinner party. The last element was the SMS service, which had been a great success. There were many sent and received messages. The short information; room location and time since last activity were sufficient to calm the participants, and it encouraged conversation among them. Discussion of prototypes The outcome of the review workshop was essential to our concept, because we realized where our prototypes failed, and which elements to keep or discard. The accelerometer needed to be adjusted so it could capture more sensitive movements so more reliable data could be collected. The pictures taken with the video camera should be clearer. It was a good idea to make them blurred, but the pictures should have been clear enough to make it possible to recognize objects. Furthermore, the battery time should be improved for the camera. This could be done by connecting two batteries, but other solutions should be investigated. There were no disadvantages mentioned about the SMS service, and we decided to leave this for now and did not improve anything on that prototype. The toy dog had to be tested in other environments, for example an office setting, to get a clear understanding of its values. The setting we used this time had been restricted by us, but we would like to test on a larger area, and we have to create a better way to discover the dog s location than the already constructed mat. The dog used in the experiment was a quite old dog with vague activity levels and we were very interested in conducting another test on a younger and more active dog. Fortunately for us the friends of the family who participated in the last part of the workshop had a dog with the age of 11 months, and were more than happy to participate. We would like to test the accelerometer on a more active dog and make it more sensible for detecting movements. We reprogrammed the microchip controlling the accelerometer to make it more sensible and established the prototype in the home environment of the new family. Our purpose was to test the TD prototype in the context it was aimed for: the office, and on a more active dog. We tested it for a couple of days without interrupting at all, except for the user changing the battery on the dog s collar. By doing this we got a sufficient amount of data about the dog s activity because of the sensibility of the accelerometer and a more active dog. We had cleared all other aspects such as location and pictures taken by the camera, so we could focus only on the accelerometer and TD. The TD worked much more efficiently in an office setting. Many colleagues stopped by to see the prototype, so it got a lot of attention, but the dog owner himself got less aware of it, even when it moved he noticed it but it did not get his full attention. DISCUSSION OF CONCEPT Ihsii and Ullmer [40] describe two major directions that computation has shifted towards; onto our bodies (wearable computing) and into our physical environment. We worked with both computational directions hoping to combine and utilize their strengths. We have defined the dog collar as wearable computing as the dog has been wearing both an accelerometer (our MDD) and a wireless camera. The data collected by the dog s collar was then manipulated and represented by means of our PR and TD, which we tried to implement in two different contexts, the office and the home. In [40] Ishii and Ullmer describe how they want to make users aware of background information by using ambient media in augmented spaces. A concrete example of this is [41] where a hamster s movement is represented as waves of light on the ceiling. This line of thought inspired us and we wanted to design a concept for the background. Meanwhile, we also agreed with Fishkin [42] that the general rationale for TUI design was proof of concept examples; they were often far-fetched and had very little actual use. We wanted to design a concept that would go beyond proof of concept and be robust and functional, as we believe tangible examples of TUI are sparse. As we wanted to design a concept with information in the background in an office, privacy issues and disturbing elements had to be considered. Projecting lights onto the ceiling or anything similar was not an option as it demanded too much of the environment and was impossible to develop generically. In [42] it is stated that the most powerful metaphors are those which cross domain boundaries, such as by associating a living entity with something that is inert. With that statement in mind and the categories from Holmquist et al. [43]; our prototype TD JANUARY

42 can be categorized as a token since it is an object that physically resembles the data that it represents (the dog s movement). TUI s are often centred on taking physical everyday objects and coupling them with digital information by using different technologies. We think of the mobile phone as a physical object which contains information unaffiliated with the phone s location. The mobile phone is a wellknown object and most people know how to interact with one, and when changing location the information accessible by the mobile phone, is still accessible, which makes the information attached to the mobile phone. We consider the phone a container [43] as the mobile phone is a generic object used to move information between different devices or platforms. The basics of today s mobile phones are similar making it a generic object whilst it is still possible to move data from one platform to another. In the SS prototype the mobile phone serves as an object that represents information in a tangible and understandable manner. By inputting an SMS, a representation of the physical movement of the dog is presented as a text message. According to Fishkin's Taxonomy [42] we place our last prototype, the PR, between two levels of embodiment, environmental and distant. The prototype can be interpreted as a piece of art which can be shown in a digital photo frame and displayed in various places around the house and thereby blend with the surroundings, making it environmental. It can also be interpreted as distant; the digital photo frame could be located in another room than the one the pictures were taken in or distant from the environment as it is the dog that took the pictures which are now shown to the owner in a picture frame. CONCLUSIONS The design methods we utilized during this project have been useful and fulfilled our needs for expanding our horizon within an unfamiliar domain. We have confirmed how important participatory design is and how valuable the use of workshops are in a design process are. It is essential to conduct a large amount of research at the initial point of a project, especially when operating within an unknown territory to get a solid knowledge base. The use of early prototyping is a powerful tool. We only used it a little and had to pay for it later. It is important to iteratively improve ones concepts and prototypes which tools like Wizard of Oz [44] are great for. We acquired some new tools doing this project, for instance Inspiration Cards, which enriched our process and our prototypes by giving a better overview. We discovered the value of combining different methods, and to use them at other times in a project than taught through our education. By means of interviews, observation diaries and questionnaires, we identified what information about a dog s activity is important for a dog owner when separated from the dog. It was information concerning when or if the dog slept, played or walked around the house. Beside the dog s activity pattern, essential information was the whereabouts of the dog inside the house. The owners would like to know in which part of the house the dog was located. Another kind of information brought up by some of the dog owners, was the health status and information about its wellbeing. Due to the professional expertise needed in this case, we decided to neglect this aspect and decided to design for the two others. We explored three different kind of representation of the data, three different suggestions to make it tangible. They have all had their advantages and disadvantages, and usefulness in different contexts. TD won a little on the gadget effect, but took too much focus, for a design at the background. We think it will work better when placed for a longer period in an office, we had it tested for a couple of days, and the participant who had it with him, got better at ignoring it just in two days. The Picture Representation was an intriguing concept for the family, but not very useful for them. They found it funny to look at, but it was not a concept they would purchase if available. The most successful prototype was the SMS service, which had its forces in being transportable, and building on a well-known metaphor and interaction. FUTURE WORK The prototypes we have developed needs to be tested for a longer period and on a wider range of people. This will lead to opportunities for iteratively improve the prototypes. Besides refining the old prototypes we would involve professionals with different backgrounds than our own to help develop and test new prototypes. To do this we could use Experience Prototyping [45] where we try to place ourselves in the dog s and the owner s situation, to understand underlying constructs. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank Prof. Marianne Gravesen for her guidance, with insights and advices on the project. Additionally we want to thank Prof. Erik Grönvall and Peter Krogh for their suggestions. VIDEO PROTOTYPE Link to our video prototype on youtube: REFERENCES 1. Marti, P., Pollini, A., Rullo, A., and Shibata, T Engaging with Artificial Pets. In Proceedings of the 2005 annual conference on European association of cognitive ergonomics. 2005, University of Athens, Chania, Greece. 2. von Hippel, E Sticky information and the locus of problem solving: implications for innovation. Manage. Sci. 40, 4 (Apr. 1994), Rowan, J. T Digital Family Portraits: Support for Aging in Place. Doctoral Thesis. UMI Order Number: AAI , Georgia Institute of Technology. 42 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

43 4. Beaudin, J., Intille, S., and Tapia, E. M Lessons learned using ubiquitous sensors for data collection in real homes. In CHI '04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Vienna, Austria, April 24-29, 2004). CHI '04. ACM, New York, NY, Kidd, C. D., Orr, R., Abowd, G. D., Atkeson, C. G., Essa, I. A., MacIntyre, B., Mynatt, E. D., Starner, T., and Newstetter, W The Aware Home: A Living Laboratory for Ubiquitous Computing Research. In Proceedings of the Second international Workshop on Cooperative Buildings, integrating information, Organization, and Architecture (October 01-02, 1999). N. A. Streitz, J. Siegel, V. Hartkopf, and S. Konomi, Eds. Lecture Notes In Computer Science, vol Springer-Verlag, London, Halskov, K. and Dalsgård, P Inspiration card workshops. In Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Designing interactive Systems (University Park, PA, USA, June 26-28, 2006). DIS '06. ACM, New York, NY, Wilson, D. H., Long, A. C., and Atkeson, C A context-aware recognition survey for data collection using ubiquitous sensors in the home. In CHI '05 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Portland, OR, USA, April 02-07, 2005). CHI '05. ACM, New York, NY, Lim, Y., Stolterman, E., and Tenenberg, J The anatomy of prototypes: Prototypes as filters, prototypes as manifestations of design ideas. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 15, 2 (Jul. 2008), Sharp, Helen. Rogers, Yvonne. Preece, Jenny. Interaction Design beyond human-computer interaction, 2 nd Edition p f 11. Gips, J., Fields, N., Liang, P., and Pilpré, A SNIF: social networking in fur. In CHI '05 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Portland, OR, USA, April 02-07, 2005). CHI '05. ACM, New York, NY, Savage, J., Mayol, R. A., Arce, L., Hernandez, A., Brier, L., Martinez, F., Velazquez, A., and Lopez, G Animal-Machine Interfaces. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE international Symposium on Wearable Computers (October 18-21, 2000). ISWC. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, Bieber, G., Voskamp, J., and Urban, B Activity Recognition for Everyday Life on Mobile Phones. In Proceedings of the 5th international on Conference universal Access in Human-Computer interaction. Part Ii: intelligent and Ubiquitous interaction Environments (San Diego, CA, July 19-24, 2009). C. Stephanidis, Ed. Lecture Notes In Computer Science, vol Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Bieber, G., Hoffmeyer, A., Gutzeit, E., Peter, C., and Urban, B Activity monitoring by fusion of optical and mechanical tracking technologies for user behavior analysis. In Proceedings of the 2nd international Conference on Pervasive Technologies Related To Assistive Environments (Corfu, Greece, June 09-13, 2009). PETRA '09. ACM, New York, NY, Yilmaz, A., Javed, O., and Shah, M Object tracking: A survey. ACM Comput. Surv. 38, 4 (Dec. 2006), Kim, H., Suryanto, Kom, D., Zang, D., and Ko, S Fast Object Detection Method for Visual Surveillance. In proceedings of The 23 rd International Technical Conference on Circuit/System, Computers and communications. 17. Jensen, C. S., Lu, H., and Yang, B Graph Model Based Indoor Tracking. In Proceedings of the 2009 Tenth international Conference on Mobile Data Management: Systems, Services and Middleware - Volume 00 (May 18-20, 2009). International Conference On Mobile Data Management. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, Tesoriero, R., Tebar, R., Gallud, J. A., Lozano, M. D., and Penichet, V. M Short Communication: Improving location awareness in indoor spaces using RFID technology. Expert Syst. Appl. 37, 1 (Jan. 2010), Bargh, M. S. and de Groote, R Indoor localization based on response rate of Bluetooth inquiries. In Proceedings of the First ACM international Workshop on Mobile Entity Localization and Tracking in Gps-Less Environments (San Francisco, California, USA, September 19-19, 2008). MELT '08. ACM, New York, NY, Bauer, G. and Lukowicz, P Developing a Sub Room Level Indoor Location System for Wide Scale Deployment in Assisted Living Systems. In Proceedings of the 11th international Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs (Linz, Austria, July 09-11, 2008). K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. Zagler, and A. Karshmer, Eds. Lecture Notes In Computer Science, vol Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, M. Pallikonda Rajasekaran, S. Radhakrishnan, P. Subbaraj. (2008). Elderly Patient Monitoring System Using a wireless Sensor Network Mogensen, P., & Trigg, R. (1992). Artefacts as triggers for participatory analysis. In Kuhn, Muller, & Meskill (Ed.), Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference (PDC) (pp ). Boston, MA. 24. Denef, S., Ramirez, L., Dyrks, T., Schwartz, T., and Al-Akkad, A Participatory design workshops to evaluate multimodal applications. In Proceedings of the 5th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer interaction: Building Bridges (Lund, Sweden, October JANUARY

44 20-22, 2008). NordiCHI '08, vol ACM, New York, NY, Sharp, Helen. Rogers, Yvonne. Preece, Jenny. Interaction Design beyond human-computer interaction, 2 nd Edition p Sharp, Helen. Rogers, Yvonne. Preece, Jenny. Interaction Design beyond human-computer interaction, 2 nd Edition p x?keyword=hunde&searchid= Sharp, Helen. Rogers, Yvonne. Preece, Jenny. Interaction Design beyond human-computer interaction, 2 nd Edition p Online Questionnaires Attachment Kelly, Tom. Littman, Jonathan. The art of innovation: lessons in creativity from IDEO, America's leading design firm, 10 th Edition - pp Initial Interview question Attachment Participants diaries Attachment Interviews with professionals Attachment Floyd, Christiane. A systematic look at prototyping. Approaches to Prototyping, pp 1 18, /aarbogstabel/ Ishii, H. and Ullmer, B Tangible bits: towards seamless interfaces between people, bits and atoms. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Atlanta, Georgia, United States, March 22-27, 1997). S. Pemberton, Ed. CHI '97. ACM, New York, NY, Ishii, H., Wisneski, C., Brave, S., Dahley, A., Gorbet, M., Ullmer, B., and Yarin, P ambientroom: integrating ambient media with architectural space. In CHI 98 Conference Summary on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Los Angeles, California, United States, April 18-23, 1998). CHI '98. ACM, New York, NY, Fishkin, K. P A taxonomy for and analysis of tangible interfaces. Personal Ubiquitous Comput. 8, 5 (Sep. 2004), Holmquist L, Redström J, Ljungstrand P (1999) Token-based access to digital information. In: Proceedings of the 1 st international symposium on handheld and ubiquitous computing (HUC 99), Karlsruhe, Germany, September 1999, pp Sharp, Helen. Rogers, Yvonne. Preece, Jenny. Interaction Design beyond human-computer interaction, 2 nd Edition p Buchenau, M. and Suri, J. F Experience prototyping. In Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Designing interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, and Techniques (New York City, New York, United States, August 17-19, 2000). D. Boyarski and W. A. Kellogg, Eds. DIS '00. ACM, New York, NY, Sharp, Helen. Rogers, Yvonne. Preece, Jenny. Interaction Design beyond human-computer interaction, 2 nd Edition p AARHUS UNIVERSITY

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47 OP-Blocks: A Tangible Approach to Surgery Scheduling Stefan Loeschcke, Markus Petersen and Lasse Quorning Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University Åbogade 34, DK-8200 Århus N 1. ABSTRACT Several studies have shown that physical skill and expression is underestimated in many current research projects in the area of Human-Computer Interaction. To compensate, the concept of tangible interaction has been introduced in order to couple the digital world of computing with the physical world of people. In this paper we investigate how the interactive display of ihospital s Aware- Media project can be altered to benefit from the qualities of tangible interaction, while preserving some of the qualities of the current digital display. We do this by inventing realistic scenarios for guiding design decisions and using frameworks and taxonomies from relevant research papers. The design problem is addressed in two parts: The qualities of the interaction and the support of cooperation. By constructing a physical prototype, we evaluate the design decisions with an expert user using a Wizard of Oz-approach. Finally, we conclude that part of the design is working as expected and other parts are promising, but that a new evaluation of a more suitable prototype is necessary for us to be able to draw a final conclusion on the cooperative aspects of the design. 2. RESUMÉ Adskillige undersøgelser har vist, at fysisk kunnen og fysiske udtryksmåder er undervurderede i mange aktuelle forskningsprojekter inden for Human-Computer Interaction. For at gøre brug af dette, er begrebet tangible interaction blevet introduceret for at sammenkoble den digitale verden med den fysiske verden. I denne rapport undersøger vi, hvordan det interaktive display i ihospital s AwareMedia-projekt kan ændres til at drage fordel af kvaliteterne i tangible interaction, samtidig med at nogle af kvaliteterne i det nuværende digitale display stadig bevares. Vi gør dette ved at opfinde realistiske scenarier til at lede vores designbeslutninger og ved at bruge frameworks og taksonomier fra relevante forskningsartikler. Vi adresserer designproblemet i to dele: Kvaliteterne i interaktionen og understøttelsen af kooperation. Ved at bygge en fysisk prototype evaluerer vi designbeslutningerne sammen med en ekspertbruger ved hjælp af en Wizard of Oz-tilgang. Til slut konkluderer vi, at en del af designet fungerer som forventet og andre dele virker Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. LPQ 2010, January 5th, 2010, Aarhus, Denmark. Copyright $5.00. lovende, men at en ny evaluering af en mere passende prototype er nødvendig for at vi kan drage en endelig konklusion omkring de kooperative aspekter af designet. Keywords Surgery scheduling, Tangible User Interfaces, Computer-Supported Cooperative Work Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.3 [Information Interfaces and Presentation]: Group and Organization Interfaces Computer-supported cooperative work. 3. RESEARCH QUESTION Can a tangible interaction design make surgery scheduling and organisation more direct and intuitive, and create better support for cooperative work, in ihospital s AwareMedia system? 4. INTRODUKTION Der er blevet lavet mange eksperimenter og artikler i området tangible interaction. Nogle projekter er meget konkrete og praktisk orienterede [9, 23, 25, 26], mens andre udforsker yderkrogene i tangible interaction [6, 27]. Projekter i begge disse kategorier kan inspirere til idéer og antyde metodiske fremgangsmåder. Andre i- gen prøver at skabe frameworks og taksonomier, som kan benyttes til at positionere og evaluere projekter inden for tangible interaction [8, 16]. Hovedformålet med Tangible User Interfaces (TUI) er at give digital information en fysisk repræsentation som f.eks. håndgribelige objekter eller perifere medier. På denne måde søger TUI er at udnytte menneskets sanser og evner til at interagere med det digitale gennem det fysiske. TUI er på den måde en kontrast til traditionelle interaktionsformer såsom mus, tastatur og skærm [17, 18]. Der er blevet lagt et fundament, som vi kan bygge videre på. Det problemdomæne, vi har valgt til dette projekt, er organiseringen af tidsplaner og koordinering af operationer på et dansk hospital. Tidligere er vi blevet opmærksomme på et forskningsprojekt fra Aarhus Universitet, som nu bliver brugt i en professionel kontekst på et større, dansk hospital. Projektet hedder Det Interaktive Hospital (ihospital) [13]. Problemet, som projektet adresserer, er at personalet (læger og sygeplejersker) har behov for at kunne samarbejde i et mobilt og distribueret miljø, hvor hyppige arbejdsforstyrrelser er reglen, snarere end undtagelsen, når kollegerne skal kommunikere med hinanden: Op til 40% af alle operationer på en dag er akutte operationer [12], hvilket stiller store krav til personalets samarbejde. JANUARY

48 Vi vil argumentere for, hvilke fordele vi kan drage af disse fysiske redskaber, samt konstruere en prototype af vores løsning, og evaluere dennes brugbarhed, gennem virkelighedsnære scenarier. På denne måde vil vi give et alternativt bud på, hvordan en brugergrænseflade til samarbejdsvenlig operationsorganisering, kan blive konstrueret. 5. RELATERET ARBEJDE Der er meget litteratur tilgængeligt omkring TUI er, men i det konkrete domæne af TUI er i hospitalssammenhænge indsnævres listen markant. Nedenfor beskriver vi et udsnit af det arbejde, der relaterer sig til vores projekt. Figure 1: Screenshot af AwareMedia. De enkelte dele af ihospital-projektet forsøger at afhjælpe dette ved at give kollegerne mulighed for at være bevidste om hinandens sociale og spatiale kontekst. Løsningen er opdelt i to dele: AwarePhone [4], som er en kontekstbevidst applikation, der afvikles på mobiltelefoner, og AwareMedia-systemet [5], som beskrives nedenfor, hvilket vi vil fokusere på i vores projekt. AwareMedia er siden blevet til et kommercielt system ved navn Cetrea Surgical [1]. Vi har valgt at fokusere på forskningsprojektet, og ikke på det videreudviklede, kommercielle system, da alt materiale, vi har haft til rådighed, relaterer sig til AwareMedia. AwareMedia-softwaren kører på store, interaktive skærme, der er placeret rundt omkring på hospitalet, og de er designede til at understøtte koordinering af tidsplaner m.m. i et operationsafsnit på hospitalet. Se figur 1, der viser et screenshot af softwaren, der kører på skærmene. Softwaren giver personalet mulighed for at være bevidste om hyppige ændringer i tidsplanen for operationer, der kan være forårsaget af forskellige, ofte uforudsete, omstændigheder, der opstår i hverdagens arbejde. Vi vil gerne fortsætte med at understøtte denne bevidsthed, og gøre det håndgribeligt at rette i disse planer: Oprettelse af, ændring i og sletning af planlagte o- perationer mht. tid og at personale skal udnytte kroppens fysiske potentiale. Vi vil gerne bevæge os væk fra det, der i bund og grund er en stor, grafisk brugergrænseflade (Graphical User Interface, eller GUI), og forsøge at kombinere kvaliteterne fra tangible interaction med det, som AwareMedia på nuværende tidspunkt kan tilbyde. Vi er blevet inspireret af SenseBoard [19], en håndgribelig brugergrænseflade (TUI), der er designet til at understøtte manipulering af særskilte dele af abstrakt information. Dette sker ved at kombinere nogle af fordelene ved traditionel, fysisk informationsorganisering (for eksempel vha. post-it s) med nogle af de bekvemmeligheder, der findes i et klikbart GUI-display. Vores løsningsforslag er todelt i form af to fysiske redskaber: OP- Blocks giver operationskoordineringen en fysisk dimension, hvorved vi tilstræber at kunne udnytte en bedre, mere intuitiv interaktionsform, samtidig med at give brugere af OP-Blocks muligheden for at samarbejde parallelt. Det parallelle samarbejde forsøger vi ligeledes at udnytte vha. phicons [18], som vi kalder personalephicons, der giver mulighed for at tilknytte personale til de enkelte operationer. Disse elementer interagerer med en digital tavle, der visualiserer operationsstuernes kalender. 5.1 SenseBoard SenseBoard [19] er en TUI-platform til manipulation, organisering og gruppering af abstrakt information. SenseBoard består af en digital tavle, der minder om et whiteboard, med en stor kalender projiceret derpå. Information repræsenteres som fysiske objekter (pucks) som placeres på gitteret og kan flyttes rundt. Forskellige værktøjer med specielle formål er tilgængelige, og disse kan bruges til funktioner såsom at gruppere flere objekter eller at fokusere på et bestemt objekt for at se udvidede detaljer om det. Systemet er generisk i den forstand, at det kan bruges i en række forskellige applikationer. I en evaluering blev SenseBoard i specifikke planlægningsopgaver sammenlignet med andre ikke-tangible løsninger, hvor det viste sig, at SenseBoard tilbyder en hurtigere opgaveudførelse. SenseBoard minder om OP-Blocks måde at manipulere abstrakt information på, idet der ligeledes benyttes fysiske objekter. Brikkerne i SenseBoard kan udelukkende flyttes med; Til forskel derfra understøtter OP-Blocks derudover ændring af blokkens højde. 5.2 Paper Flight Strips Paper Flight Strips [22] er små stykker papir, der bliver brugt i kontrolrummet i lufthavne, og repræsenterer flyene i luften. Disse papirstrimler bliver transporteret rundt i kontrolrummet, når flyene flyver fra ét afgrænset område til et andet, og alle medarbejdere kan således udnytte deres perifere opmærksomhed til at følge med i aktiviteterne. På samme måde forsøger vi at give hospitalspersonalet mulighed for at udnytte deres perifere opmærksomhed til at kunne kooperere. 5.3 London Underground Line Control Rooms Artiklen beskriver detaljerede feltstudier af arbejdsgangen i kontrolrummene i Londons undergrundsbaner [14]. Med en CSCWtilgang (Computer-Supported Cooperative Work) analyserer forfatterne, hvordan en arbejdsgang, præget af høj kompleksitet, understøttes af teknologi og kooperation mellem kolleger. På trods af forskellige arbejdsopgaver er personalet i kontrolrummene i høj grad afhængige af kooperation. De bruger deres perifere opmærksomhed til at afkode hinandens arbejde, for dermed at være i stand til at tage de rigtige beslutninger. De teknologiske værktøjer, der består af et stort, fikseret linjediagram samt kommunikation- og overvågningsredskaber, understøtter kooperation i den forstand, at den enkelte medarbejders aktiviteter bliver synlige eller offentligt tilgængelige for det lokale miljø (kollegerne). Operationstavlen fra OP-Blocks kan sammenlignes med det store 48 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

49 linjediagram, og vi forsøger på samme måde at gøre al information fra tavlen tilgængelig i det lokale miljø (blandt personalet og den tavleansvarlige). Ved at bruge operationstavlen synliggør man sin aktivitet, hvilket andre kolleger kan reagere på. 6. UDVIKLINGSPROCES Indsamling af relevant data i forbindelse med planlægning og koordination på hospitalet er hovedsageligt baseret på [5, 13]. Vi har samtidig valgt at benytte os af Thomas Riisgaard Hansens (TRH) mange erfaringer og ekspertise i problemdomænet. TRH er én af ophavsmændende bag ihospital-projektet, og desuden har han tidligere udført større empiriske studier på hospitaler. Gennem mundtlige interviews har vi kunnet få svar på detaljerede spørgsmål omkring den generelle arbejdsgang på hospitaler samt i forhold til AwareMedia-projektet, som vi ellers ikke ville have haft adgang til. Vi begrænser os til en delmængde af AwareMedia-systemet ved kun at fokusere på planlægningsarbejdet i koordineringsrummet. Dette er et kompromis, fordi der i det oprindelige system er mulighed for at manipulere operationstider på hver enkelt operationsstue. Skulle det også være muligt at ændre i planlægningen på den enkelte operationsstue, ville det kræve mekanismer til automatisk at flytte rundt på fysiske objekter i andre lokaler, for at overholde synkroniseringen. Da dette er udenfor projektets rammer, vælger vi udelukkende at fokusere på interaktionen i koordineringsrummet, og ser dermed bort fra ekstern manipulering. Empiriske undersøgelser af koordineringssarbejdet på et hospital har ikke været tilstræbt, da vi har vurderet, at anvendelsen af de empiriske resultater i [4, 5, 13] har været en bedre udnyttelse af vores tid. Derudover er det vores opfattelse, at hospitalspersonalet har svært ved at sætte tid af til forholdsvist små projekter som dette; noget som TRH kan bekræfte. Erfaringerne fra afprøvningen af AwareMedia på Horsens Hospital har givet os en detaljeret indsigt i hospitalsmiljøets koordineringsarbejde. Denne har vi kunnet udnytte til at beskrive realistiske scenarier, som ligger til grund for vores design af en prototype. Denne beskrives under afsnittet Prototype. Vi har i idégenereringsfasen benyttet os af brainstorming som metode til både at fastlægge problemområdet og finde alternative TUIredskaber til interaktionen med AwareMedia. I arbejdet med prototypen og simuleringen af denne har vi desuden anvendt sketching og storyboards til at klarlægge scenarier og fysisk formgivning af prototypen. Vi vil under de respektive afsnit beskrive de metoder og valg, der er foretaget under udarbejdelsen af design, prototype og evaluering af projektet. 6.1 Brugsscenarier Vi har valgt at benytte brugsscenarier som udgangspunkt for vores design, fordi disse kan hjælpe betragteligt med at belyse problemstillingen, både for os som designere og for andre som læsere, samt sætte problemet ind i den rette kontekst [24]. I det følgende beskrives to brugsscenarier der gennemgår hovedaspekterne af interaktionen med OP-Blocks. Formålet med det første scenarie er at beskrive, hvordan oprettelsen af en ny akut operation finder sted, samt illustrere hvorledes tildeling af personale til operationen foregår. Det andet scenarie har til hensigt at vise, hvordan OP-Blocks opfordrer til kooperation gennem personalets perifere opmærksomhed og ved hjælp af operationsblokkenes egenskaber. Videoprototyper af begge scenarier kan ses i [2, 3] En akut operation opstår Klokken er 8:25. En ny operation dukker op forrest i operationskøen. Den tavleansvarlige (KJ) skal finde et tidsrum til denne på operationstavlen, og da den lyser rødt, hvilket betyder akut, skal dette tidsrum være så tidligt som muligt. KJ vurderer varigheden af denne type operation til at være ca. 1 time og 45 min. KJ ser, at OP2 er ledig kl 8:30, dvs. om 5 min., hvis tidsplanen ikke overskrides for den nuværende operation. Dog er der planlagt en operation på OP2 igen kl. 9:45, hvilket ikke giver det nødvendige tidsrum til den akutte operation. Men da denne operation ikke er akut, og der ikke er planlagt en operation umiddelbart efter denne, kan den nemt flyttes 45 min. En omrokering er den bedste løsning, for at få planlagt den akutte operation hurtigst muligt, og derfor vælger KJ dette. Han placerer en ny operationsblok på OP2 kl. 8:45 og trækker bundklodsen nedad så operationen udfylder et tidsrum på 1 time og 45 min. I den forbindelse skubber KJ samtidigt 9:45-operationen nedad, så den i stedet er planlagt til kl. 10:30. Da tidsplanlægningen nu er overstået, kan KJ koble personale til den akutte operation. På tavlen finder han de nødvendige personale-phicons, der repræsenterer læger og sygeplejersker, og stempler dem på operationen. Planlægningen er nu fuldendt Kooperation ved omrokering af operationer Klokken er 7:25. Den tavleansvarlige læge (KJ) er i gang med at planlægge en ny operation på operationstavlen. Han sætter den nye blok på OP1 i tidsrummet 10:30 til 11:30. En anden læge (PH) sidder og arbejder lige i nærheden og lægger mærke til en komplikation ved placeringen af operationen. PH ved, at OP1 i dag mangler det nødvendige udstyr til denne type operation. PH gør KJ opmærksom på komplikationen, og sammen prøver de at løse planlægningsproblemet. OP2 er booket hele dagen, men OP3 er ledig på samme tidspunkt, som der, hvor operationen oprindeligt blev sat. Dog er der ikke en anæstesilæge ledig på dette tidspunkt, så KJ og PH bliver nødt til at finde en anden løsning. De bliver opmærksomme på, at hvis de planlægger den nye operation til kl. 7:45 på OP3 og udsætter den oprindeligt planlagte operation en time, så bliver problemet løst. KJ fjerner den nye operation fra OP1 igen, samtidig med at PH flytter 7:45 operationen på OP3 en time frem. Derefter placerer KJ den nye operation kl 7:45 på OP3. 7. DESIGN OG IMPLEMENTERING Vi har valgt at opdele behandlingen af vores foreslåede design i to dele. Første del beskriver, hvordan OP-Blocks og personale-phicons forsøger at understøtte interaktionsformer, der ikke er mulige med et GUI-display, og argumenterer for, hvilke designvalg, vi har foretaget os. Anden del omhandler de kooperationsmuligheder, OP- Blocks vil indbyde til. 7.1 Interaktionsformer Et grundlæggende udgangspunkt for brug af fysiske artefakter til digital interaktion er, at de tilbyder et generelt rigere interaktionsrum, end ved brug af virtuelle, grafiske interaktionsteknikker [9]. Tangible user interfaces, såsom vores foreslåede operationsblokke og personale-phicons, giver mulighed for at gøre input spacemultiplexed [9, 17], dvs. hver funktion der kan kontrolleres, har JANUARY

50 Figure 2: En operationsblok i åben tilstand (venstre). Operationsblokken i lukket tilstand (højre). hvert sit dedikerede objekt til at udføre en given funktion. På den måde kan der skabes en kobling, når enkeltestående digitale funktioner (f.eks. oprettelse af en funktion) har en direkte sammenhæng med et enkeltstående, fysisk værktøj til at udføre funktionen. Desuden understøtter de fysiske objekter muligheden for at gøre input parallelle, netop fordi de fysiske objekter kan interageres med, uafhængigt af hinanden. Da operationstider i et kalendersystem basalt set er enkeltstående, digitale objekter, kan det digitale indhold karakteriseres som space-multiplexed, til forskel for AwareMedias sekventielle interaktion gennem en grafisk brugergrænseflade. Vores overordnede designmål er at opnå en kobling mellem det digitale indhold (operationstider i et kalendersystem) og interaktionsfladen ved at forsøge at gøre interaktionen space-multiplexed. I det følgende beskrives de interaktionsformer, som vores foreslåede, fysiske artefakter stiller til rådighed. Vi har i vores designvalg arbejdet ud fra vores research question vores fokus for interaktionsdesignet har således været ud fra kriteriet, at interaktionen skal være direkte og intuitiv Operationblokke For at gøre interaktionen mere direkte har vi arbejdet med to interaktionsformer med operationsblokkene, som vi kalder træk og flyt. Vi har valgt at repræsentere en operation ved en blok ved hjælp af to klodser, der repræsenterer henholdsvis start- og sluttidspunkt for en operation, se figur 2. De to klodser fungerer som handles [9], der kan trækkes i hver sin retning. Vi har valgt at begge klodser fungerer som handles i stedet for at bruge én klods som handle og en klods som anchor point [9], fordi det gør det muligt både at ændre start- og sluttidspunktet, uafhængigt af hinanden. For at understøtte træk-interaktionen, har operationsblokken en indbygget skinne, der lagrer afstanden mellem de to handles. Det betyder, at en operationsblok repræsenterer den samme tidsperiode, når o- perationsblokken er placeret på tavlen, som når den tages væk fra tavlen. Den anden interaktionsform, flyt, gør det muligt at arbejde med flere operationsblokke parallelt. Flyt-interaktionen af operationsblokken involverer begge handles på objektet. Når en ny tid eksempelvis Figure 3: Øverst ses en aktuel operation i prototypen. Nederst ses ligeledes en aktuel operation i AwareMedia. er sat ind i en ledig plads mellem to operationsblokke, er det nyttigt at flytte den nederste operationsklods, for at forlænge operationstiden på den nye operationsblok. Den fysiske størrelse på de to handles skal gerne opfordre til, at begge hænder benyttes, for at trække eller flytte et operationsobjekt. Designvalget om, at de to handles skal have en størrelse til at passe godt til at tage i hændernde er baseret på observationer i [9], der fortæller, at brugen af to hænder har resulteret i hurtigere bevægelser og en højere grad af parallelisme i en specifik interaktion med digitale klodser. Det har været en rettesnor, at selve operationsblokkene i deres form opfordrer til lightweight interaction [18] for at imødekomme ønsket om at gøre interaktionen mere intuitiv. Dette skal forståes på den måde, at operationsblokken kun repræsenterer ét formål: at manipulere med en operationstid. Princippet om lightweight interaction betyder også, at der bruges konstant feedback fra objektet, som ved interaktion giver brugeren mulighed for at manipulere med operationstider helt ned i små, trinvise skridt. Denne konstante feedback kan foregå hver gang tiden udvides eller formindskes, altså når der trækkes i de to handles. Feedbacken kan gøres taktil ved, at der fornemmes et mekanisk klik, når afstanden mellem de to handles rykkes til det, der svarer til et 15-minutters tidsinterval. Dette tidsinterval er valgt, fordi det er realistisk for et almindeligt operationsafsnit på et dansk hospital [12]. Indholdet, der projiceres ned på blokken, er overtaget fra Aware- Media, se figur 3, hvor informationer såsom operationstype, tilknyttet personale samt patientens navn og CPR-nr. er synlige. Hvis operationen er under udførelse, vises også en statuslinie for forløbet. Vi har valgt ikke at arbejde videre med den visuelle repræsentation, for bedre at kunne fokusere på den fysiske interaktion. Derfor er den grafiske brugergrænseflade identisk med AwareMedias oprindelige grænseflade. 50 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

51 7.1.2 Personale-phicons Når en nyoprettet eller eksisterende operation skal have tilknyttet personale, har det i AwareMedia foregået gennem tryk på touchdisplayet, eller også er de tilknyttet gennem hospitalets bagvedliggende it-kalender-system [12]. I den forbindelse giver vi et bud på et tangible interface, et phicon [18], der med inspiration fra GUIverdenens ikoner, materialiserer grafiske repræsentationer til fysiske objekter. Se figur 4 for en koncept-tegning, der bliver forklaret nærmere i det følgende. Personale-phicons tilknyttes en operation, ved fysisk at skabe kontakt mellem et givent phicon og en operationsblok. Vi har valgt at benytte os af en stempelmetafor i forbindelse med denne kontakt og den efterfølgende feedback fra phiconet. Hovedårsagen til dette er at gøre den handling (at tildele personale til en operation) mere direkte gennem en fysisk bevægelse. Derudover har vi valgt dette, fordi det giver konteksten (koordineringen af operationer) og miljøet (koordineringsrummet) en kobling. En anden årsag til dette er desuden, at vores personale-phicons er relativt små: Ved brug af en stempellignende interaktionsform giver dette mulighed for at have et phicon i hver hånd, hvilket som nævnt i [9], giver mulighed for at gøre interaktionen space-multiplexed. Endelig er phiconet, efter tildeling til en operation, ikke fysisk fastkoblet til en given operation. At phiconet kan flyttes tilbage til sin oprindelige plads, gør det muligt at koble phiconet (og dermed en medarbejder) til flere forskellige operationer i løbet af dagen. Dette er vigtigt, da personalet på hospitalet løbende bliver tildelt arbejdsopgaver. Selve interaktionen foregår ved, at et phicon tages op og flyttes hen til en opsat operationsblok. Når en bruger vil tilknytte phiconet til operationen, trykkes der på midten af phiconet, hvorved en magnet flyttes frem og skaber kontakt med det felt, som operationsblokken omgiver. Der gives i feltet en visuel afbildning af medarbejderen i feltet, når tildelingen har fundet sted. Konceptuelt har vi overvejet en mekanisk feedback ved ikke-mulige tildelinger (såsom når en læge allerede er booket til en anden operation på det givne tidspunkt), hvilket sker ved at magneterne ved tryk vendes, så der fysisk ikke kan skabes magnetisk tiltrækning mellem operationsblokken og phiconet. Som nævnt ovenfor skyldes phiconets relativt lille størrelse et forsøg på at imødekomme tanken om space-multiplexed input, hvilket også indebærer muligheden for parallelle input. Da personalephicons i høj grad har til formål at manipulere data (ændre informationer om en operation) og være tydelige repræsentationer af virkeligheden (medarbejdere på hospitalet), har vi i det følgende valgt at fokusere på to temaer fra Hornecker og Buuhrs framework om tangible interaction-koncepter: Embodied facilitation og expressive representation i designet [16]. Sidstnævnte behandles dog under Kooperation. Vi har valgt at formgive personale-phicons som runde figurer, se figur 4. På selve phiconet er et billede af en medarbejder, så der opnås en genkendelighed (representational significance) mellem den fysiske og digitale repræsentation. Vi vil gerne signalere information om en medarbejders status (er ledig, går stuegang, opererer), for at underbygge det awarenessværdisæt, som AwareMedia baserer sig på. En måde, vi har valgt at vise det på, er ved at benytte baggrundsfarverne grøn, gul og rød. Disse er anerkendte farver til at signalere status [28]. Tanken er, at en tavleansvarlig eller en anden hurtigt får overblik over, hvor Figure 4: Koncept-tegning af et personale-phicon i tre forskellige tilstande: Ledig, går stuegang, opererer travlt der er på operationsgangen, men også hurtigt kan se og vælge en ledig medarbejder, før den egentlige validering finder sted ved stemplingen af phiconet på en operationsblok. Dette skal også gerne understøtte percieved coupling, eksempelvis fordi et phicon, der lyser grønt, gerne skal vise, at en virkelig læge rent faktisk er ledig og klar til at operere. 7.2 Kooperation Vi vil i dette afsnit redegøre for, hvorfor vi kan benytte det fysiske design til at opfordre til kooperation og social interaktion mellem to eller flere personer, der direkte eller indirekte interagerer med AwareMedia. For at kunne analysere dette aspekt af designet vil vi inddrage terminologien fra frameworket beskrevet i [16], der med fordel kan anvendes til at kommunikere vores intentioner. I vores konkrete brugsscenarie er der to personer, der interagerer med AwareMedia og med hinanden. Dette er valgt for at eksemplificere, hvordan OP-Blocks kan bruges til både indirekte og direkte kooperation. Når vi taler om indirekte kooperation, mener vi det samarbejde, der kan opstå, hvis en inaktiv bruger af OP-Blocks, vha. sin perifere opmærksomhed, opdager en ændring i systemets tilstand, som han eller hun pga. sin viden, bliver nødt til at reagere på. Den direkte kooperation omhandler derimod samarbejdet mellem to eller flere personer, der aktivt er ved at lave ændringer i systemets tilstand, ved at tale sammen og benytte kroppen Direkte kooperation Vi har forsøgt at designe OP-Blocks og personale-phicons, så de opfordrer til direkte samarbejde mellem brugere [3]. I OP-Blocks er der mange blokke, der samtidig er i brug på kalenderen. Et alternativ kunne være at bruge en enkelt blok som værktøj til at stemple operationer på kalenderen. Ifølge case study 1 i [16] er det dog vigtigt, at der er flere access points, så kontrollen bliver distribueret mellem flere personer. På den måde kan alle brugere aktiveres, ved at de alle får mulighed for at tage objekter op uden at skulle vente på hinanden (forudsat de ikke skal benytte den samme medarbejder samtidig). Derfor har vi også valgt at benytte ét phicon til hver medarbejder, frem for at benytte ét generisk phicon, der kunne repræsentere flere eller samtlige medarbejdere. Ifølge samme case study kan det også være samarbejdsopfordrende med embodied constraints, såsom størrelsen af interaktionsfladen. Hvis denne er tilstrækkelig stor, vil det f.eks. være nødvendigt for brugere at overrække blokke til hinanden, for ikke at skulle gå frem og tilbage foran kalenderen for at placere dem. Vi har derfor forsøgt at holde vores flade nogenlunde stor, så det især med mange operationsstuer vil være en fordel for flere personer at samarbejde. Der er dog pladsbegrænsninger på hospitaler, der samtidig skal tages højde for [13], så en passende balance må derfor findes. Af samme grund er det heller ikke muligt at placere displayet ho- JANUARY

52 risontalt i stedet for vertikalt, som [15] ellers argumenterer for, er noget, der understøtter samarbejde. Princippet omkring embodied constraints har vi ligeledes forsøgt at anvende for vores foreslåede personale-phicons ved at tillægge dem en interaktionsform, hvor en person skal benytte to fingre for at kunne stemple et objekt fast til tavlen. På den måde kan en bruger maksimal have to personalephicons ad gangen, hvilket,ideelt set, opfordrer eksempelvis den tavleansvarlige til at kooperere med andre medarbejdere, hvis der i en planlægningssituation skal tilknyttes mange personale-phicons til operationer. Hornecker argumenterer i [15] for, at kooperation (eller cooperative design i hendes termer) er tæt relateret til participatory design (PD), og at man kan benytte nogle af de værktøjer, der er tilgængelige inden for dette felt. Det er dog vigtigt at bemærke, at participatory design bruges i designkontekst, hvor vores kooperation bruges i en arbejdskontekst. Alligevel kan man fremhæve nogle paralleller; Ofte anvendes mockups i PD, som man kan sammenligne med TUIs, fordi begge former har potentiale til bl.a. at afdække brugeres tavse viden [20]. Disse fysiske artefakter (i mockups eller TUIs) er altså noget, der kan få viden frem til overfladen, der ellers ville være forblevet skjult. Der kan altså på denne måde være en fordel over for konventionelle GUIs, der ikke på samme måde fremmer denne tavse viden. Dog bruges tavs viden inden for PD ofte med det formål at designe noget nyt, eller ændre et eksisterende design, hvor vi med OP-Blocks forsøger at understøtte en arbejdsgang. I [15] foretages en empirisk undersøgelse af personers samarbejde for at skabe et nyt produkt ved brug af simple, fysiske stykker papir, der ikke har et digitalt aspekt inkorporeret. En observation, vi kan relatere til OP-Blocks og personale-phicons, er, at håndgribelige modeller kan være med til at give fokus for diskussioner. Hvis to (eller flere) læger eller sygeplejersker således skal diskutere, hvordan nogle operationer skal fordeles på de enkelte operationsstuer i løbet af dagen, er det fordelagtigt at have konkrete fysiske objekter at henvise til. Dette kan hjælpe med at bevare fokus og fungere som visuelle huskesedler. Personalet kan med fysiske objekter i hænderne også arbejde parallelt, således at de kan tale sammen og forsøge at sætte OP-blokkene på kalenderen. Lige netop denne grad af parallelitet er et problem i det eksisterende GUI-system [12], hvor operationer via click-drop skal flyttes enkeltvis af én bruger ad gangen. Paralleliteten gør også, at interaktionen med produktet kan foregå meget hurtigt og effektivt [15] Indirekte kooperation I forbindelse med perifer opmærksomhed nævnes ofte Paper Flight Strips [22], hvilke er små stykker papir, der benyttes i kontrolrummet i lufthavne. Det vigtige ved disse er, at de giver personer i den umiddelbare omgivelse mulighed for at følge med i, hvor meget aktivitet der er, og hvor de forskellige fly befinder sig. På samme måde vil vi gerne understøtte at aktivitet på tavlen kommunikeres ud i rummet. I vores scenarie er det således muligt for den inaktive person at følge indirekte med i, hvad der sker i koordineringsrummet, uden at skulle afvige fra egne arbejdsopgaver, indtil der sker en handling, som kræver vedkommendes intervention. Hvorfor er det vigtigt, at personalet har mulighed for at følge med i hinandens arbejde? Forstyrrer det ikke deres eget arbejde? Ifølge [5] er det vigtigt, at disse kan samarbejde uden at skulle forstyrre hinanden. Alternativet til dette ville være, at den aktive bruger skal spørge alle relevante deltagere om ændringerne er realistiske ift. Figure 5: Interaktion med OP-Blocks-prototypen. mange forskellige faktorer. Man kan sige, at AwareMedia-systemet optimalt set skal kende til alle faktorer, så systemet selv kan gøre opmærksom på relevante konflikter. AwareMedia-systemet bygger på idéen om, at der skal være redundant information tilgængelig alle steder, som personalet i høj grad selv har ansvar for at fortolke, fordi de i langt højere grad end en computer er i stand til det [5]. Der er ikke én person, der kan besidde al viden på hospitalet, og det er helt og aldeles nødvendigt, at personalet samarbejder. Ifølge [11] kan mennesker godt ignorere diverse ambient awareness-systemer, når de virkelig skal koncentrere sig om noget, men samtidig bruge dem som kilde til information i knap så krævende opgaver. Vi har været særligt inspirerede af erfaringer fra [14] omkring brug af store, faste linjediagrammer i Londons undergrundsbaners kontrolrum. At disse diagrammer er tilgængelige, så alle kan se dem, gør, at der opstår en synlighed blandt personalet om hvem og hvordan diagrammet bruges. Vi har forsøgt at inkorporere denne kvalitet om synlighed og tilgængelighed i vores koncept ved at benytte en tavle, der er så tilpas stor, at den kan ses af hele personalet i koordinationsrummet. Det stiller også krav til placeringen af tavlen i forhold til det øvrige interiør i koordineringscentralen, så den er centralt placeret og synlig i hele lokalet. 8. PROTOTYPE Vi har eksperimenteret med en Wizard of Oz (WOz)-tilgang til prototypen, da vores fokus har været at demonstrere interaktion og kooperation i et koordineringsrum for operationsblokkene og ikke at konstruere en decideret funktionel fysisk prototype. I det følgende beskriver vi kort, hvordan vi har produceret den fysiske mockup for derefter at forklare, hvordan WOz-metoden er brugt til at demonstrere prototypen. 8.1 Fysisk prototype I det følgende gives en beskrivelse af den fysiske konstruktion af de forskellige dele af prototypen OP-Blocks Figur 5 viser et foto af operationsblokken i brug. De to klodser, der repræsenterer start- og sluttidspunktet for en operation, har vi 52 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

53 konstrueret af træ, fordi vi har fundet det nemt at arbejde med dette materiale til formålet. Mekanismen, der håndterer justeringen af afstanden mellem de to klodser, er konstrueret ud fra blomsterpinde og lampekroge, der lukker fast om pindene, så der skal trækkes i klodserne for at justere i højden. Alternativt kunne vi have valgt dedikerede skinner til at justere højden, men da det alene er interaktionen og kooperationen, vi vil demonstrere med mockup en, har vi fravalgt dette. Vi har desuden anvendt magnetisk folie på bagsiden af klodserne, for at få dem til at hænge fast på tavlen Personale-phicons Formålet med prototyping af personale-phicons har været at demonstrere et realistisk scenarie, hvor der opstår en akut operation, som skal tildeles ledigt personale. Da vi har valgt ikke at evaluere på personale-phicons i dette projekt, tjener de blot det formål at demonstrere en delmængde af hele scenariet. Til det konkrete formål er simple køleskabsmagneter i en passende størrelse anvendt til at repræsentere personale Operationstavlen På figur 6 ses operationstavlen. I vores prototype har vi valgt et whiteboard, da det har de rette proportioner til at demonstrere en oversigt over kalenderen for tre operationsstuer, en operationskø og en personalepulje. Tavlen er magnetisk, så operationsblokkene og personale-phicons kan sidde fast på tavlen. Desuden er tavlen god til at gengive lyset fra en projektor, hvilket er vigtigt i forhold til vores prototypedemonstration. Hver kolonne repræsenterer en operationsstue og er inddelt i rækker af tidsintervaller, som operationsblokkene kan okkupere. Nogle af egenskaberne ved AwareMediadisplayet går igen på operationstavlen, da de ikke er en del af vores egentlige fokus. Eksempelvis viser en grøn linie på tværs af hele tavlen, hvilket tidspunkt på dagen det er. Operationskøen viser en oversigt over operationer, som er i kø til at blive oprettet i systemet. Vi har i protypen brugt en køstruktur. Dette er valgt, fordi der på den måde er en direkte kobling mellem en ny OP-Block og det forreste element i operationskøen. Når en ny OP-Block sættes på tavlen, bliver denne tildelt informationen fra den første operation i operationskøen, hvorefter den bliver slettet fra køen. I tilfælde af, at en afventende operation er akut, flyttes denne operation forrest i køen, hvilket tvinger den tavleansvarlige til at oprette operationen i systemet før alle andre i køen. 8.2 Simulering med Wizard of Oz Efter konstruktionen af den fysiske prototype, har vi valgt at demonstrere interaktionen og kooperationen gennem en Wizard of Oz-prototype. Wizard of Oz betegner en prototype der virker ved at simulere dele af det interaktive system med menneskelig indvirkning. WOz-teknikken kan være en nyttig tilgang til brugertests af prototyper, når hardware ellers ikke er tilgængelig [21], som i vores tilfælde. Den samlede prototype består derfor af en konkret fysisk operationsblok konstrueret af to klodser af træ, personale-phicons, et whiteboard og en Flash-applikation, der imiterer operationstavlen i koordineringsrummet. Flash-applikationen projiceres herefter ned på whiteboardet, på hvilken de fysiske operationsklodser og personalephicons hænger. Interaktionen simuleres ved, at en person interagerer med operationstavlen, mens en anden person, agenten, styrer, hvad der vises i Flash-applikationen. Figure 6: Operationstavlen i koordineringsrummet, hvor der er oversigt over dagens program på samtlige operationsstuer. Øverst til højre ses operationskøen, hvor indkommende operationer listes. Nederst til højre ses personalepuljen. WOz-teknikken baserer sig på cues og actions, hvor et cue er en begivenhed, der repræsenterer en brugers interaktion, og en action er en handling, der aktiveres i systemet på baggrund af et cue [7]. F.eks. repræsenteres et cue ved en abstrakt kobling af personale til en operation, hvilket opnås ved at stemple det pågældende personaleobjekt på operationsblokken. En tilsvarende action til dette cue er en digital kobling internt i systemet samt relevant feedback til brugeren om fuldførelsen af den pågældende handling. Udfordringen med WOz-prototyping er at undgå, at interaktionen kommer til at virke unaturlig for brugeren, så denne hele tiden har fornemmelsen af at have kontrol. Samtidig er det essentielt for en flydende interaktion, at mængden af handlinger for agenten, som styrer det bagvedliggende system, ikke bliver for stor [7]. Simuleringer af interaktionen [2] og kooperationen [3] er baseret på scenarier beskrevet under Brugsscenarier. 9. EVALUERING For at evaluere prototypen mødtes vi igen med TRH. Som allerede beskrevet i afsnittet omkring udviklingsprocessen, har vi vurderet, at det for os ikke ville være realistisk at evaluere prototypen på et hospital, og vi har derfor benyttet TRH som en ekspert. Vi startede med at præsentere den endelige designidé (efter at han havde hørt om tidligere idéer ved interviewet [12]), præsenterede vores videoprototyper, gennemprøvede scenarierne og sluttede af med et semi-struktureret interview og en diskussion. I det følgende vil vi redegøre for de metoder, vi har brugt under evalueringen, og beskrive resultaterne. Bemærk, at vi ikke evaluerer den indirekte kooperation, da en evaluering af kooperation vha. perifer opmærksomhed ikke giver mening i vores evalueringsform. Dette ville kræve en mere realistisk brugskontekst, og en evaluering kunne eksempelvis ske med forskellige former for feltstudier. 9.1 Evaluering af prototype vha. WOz Som beskrevet tidligere har vi benyttet os af videoprototyper for at kunne kommunikere vores designidé. Begge videoprototyper blev vist for TRH, og vi beskrev handlingen i disse samtidigt med af- JANUARY

54 IT BACHELOR PROJECTS Figure 8: Evaluering af operationsblokkene. Figure 7: Evaluering af personale-phicon. spilningen. TRH mente, at disse var realistiske ift. den dagligdag, der er på hospitalerne, især i forbindelse med akutte operationer. Der var dog på dette tidspunkt ikke yderligere kommentarer, så evalueringen fortsatte til afprøvningen af prototypen. For at kunne afprøve interaktionen med prototypen benyttede vi user testing som beskrevet i [24]. Der var i forvejen blevet forberedt nogle simple opgaver, som TRH skulle løse. For at dokumentere denne evaluering optog vi afprøvningen på video. Dette kan ifølge [24] virke forstyrrende, hvis brugere ikke er vant til at optræde foran et videokamera. Vi vurderede dog at TRH selv er tilpas tryg ved videoprototypingteknikker pga. sin uddannelsesbaggrund, at dette derfor ikke ville være et problem. Dette viste sig at være sandt, og han tog ikke bemærkelsesværdigt notits af kameraet. Fordelen ved at bruge video er, at man kan fastholde alt det, der sker i afprøvningen, til senere analyse. Specielt, når det i vores tilfælde drejer sig om interaktion og bevægelser, er det fordelagtigt at have levende billeder. Flash-applikationen kørte på en computer tilsluttet til projektoren, ligesom i videoprototyperne, og vi styrede oprettelse af operationer m.v. med musen. Der foregik to tests, den ene for at undersøge brugen af interaktionen (ligesom i vores første scenarie) og den anden for at undersøge kooperationen (som i vores andet scenarie). Vi kunne både identificere interaktioner, der fungerede efter forventningen, og nogle der ikke gjorde. Den første test viste, at personalephicons bliver brugt helt efter forventningen, nemlig som stempler, se figur 7. TRH tog et personale-phicon med den ene hånd, stemplede dette på en operation, og satte det tilbage igen. Ligeledes blev selve blokkene brugt som forventet: TRH benyttede begge hænder til at justere længden på en operation, ved at fastholde den øverste del med den ene hånd og trække den nederste del med den anden, se figur 8. Til gengæld benyttede han samtidig blokkene som stempel, ved først at tildele (eller sværte ) blokken i operationskøen, for derefter at placere (eller stemple) operationen det rigtige sted. 54 Den anden test, til kooperationsdelen, virkede ikke i samme grad efter hensigten. Til denne test deltog, udover TRH, en fra projektgruppen som kooperationspartner. Det viste sig, at det var svært at udføre denne test som en evaluering, da kun den ene part af de to brugere (nemlig TRH) ikke i forvejen vidste, hvad der skulle ske. Det kom derfor til at minde mere om en demonstration, end en evaluering. Derudover ville vi gerne i højere grad have vist, hvordan kooperation med flere deltagere og flere blokke parallelt kunne fungere. Da denne prototype styres med en mus på en GUI på computeren, er der dog begrænset mulighed for at understøtte denne parallelisme i prototypen. Vi begrænsede os derfor til at benytte en enkelt blok, og vise en dialog mellem de to brugere. 9.2 Interview Efter afprøvningen af prototypen gik vi over til at stille nogle af de spørgsmål, vi gerne ville have svar på, og lagde op til at TRH selv kunne give kritik af det, han netop havde afprøvet. Vi har grupperet hovedpointerne i de følgende undersektioner Problemer med tid og de fysiske blokke Som nævnt tidligere ser vi bort fra, at der kan ske ændringer i planen fra andre steder end i koordineringsrummet. Derfor kan der dog stadig være behov for at kunne flytte blokkene. Tiden går naturligvis, og der kan opstå problemer, når operationer forsinkes, hvilket ofte sker. TRH mente, at blokkene idéelt set selv skal kunne flytte sig, så personalet i koordineringsrummet ikke selv skal gøre dette. Personalet kan heller ikke se frem i tiden (f.eks. kalenderen næste dag), da dette ligeledes kræver, at blokkene skal flyttes. Operationer bliver nemlig typisk planlagt flere uger i forvejen, og det er således kun uventede begivenheder, der får planen til at ændre sig. På nogle sygehuse vil man gerne kunne se næste dags program allerede aftenen forinden, hvilket er svært i den nuværende prototype Blokkenes fysiske egenskaber Operationer kan strække sig fra en halv time til over seks timer. TRH pointerede, at blokkene ved længere operationer, ville blive meget lange, og i høj grad uhåndterlige. Mulighederne for finjuste- AARHUS UNIVERSITY

55 ring af tidsrummet kan gå tabt, hvis armene skal strækkes meget langt fra hinanden. Han foreslog forskellige niveauer af zoom i kalenderen, så længere operationer kan oprettes uden at skulle gøre blokken meget lang. Ud over dette mente TRH, at blokkene ikke udnytter den fysiske dimension i tilstrækkelig høj grad. De kan flyttes og justeres i højden, men ikke mere. Han beskrev nogle tanker om, hvordan ekstra fysiske muligheder (såsom drejeknapper, rotation af blokken m.fl.) kunne udnyttes til at give blokkene ekstra muligheder for interaktion Koblingen mellem digital og fysisk repræsentation ift. kooperation Efter at have prøvet kooperationsdelen bemærkede TRH, at information meget hurtigt går tabt, når blokkene tages væk fra tavlen. Information, såsom operationens længde, bevares, mens identifikationen af, hvilken operation klodsen repræsenterer, er svær, fordi blokken i sig selv ikke viser nogen information om, hvad den repræsenterer. Han foreslog et form for display, der kan angive information nok til at kunne knytte blokken til operationen og dens oplysninger. Vi diskuterede, om man i stedet kunne bruge blokkene til at manipulere operationerne, og så smide den [operationen] tilbage i den digitale verden, så tilstanden ikke skal opretholdes. Der vil således være tale om en halvt fysisk, halvt digital klods. 10. DISKUSSION I det følgende vil vi diskutere de resultater, der er beskrevet i e- valueringsafsnittet, og derefter forsøge at perspektivere disse ift. projektet som helhed og det videre arbejde Diskussion af evalueringen Diskussionen af evalueringen er delt op i to dele: Først en reflektion over den metode, vi har benyttet til evalueringen, og efterfølgende en behandling af punkterne fra afprøvningen og interviewet Evalueringsmetoden Vi fik stort udbytte af evalueringen, både med hensyn til ting der fungerede og ting, der ikke gjorde. WOz-teknikken viste sig at være tilstrækkelig til at evaluere den basale interaktion mellem vores prototype og brugeren, mens den ikke i tilstrækkelig grad kunne bruges til at evaluere kooperationen. Da vores WOz-prototype baserer sig på en GUI, der skal styres med en enkelt mus, er det ikke muligt for os at simulere den parallelitet, vi gerne vil understøtte. Man kan derfor argumentere for, at denne prototype slet ikke kan bruges til at evaluere kooperationen, fordi et så centralt aspekt ikke kan simuleres. Dette er ikke et problem med selve metoden, da der intet er i vejen for at bruge to (eller flere) computere/guis til at lave en prototype med. Til gengæld ville dette give nogle tekniske udfordringer, da data fra flere computere skal kunne sammenkøres i realtid. For at flytte eller justere længden på en fysisk blok skal man bruge hænderne direkte. For at gøre det tilsvarende i GUI en skal musen flyttes flere steder hen, og der skal klikkes og trækkes med musen osv. I evalueringen var TRH hurtigere til at flytte blokkene, end vi kunne nå at foretage den tilsvarende handling præcist i GUI en. I GUI en blev blokkene derfor placeret en smule unøjagtigt, hvilket resulterede i flere efterjusteringer. Det var nødvendigt at være hurtig til at gøre det samme, som han gjorde ved tavlen, for at han ikke skulle miste opfattelsen af, at have kontrol over prototypen [7]. Til gengæld tilbød WOz-prototypen en nem måde at lave et mockup af et eksisterende design, som vi ellers ikke ville kunne have lavet på så kort tid. Ved at udnytte vores evne som mennesker til at fortolke hans handlinger, slipper vi for at lave diverse computerberegninger, og kan styre hele systemet bag kulisserne. Dette giver en betragtelig fordel, fordi man på denne måde kan lave en meget horisontal prototype, der understøtter de elementer, vi gerne vil, og simulerer den nødvendige funktionalitet [10]. Vi benyttede os af TRH som en slags ekspert, fordi vi vurderede, der ikke var mulighed for at evaluere med hospitalspersonale, som nævnt tidligere. Dette har den ulempe, at TRH naturligvis kender hele systemet i forvejen, fordi vi har bygget vores projekt på Aware- Media. De interaktionsformer, vi har tilføjet, er ikke videre komplicerede, og det er derfor ikke svært at tænke sig til, hvad vi gerne vil evaluere. Vi havde naturligvis visse forventninger til, hvad TRH foretog sig som testbruger, og vi observerede, at det var en smule svært for ham at forsøge at abstrahere fra dette. Afprøvningen fik derfor, som tidligere nævnt, i højere grad karakter af en præsentation end en egentlig evaluering. Vi formoder, at en afprøvning sammen med en udeforstående ikke ville have båret det samme præg af en præsentation, men det er ikke noget, vi kan dokumentere. Muligvis har opgaverne også været for simple, så der ikke har været tale om en reel opgaveløsning Reflektion over afprøvning og interview Ved at kombinere et traditionelt GUI-design med en TUI har vi forsøgt at drage nytte af det bedste fra begge verdener. Her gælder det om at finde en balance, så der ikke forekommer ulemper, der er for store til at opveje fordelene. Afprøvningen tydede på, at det med OP-Blocks er nemt at oprette nye operationer og flytte rundt på eksisterende operationer, ved at benytte begge hænder. Til gengæld er der nogle designproblemer, som vi ikke kan løse, uden at ændre fundamentale dele af konceptet. Blandt disse er der problemet med meget lange operationer, der ikke kan være på tavlen og er uhåndterlige, samt problemer med at ændre på blokkenes placering, som tiden går (og også se frem i tiden, eller bladre i kalenderen ). TRH nævnte, at det måske var en mulighed at smide den [operationen] tilbage i den digitale verden. Det nuværende design bygger på, at OP-Blocks er en form for repræsentative blokke, der efter den første kobling repræsenterer en operation, indtil denne er overstået. En anden tilgang er at lade blokkene være operationelle værktøjer, således at disse efter endt manipulation mister deres kobling til operationen, og deres status ikke længere behøves at blive vedligeholdt. Dette løser givetvis ikke problemerne med operationens længde, men der er med denne løsning ikke længere behov for at bekymre sig om at flytte blokkene på tavlen (enten mekanisk eller manuelt). Derudover ville det også være muligt at se frem i kalenderen. Der kan dog samtidig være flere ulemper ved denne designløsning. For det første skal personalet først koble en blok til en operation for at kunne manipulere denne, hvilket (afhængigt af implementation) kan tage kostbar tid, når eksempelvis en akut operation skal planlægges. For det andet mistes den persistente kobling mellem operation og OP-Block, som ellers kan blive udnyttet i forbindelse med kooperation i vores nuværende design. En verificering af disse fordele og ulemper skal naturligvis foreta- JANUARY

56 ges, før vi kan konkludere noget endeligt på den baggrund Perspektivering af projektet Spørgmålet er nu: Kan OP-Blocks som TUI-design gøre operationskoordinering mere direkte og intuitivt? Evalueringen tyder på, at der er visse fordele ved at kunne manipulere digital information om operationer vha. fysiske blokke. Brugen af begge hænder samtidig giver desuden mulighed for en parallelitet, som ikke er opnåelig i et sekventielt, GUI-baseret design. Ved at kunne tage fat i operationsblokke med hænderne giver vi brugeren mulighed for en direkte manipulation af operationstidspunkter og -længder. Til gengæld er der andre problemer med OP-Blocks i forbindelse med repræsentationen af tid, der skal løses, før man kan sige at OP-Blocks kan benyttes på et hospital. Eventuelt ville en alternativ tilgang, ved at bruge operationsblokke som operationelle værktøjer, løse nogle af disse problemer. I hvilken grad understøtter OP-Blocks mulighederne for kooperation? Vores evaluering har vist, at prototypen ikke i tilstrækkelig grad kan bruges til at evaluere kooperationen, ligesom evalueringsmetoden heller ikke var optimal til dette formål. Derfor forbliver det et åbent spørgsmål, hvorvidt OP-Blocks understøtter de ønskede kooperationsmuligheder. Et videre forløb ville forhåbentligt belyse denne del af designet. Med dette projekt bidrager vi med et forslag til en løsning i et meget konkret problemdomæne, nemlig operationskoordinering på hospitaler. OP-Blocks er et design, der ligesom SenseBoard påviser nogle fordele i et TUI-baseret design, som ikke kan opnås i et GUI-baseret design [19]. Hvor der med SenseBoard er foretaget konkrete målinger af effektiviteten, kan vi på nuværende tidspunkt kun gætte på om interaktionen med OP-Blocks er bedre end med AwareMedia. Eftersom det ene aspekt af vores hovedspørgsmål havde fokus på det kooperationsmæssige potentiale i vores løsning, og at dette ikke i tilstrækkelig grad er blevet evalueret i dette projekt, vil det fremtidige arbejde i høj grad søge at belyse dette. Evalueringen antyder også, at vi bør undersøge alternative prototypedesigns, som i højere grad understøtter kooperationsevalueringen. I det fremtidige arbejde vil det desuden være interessant at undersøge, hvilke muligheder en værktøjsorienteret tilgang til det fysiske element giver interaktionen og kooperationen. 11. KONKLUSION Vi har i dette projekt undersøgt, om et TUI-baseret design kan gøre interaktion og kooperation i operationskoordinering mere direkte og mere intuitiv. Ved hjælp af scenarier, videoprototyper og WOzteknikker har vi forsøgt at udforske problemdomænet, og har fået en dybere forståelse for, hvilke faktorer der er vigtige i forhold til at skabe et direkte og intuitivt design. Vi har ved hjælp af en ekspertbruger evalueret vores designforslag, og er kommet til den konklusion, at der er nogle problemer i det nuværende design, der gør, at konceptet ikke umiddelbart kan anvendes i en virkelighedsnær kontekst. Der er dog aspekter i designet, der virker lovende, og som er noget der kan arbejdes videre med. 12. TAK TIL En stor tak skal gå til Thomas Riisgaard Hansen for hans samarbejde i forbindelse med interviews og evalueringer. Ligeledes skal der gå en tak til Marianne Graves Petersen for hendes fremragende feedback og hjælp undervejs i processen. Sidst, men ikke mindst, tak til alle der har hjulpet undervejs med kritik af projektet. 13. REFERENCER [1] Cetrea Surgical. cetrea.com/index.php/ products-dk/cetreasurgical. [2] Videoprototype 1 Interaktion. [3] Videoprototype 2 Kooperation. [4] BARDRAM, J. E., AND HANSEN, T. R. The AWARE architecture: supporting context-mediated social awareness in mobile cooperation. In Proceedings of the 2004 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work (2004), ACM New York, NY, USA, pp [5] BARDRAM, J. E., HANSEN, T. R., AND SOEGAARD, M. AwareMedia: a shared interactive display supporting social, temporal, and spatial awareness in surgery. In Proceedings of the th anniversary conference on Computer supported cooperative work (2006), ACM, p [6] CHURI, A., AND LIN, V. Platypus amoeba. In Adjunct proceedings of the 5th international conference on ubiquitous computing (Ubicomp 2003), Seattle, Washington (2003), pp [7] DOW, S., LEE, J., OEZBEK, C., MACINTYRE, B., BOLTER, J., AND GANDY, M. Wizard of oz interfaces for mixed reality applications. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2005), ACM New York, NY, USA, pp [8] FISHKIN, K. A taxonomy for and analysis of tangible interfaces. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 8, 5 (2004), [9] FITZMAURICE, G., ISHII, H., AND BUXTON, W. Bricks: laying the foundations for graspable user interfaces. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (1995), ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. New York, NY, USA, pp [10] FLOYD, C. A systematic look at prototyping. Approaches to prototyping (1984), [11] GELLERSEN, H.-W., SCHMIDT, A., AND BEIGL, M. Ambient media for peripheral information display. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 3, 4 (1999), [12] HANSEN, T. R. Interview interview.mp3, [13] HANSEN, T. R., BARDRAM, J. E., AND SOEGAARD, M. Moving out of the lab: deploying pervasive technologies in a hospital. IEEE Pervasive Computing (2006), [14] HEATH, C., AND LUFF, P. Collaboration and controlcrisis management and multimedia technology in London Underground Line Control Rooms. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 1, 1 (1992), [15] HORNECKER, E. Understanding the benefits of graspable interfaces for cooperative use. Cooperative systems design: a challenge of the mobility age (2002), 71. [16] HORNECKER, E., AND BUUR, J. Getting a grip on tangible interaction: a framework on physical space and social interaction. In CHI-CONFERENCE- (2006), vol. 1, Citeseer, p AARHUS UNIVERSITY

57 [17] ISHII, H. Tangible bits: beyond pixels. In Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Tangible and embedded interaction (2008), ACM New York, NY, USA. [18] ISHII, H., AND ULLMER, B. Tangible bits: towards seamless interfaces between people, bits and atoms. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (1997), ACM, p [19] JACOB, R. J., ISHII, H., PANGARO, G., AND PATTEN, J. A tangible interface for organizing information using a grid. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems: Changing our world, changing ourselves (2002), ACM, p [20] KLEMMER, S., HARTMANN, B., AND TAKAYAMA, L. How bodies matter: five themes for interaction design. In Proceedings of the 6th conference on Designing Interactive systems (2006), ACM, p [21] KLEMMER, S., LI, J., LIN, J., AND LANDAY, J. Papier-Mache: toolkit support for tangible input. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (2004), ACM New York, NY, USA, pp [22] MACKAY, W. E. Is paper safer? The role of paper flight strips in air traffic control. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 6, 4 (1999), [23] PATTEN, J., RECHT, B., AND ISHII, H. Audiopad: A tag-based interface for musical performance. In Proceedings of the 2002 conference on New interfaces for musical expression (2002), National University of Singapore, p. 6. [24] PREECE, J., ROGERS, Y., AND SHARP, H. Interaction design: beyond human-computer interaction. [25] UNDERKOFFLER, J., AND ISHII, H. Illuminating light: an optical design tool with a luminous-tangible interface. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (1998), ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. New York, NY, USA, pp [26] UNDERKOFFLER, J., AND ISHII, H. Urp: a luminous-tangible workbench for urban planning and design. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems: the CHI is the limit (1999), ACM, p [27] WEISER, M., AND BROWN, J. Designing calm technology. PowerGrid Journal 1, 1 (1996), [28] WRIGHT, P., MOSSER-WOOLEY, D., AND WOOLEY, B. Techniques & tools for using color in computer interface design. Crossroads 3, 3 (1997), 6. JANUARY

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61 A Critical Design Approach: Combining Persuasive Technology and Tangible User Interface to Create Energy Awareness Tore Stubbe Lundgren, Brian Bak Laursen, and Kristian Barrett University of Aarhus, Department of Computer Science {lundgren, laursen, ABSTRACT Sustainability and pro-environmental behavior is nowadays a much debated issue and therefore an important aspect to take in mind when designing technology for today. In this paper we explore the possibilities of using TUI and Persuasive Technology to create attention on proenvironmental behavior in the everyday life by changing people s habits. We also explore the use of limitations in physical everyday objects to create an awareness of repeated unnecessary energy consuming actions. To achieve this we seek help from persuasive technology and critical design to make users reflect on their own actions and practices. In our paper and prototype we include energy awareness to gather relevant data to affect the tangible interaction and provide feedback. We are not providing answers to the overall solution but instead raising questions upon the problem of energy consumption. It is instead our goal to make people aware of the presence of electricity consumption through moving the point of view from ease of use to actions with consequences. To achieve this we explore switches with different types of tangible interaction and how they relate to the surrounding electrical products. This is done through conceptual designs and a concrete prototype. DANISH ABSTRACT Bæredygtigt design og miljøvenlig opførsel er oppe i tiden og et meget debatteret emne. Når teknologi skal udvikles i dag er det derfor nogle vigtige kriterier at have for øje. I denne artikel udforsker vi mulighederne for at anvende TUI og Persusive Technology til at sætte fokus på og påvirke miljøvenlig adfærd i hverdagen. Vi udforsker desuden muligheden for at skabe bevidsthed omkring gentagne energiforbrugende handlinger, ved hjælp af fysisk modstand i hverdagsobjekter. For at opnå dette tager vi udgangspunkt i persuasive technology og critical design for derigennem at få brugere til at reflektere over egne handlinger. I projektet og prototypen benytter vi energy awareness til at indsamle relevant information og derigennem påvirke interaktionen og give feedback. Vi kommer ikke med et endegyldigt svar men sætter spørgsmålstegn ved det stigende energiforbrug. Det er i stedet vores mål at gøre brugere opmærksomme på forbrug af elektricitet og dets tilstedeværelse igennem et skifte fra ease of use til actions with consequences. Vi udforsker brugen af TUI med flere typer kontakter og hvordan disse relaterer sig til de omgivende elektriske apparater. Dette realiseres igennem et konceptuelt design og en konkret prototype. Author Keywords Tangible User Interface, Energy Awareness, Persuasive Technology, Green Computing, Energy conserving behavior. 1. INTRODUCTION The energy consumption remains almost steady every year [1] despite the fact that consumer products become more and more energy efficient as technology advances. This point to the fact that the problem not only originates from the increasing amount of electronics, but also the behavior and mentality of people in general. People buy energy saving products and use them in good faith but without concern i.e. buying an energy conserving light and leaving it on all the time. Electricity is something we take for granted and expect to be present when needed. People also tend to take on needs designed for them by manufacturers instead of fulfilling actual needs. That way people buy a lot of electronic products, which they actually do not need. This tendency and the fact that people are not aware of their consumption, results in excessive use because electricity is not seen as an actual material. It is merely seen as a part of a switch which is always present. The only time we actually stop and think about the presence of electrical energy, are when the power is shut off. We believe that in order to change people s concern for a more sustainable behavior we have to make users focus on their consumption of power. To turn the focus we need a radically changed product that will crave the users attention and make them stop and think about their actions. We want a product that do not submit to the users behavior and uncritically enhance the way of living. Instead our product should force the user to behave under the rules of the system instead of the user taking the controlling role. This way the user has to play by the rules of the system, in order to be able to withhold the current rate of power consumption. JANUARY

62 Critical design [4] takes advantage of artifacts which can be designed conceptually for critically addressing the roles products play in everyday life. This is done by an embodiment of the addressed critique into the artifact. The intention is to raise awareness, provoke actions, create debate and expose assumptions amongst the intended recipients. Hopefully this will make them reflect upon existing values and how we relate to them in order to improve. Compared to how we normally think, critical design focuses not on performance, but on raising questions which they not necessarily answers. Persuasive Technology deals with the behavioral decisions of users. Persuasive Technology (called captology), that is, the design of computer systems to change behavior and attitudes of people. Fogg s defines persuasion as an attempt to shape, reinforce, or change behaviors, feelings, or thoughts about issue, object, or actions. [12]. This is relevant since these behavioral decisions can be responsible for 26%-36% of the household energy consumption [9]. As mentioned these decisions concern the misuse of energy saving and consuming products. Tangible User Interface is defined by interfaces that augment the real world by coupling digital information to everyday physical objects and environments. [17]. This challenge the conventional approach of computer interfaces and move towards a design more appealing to our senses and motor skills [18]. In this paper we try to explore the possibilities of moving the perception of electricity away from the background and making it graspable. Our design is based on the following questions. Is it possible to influence people s actions through persuasive and critical design, and thereby save energy? Can we make electricity, which is normally intangible and peripheral, tangible and something we can feel and relate to? In order to give our design a concrete context we have chosen to test the effects of our system on users that already have high energy consumption. We focus on people in the age range of 15 to 25, who usually have a significant number of electronic devices in their rooms and a vague concern for the environment [19]. Thereby creating an unsustainable behavior of abusing the power for several articles that are not in use. This makes their room an adequate setting for testing our prototype. 2. RELATED WORK Wattbot[2] is an Ipod application which monitors the power consumption of the individual devices of the household, and provide a visual interface for the data. Their approach is to visualize factual data to make it easier for users to compare and analyze their electricity usage. The use of analyzing the individual consumption of devices can be transferred to our project as we wish to point out the biggest energy polluters in the home. The representation on the other hand differs much, since we want to make it graspable and directly influencing daily activities and not as a tool to show factual data. Ham et al. [3] describes a use of Persuasive Technology. Here subliminal feedback is used to unconsciously influence people s behavioral patterns in relation to proenvironmentalism. The subliminal feedback involves images shown faster than the conscious mind can perceive. The subliminal feedback is compared to supraliminal feedback which is feedback perceived by the conscious mind. Both feedback types proved to influence the choices of the participants equally and did in fact influence actions. Another experiment with Persuasive Technology deals with the difference in effect when proving social feedback compared to factual feedback in order to decrease energy consumption[16]. Our ambition is to persuade or influence people to behave in a more thoughtful way when it comes to electricity consumption. The idea of Persuasive Technology has led our choice of feedback away from a factual data representation, towards a more here and now type of feedback. In Erratic Appliances and Energy Awareness [10] the designers take a critical design approach, where energy is considered as a material alongside the more traditional physical materials in the design. They find expressions and ways to visualize energy and then re-design existing products with the newly discovered properties. This could imply appliances behaving strangely compared to the energy consumption. They present an Erratic Radio prototype which reacts on the current electricity usage by changing the frequency and forcing users to listen to a out of tune signal if the consumption is too high. This approach has inspired us to move away from the traditional way of trying to solve problems through prototyping and design, to a focus on communicating consequences of use to the recipient through embodiment of energy consumption. Eco-Visualizations or EVs is a term presented by Tiffany Holmes [14], which encapsulates any kind of interactive devices targeted at revealing energy consumption to promote sustainable behavior. The key concept is to provide real-time visual statistics over resource consumption. This visualization can come in many forms of media art with different level of abstractions. An example of a less abstract EV is the public artwork 7000 oaks and counting [14][15]. The purpose is to visualize the normally hidden electricity consumption of an entire office building into an animation displaying the carbon footprints of the building. This is done to make residents aware of and committed to conservation of energy. Another example is the Power-Aware Cord [13]. It is a glowing power cord displaying the current amount of energy used. They argue that showing the consumption with light is a more intuitive way of perceiving electricity compared to numerical displays and will decrease the 62 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

63 overall energy usage. Others dealing with EVs are Pierce et al. [11]. They provide a way to classify EVs in terms of scale and use-context to give an understanding of the effectiveness that EVs provide. They present use-context according to two dimensions, third-party control and dweller control. Dweller control is the amount of control a single person has within a certain use-context, whereas third-party control is the amount of influence exerted by others. If we try to categorize the above examples, we can place the Power Cord high in dweller control and low in third-party control compared to the 7000 oaks which has moderate dweller control and high third-party control. Although EV is highly visual and art driven compared to the prototype presented in this paper, it has the same goal as us, namely resource conservation. Our prototype could be categorized as an EV, based on the definition presented earlier even though our visualization makes use of products already present, thus not creating a new visuality. We make use of the idea of real time presentation of resource consumption, but instead of showing visual art abstractions we focus on using the real time data to create real time consequences, that affect everyday life. 3. CONCEPT AND PROCESS Tangible User Interfaces augment the real physical world by coupling digital information to everyday physical objects and environments. [17] We move away from ordinary computer interaction with display, mouse and keyboard, and instead appeal to senses. This is an attempt to utilize the human sensory qualities to create alternative feedback. We use the notion of tangible interaction to make the concept of energy more graspable and perceivable by human senses. This is done by visualizing the energy and making users aware of its existence and not taking it for granted. A questionnaire was used to gather information about how users normally perceive electricity in terms of how to get it, where it comes from and what actions they take in order to save energy. The questionnaire involved users in our focus group i.e. people between age Most people answered that they thought of electricity as merely something coming out of a switch on the wall. It was difficult for many to elaborate how they perceived electricity because it cannot be felt or seen, and only noticeable when absent. To the question about the actions taken in order to save energy, many answered that they always tried to turn off the lights when leaving a room. Only few mentioned products in standby. As a result of our questionnaire, we use switches as a control point for our prototype. Switches are already in control when making or breaking connections in a circuit i.e. they are the link giving us access to electricity. Switches have no relation to the products it controls besides turning something on. Therefore we have worked with different types of switches in order to expand the expressiveness of the link between product and switch. We want the switch to inform the user about the current energy consumption. The switch is connected to an underlying system which is in control of the electricity of a single room. This system contains the following properties: Time - We introduce the concept of time in respect to make people plan ahead and reflect on their current electricity needs before turning on a switch. For how long do they need electricity? Do they need it? Etc. Consequences - Adding consequences to high energy consumption is a way for us to move electricity from something in the background to something very present. Physical resistance - To some degree physical resistance is also a consequence, but in our case we think of it as making users consciously aware of an action. An example could be making the resistance greater and thereby harder to turn when the energy consumption is high. Energy Awareness - We see this property as being the one linking the other properties together. The underlying system makes the different switches react to the overall consumption. This is done in order to involve the other properties i.e. adding time perspective and the physical resistance to a switch. 3.1 Types of switches Timer switch In order to add the concept of time we have used an egg-time. We use its behavior and actions as a starting point for the prototype. The idea of using existing behavior is described by Djadjadiningrat et al. [18]. There is a good coupling between form and function and therefore the action it requires communicates its purpose well. You know what the outcome and result of your action is since it is a well known metaphor. Physical resistance makes it harder for users to turn the switch all the way around and is adjusted accordingly to the amount of electricity currently used in the room. The interesting part is that the overall energy consumption of a room influences the switch and triggers consequences. If the consumption is high and many appliances are turned on at the same time, the timer will turn faster and thereby making the time-interval elapse more rapidly. Wheel-shaped switch Is basically based on the same idea as the Egg-timer, but instead of having a timer showing time, a display is showing the remaining time like battery time on a mobile. In order to fill up the battery and turn on the switch, the user turns the wheel. The more it is turned the more time is filled up. In comparison to the standard way of showing battery time the bar is here green all the time when consumption is low and only red when the overall consumption of the room is high. Thus it is an indicator of the current situation in the room. Besides the above-mentioned, the wheel contains much of the same properties as the egg-timer. It has physical resistance when JANUARY

64 turning the wheel repeatedly to make users aware of their current action. The consequences of repeated actions are a decrease in the amount of energy accumulated per wheel turning. When consumption is high users have to refill time more often and turn the wheel for more rounds. 3.2 Underlying system As mentioned above, the different kinds of switches are coupled to an underlying system that provides digital information in the form of energy consumption. Every room has a switch affiliated and when it is turned on, the user has access to electricity. When there is a shortage of time indicated by the affiliated switch, the users are made aware by automatically turning down the brightness on the computer and turning down the volume of the television. This is an attempt from the system to save energy on behalf of the user, because the user failed to do so. If the user wishes to extend the amount of time, they have to actively interact with the switch. This force the users to choose between the amounts of electrical products turned on at the same time. It is a way to consciously inform the user about the consumption and make them aware of the usage of too many electrical products at the same time. If the time-interval finishes the system automatically turns off all connected appliances, because the system interprets the lack of reactivation as an indication that no electricity is needed and thereby saving energy. 3.3 Scenario 1 The scenario takes place in a young man s dorm room and would typically play out like this: The man comes home from school and wants to relax with some TV. He therefore turns up the timer on the switch to start the use of electricity in his room. He sets the timer for 2 hours, which is when he has to leave again, and turns on the TV. He watches it for 15 minutes before he gets bored and turns on his computer to check some s. He leaves the TV on even though he does not really pay attention to it. In his s he finds some music from a friend and therefore turns on the stereo to listen to it. After about 10 minutes of listening the system starts to act up even though the timer should have an hour left. The reason is because of all the electronics turned on, which makes the timer go faster. The system turns down the audio of the stereo and dims the brightness of the computer and TV. He now actively has to turn up the timer or make it go slower by turning of some devices to give him extra time. If he does not proactively acts the system will at last completely shut the devices off. 1 Link til video prototype Tangible Interaction From the taxonomy of Fishkin [5] we have determined the degree of tangibility of our product based on Metaphor and Embodiment. Metaphor: The physical appearance of our switch is closely related an egg-timer in relation to shape, look and how you operate it. We have added an extra dimension, which is the egg-timer being a switch to activate electricity. If we take a look at the egg-timer metaphor, turning the egg-timer in our system is like turning an ordinary one and therefore our noun and verb are related. Embodiment: The input and output of our product are not closely attached. The input is the switch which turns on the system. The output is around the user and consists of adjusting audio, light and brightness on appliances in the room. This places it as Environmental in the category of Embodiment. As a result of the embodiment type and metaphor type of our prototype, the design has trade-offs in relation to input and output. Because of the environment embodiment the input is less physical than normally expected from tangible interfaces. Some of the output is peripheral to the user, which can make it less noticeable. These can be seen as trade-off in comparison to the model presented by Fishkin [5], but in relation to our project it is not. The peripheral is seen as a way to explore the possibilities of using different types of appliances as feedback. Our product can be compared to Tokens as described by Holmquist et al. [6]. They define tokens as objects that physically resemble the information they represent in some way. The information we try to resemble is electricity and it is done through the physical feedback in switches and feedback shown on objects already present around the user i.e. electrical appliances and products like computer and television. 3.5 Critical Design In the related work section we give a brief introduction to Erratic Appliances and Energy Awareness [10], which introduces products that will behave erratic when the power consumption is too high. Inspired by this approach we want the whole room to work against the user in order to inform them about misuse of the system. The system takes on a critical stance upon the way people behave. This could be seen as a hurdle for the user. But as Dunne point out:... user-unfriendliness does not have to mean user-hostility, what he later refers to as Constructive user-unfriendliness [4]. The constructive part is in our project defined as our good intentions, which is the intention of changing people s habits to the better. The reason why we can label this as 'good' is the fundamental acceptance of changing people s behavior for the good of the greater cause, which is the decrease in CO2 pollution. The unfriendliness refers to the 64 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

65 shift from ease in interaction to a complexified interaction, which decreases efficiency. 3.6 Persuasive Persuasion: an attempt to shape, reinforce, or change behaviors, feelings, or thoughts about issue, object, or actions. [12] Fogg's definition of persuasion has been one of the key concepts in our concept design process, where we have been exploring the design space with inspiration from his captology framework [12]. To give some insight to this process we give an analysis of our concept based on the three notions Levels of analysis, Functional Triad and Intentionality. we put on the users though our prototype and the 'cause' relation is excessive energy consumption. We use this relationship to help communicate that energy consumption has consequences. Looking at the prototype as a tool the key affordance is to shape the users mental model by prompting a pro-environmental behavior pattern. Here the model collide a bit with our critical design approach since Fogg's view on the essence of the tools function is to increase capabilities, whereas our design is decreasing capabilities in a sense, at least in efficiency. This is a result of the system working against the user as described in the Critical Design section. Function Essence Persuasive affordances Computer as tool or instrument Increases capabilities - Reduces barriers (time, effort, cost) - Increases self-efficiency - provides information for better decision making - changes mental models Computer medium as Provides experience - provides first-hand learning,insight, visualization, resolve - promotes understainding of cause/effect relationships - motivates trhough experience, sensation Computer as social actor Creates relationship - establish social norms - invokes social rules and dynamics - provides social support or sanction Figur 1: Three computer functions and their persuasive affordances [12]. Functional Triad: The triad is a model for understanding the role or functional view of the computer system, and in our opinion the most interesting part of Fogg's framework. Fogg presents three function views for the computer. The computer as tool, as medium and as social actor. One view doesn't exclude the others, as different parts of a complex implementation can have different function views and the functions often mix and blur between the different views. Our prototype can be viewed as a mix between media and tool, but by looking at the views separately we try to illuminate the different persuasive affordances the two different views give. Looking at our prototype as a medium, the key affordance is to promote understanding of the cause/effect relationship of using energy. The 'effect' relation is here defined by us as the constraints/limitations Intentionality: The idea of persuasive technology implies an intent to change the behavior of people, thus as Fogg states; persuasion requires intentionality. The question here where the intent for behavioral change comes from, as it can be endogenous; the designer/producer create the product with intend to persuade, exogenous; a person provides the technology to another person with persuasive intent or autogenous; the person adopts a technology in order to change own behavior. These three forms of intention are not mutually exclusive which is very clear when looking at our design, since it contains all three to some degree. The endogenous intent is clear as we, as the designers, want to put focus on pro-environmental behavior. If people were able to buy our product the two other intents would emerge, ex. parents wanting their children to save energy could buy this product for them with exogenous intent, or a student living alone wanting to save on the electrical bill could get it with autogenous intent. Levels of analysis: The level refers to the kind of user group you design for, which could be individual, family, community etc. Our early design ideas evolved around the JANUARY

66 family level in an attempt to unify the household around the concept of energy saving, and utilize the family as an established group of people. We ended up with a focus on the individual level instead simplifying the process of testing our focus group as described earlier. If we instead look at the model presented by Lockton et al. [9], our approach falls within the scope of their three main categories of influencing behavior by design, that is: enabling, motivating or constraining behavior. Here our concept is clearly an approach to constrain the user to 'desirable' behavior by making some actions inexpedient. This forces the user to follow a certain path, or sequence of actions, to avoid undesirable behavior from the system. 4. IMPLEMENTATION The egg-timer prototype is realized with a microcontroller which receives input from a potentiometer and sends output to a servomotor. The potentiometer returns values from 0 to 1000 according to its own position and these values represent a timer position. 0 is when the timer is not activated and 1000 is when it is fully turned. The potentiometer is connected to the same switch as the servo motor and when it turns, the potentiometer turns with it and therefore it is possible to register the time left based on the values returned from the potentiometer. Low values indicate shortage of time, so when the value is low the microcontroller activates processes to dim the light on a computer screen and turn down the volume of a television. To turn down the volume on the TV a remote control has been hacked. In order to mechanically control it, wires have been attached to the needed buttons. To simulate the key press we connected the wires to a switch, controlled by the microcontroller. When the switch is turned on, it connects the two wires, which simulates a key press done manually. So when we need to turn the volume down according to the values of the potentiometer the microcontroller rapidly turns the switch on and off. To make the computer screen dim, the microcontroller is in serial connection with a laptop where a Java application has been programmed. The microcontroller communicates the values of the potentiometer as an output to the computer. The Java program then translates it into integers and dims the light accordingly. This is effectively done by creating a black image that fits the screen and reducing the opacity of the image according to the values returned by the potentiometer. Two buttons has been connected to represent the computer and the television. When one button is pressed the television or computer is turned on respectively and the servo motor begins to turn down the time. When the other button is pressed the other device is turned on and a signal is sent to the servo, which makes it go faster and thus turning down the timer faster. If one of the devices is turned off by pressing the button again the servo motor is again signaled and turns down the speed by which it turns down the timer. Picture 1. The inside of the prototype Picture 2: Prototype 5. EVALUATION OF PROTOTYPE Six people between 20 and 25 were invited to test our prototype. The prototype only functions with the products we have hacked and therefore the setting was a controlled environment. It resembles an ordinary room with television, computer and pieces of furniture. We divided the people into two groups and evaluated the prototype over two days. The first consisted of people without prior knowledge in IT while the second consisted of fellow students acting as experts. They were all asked to carry out 2 simple tasks. Turn on the power and watch TV. Turn on the power of the computer and use it without turning off the TV. The intention of performing the two tasks was to test the feedback and watch the reaction of the participants. Afterwards we gave them questions to elaborate upon their experience with the prototype. 66 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

67 First test run: The participants were introduced to the brief introduction of the prototype. They were not told about our concept or how to operate the prototype, but it was clarified what the different buttons did. Specifically they were told that the top button is used to turn on the power and the buttons below are for the television and computer. After the brief information they were asked to carry out the 2 tasks. In the first test run the focus was on the immediate response to the feedback and how it was interpreted without anything more than a brief introduction. We observed that none of the test subjects had any problems turning on the power or turning on the products. Because they had no knowledge of the feedback, the participants seemed unsure about the outcome of the test and were looking around the room expecting the worst. When the feedback appeared on the TV/Computer it was clear for the participants that something happened, but they did not immediately connect it to the timer. They all tried to turn up the volume or the brightness, but because of the system they were unsuccessful. Most of the participants figured out the coupling between switch and products, but some did not before the time ran out and the electricity turned off. The participants did not expect the time interval to elapse more rapidly when both computer and TV were turned on, and some time went by before noticing. The questions asked afterward revealed that it was clear to all that they would have access to electricity for the amount of time they turned the switch. Using the egg-timer as a metaphor made the interaction easy and understandable. After turning on the switch they all confirmed that they were unsure what to expect as output and when it became visible they were uncertain how to respond to it. Some participants commented on the connection between electricity usage and turning down the volume when watching television, which they did not see immediately. It worked better with the dim on the computer screen, because it associated them with the feeling that it was running out of battery. Some had trouble seeing the connection between output and switch. Eventually they got it, but our intention was to represent electricity through the artifacts. Second test run: In the second run the participants had knowledge of the technologies used in the project. The test was performed as in the first run, but this time followed by a discussion of the technologies used. The focus in the second test run was not so much on the immediate impressions but on a one-on-one discussion with the experts. This allowed us to involve in a dialogue instead of a strict interview-form. The test mostly served the purpose of introducing the concept to the experts, but many of the issues addressed in the first test run was brought up in the second too. The discussion revealed several points of improvement. Most of them found it hard to relate to the test because it was hard to imagine the impact over time in the short period the test lasted. It was suggested to make a take-home test to get a better feel of the prototype in the real setting. Some brought up the static nature of the prototype compared to the evolvement of the user. It was mentioned if it was possible to follow the improvement of the user in relation to energy consumption. Some of them suggested statistics shown on the computer as a solution, which could show the increase/decrease of the consumption compared to the starting point. The points of interest suggested by the participants from both test runs brought up improvements to be done and taken into consideration in the future work. The improvements we find most relevant will be presented in the future work section. 6. FUTURE WORK Next step is to test our prototype in a real setting over a longer period of time to uncover if it will remain useful and relevant. It is possible that the user eventually just dismisses or finds a workaround to avoid the hurdles of the system. But even more importantly the question is whether or not it makes people behave more pro-environmental and thereby save energy, which is our main goal for the project. The testing of these things would require a more generic prototype, so it easily could be integrated in a new setting, like an individual s own room, as our current prototype is too locked to our equipment being the TV and computer to do this. Our prototype has been tested on individuals and in a controlled environment. It would be interesting to set it free in a family setting and observe which roles the system will take on in a social setting. The roles could imply punishment, motivation, a common goal, all in relation to the wish of decreasing energy consumption in the home. This relates closely to Fogg s different intentionalities described earlier. The only involved products in our prototype are a television and a laptop. Next step would be to involve a broader selection of implicated products and appliances. This could involve the use of stereo systems, kitchen appliances, lamps and other electrical products. As more products get involved, the need for a broader variety of feedback types emerges. Examples of this could be the different products behaving strangely like described in Erratic Appliances [10]. Additionally it could be interesting to move away from the system being static and let it evolve with the user. As the user starts to act more pro-environmental the consequences get less severe. On the other hand if the user returns to old habits, the system will start to act more severe. This would add a whole new dimension as the system constantly would evaluate the users performance and inform the user directly though the severity of the feedback. JANUARY

68 7. CONCLUSION We have explored the possibilities of using technology to change people s habits through a concrete prototype design. The project is inspired by a critical design mindset and realized by persuasive and tangible technology. We have made energy consumption tangible by linking the misuse of products to consequences for the user. This has resulted in an unfriendly design meant to create awareness upon the growing problem of energy and resource consumption in the modern world. The project is therefore not seen as a commercially viable product but more as an artifact producing knowledge. We find it possible to influence people s actions by letting the system take control. The prototype forces the user to make choices when using everyday products and appliances. These choices consists of deciding what products to turn on and how many. Excessive use results in forced attention to the switch in order to avoid consequences from the system. In this way the system forces a certain path of actions for the user to follow. Through the evaluation of the prototype we have tried to find out if the use of electricity has been made graspable and perceivable. The evaluation showed mixed results mainly between the two types of feedback. The visual feedback made it easier to see the coupling between feedback and energy usage, whereas the auditory was not as successful. They found it difficult to relate the lowering of volume to a lower consumption. It is hard to evaluate the effectiveness of the prototype over time, in relation to actually save energy. This requires testing over a longer period of time. People react differently and therefore the test has to include many different types of people, to see if they can adopt this kind of alternative technology. 8. REFERENCES 1. Danmarks-Statistik 2. Petersen, Dane. Steele, Jay. Wilkerson, Joe. Wattbot: A Residential Electricity Monitoring and Feedback System. CHI 2009, April 4-9, 2009, Boston, MA, USA. 3. Ham, Jaap. Cees, Midden. Beute, Femke. Can Ambient Persuasive Technology Persuade Unconsciously? Using Subliminal Feedback to Influence Energy Consumption Ratings of Household Appliances. PERSUASIVE 09, April 26-29, Claremont, California, USA. 4. Dunne, Anthony. Hertzian Tales, Eletronic Products, Aesthetic Experience and Critical Design. RCA CRO Research Publication, Fishkin, P. Kenneth. A taxonomy for an analysis of tangible interfaces. Intel Research Seattle, 1100 NE. 6. Holmquist, L. Redström, J. Ljungstrand, P. Tokenbased access to digital information. 7. Nehmer, Jürgen. Karshmer, Arthur. Becker, Martin. Lamm, Rosemarie: Living Assistance Systems An Ambient Intelligence Approch. ICSE 06, May 20-28, 2006, Shanghai, China. 8. Koskela, Tiiu. Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa: Evolution towards smart home environments: empirical evaluation of three user interfaces. Pers Ubiquit Comput (2004) 8: Lockton, Dan. Harrison, David. Holley, Tim. Stanton, A. Neville. Influencing Interaction: Development of the Design with Intent Method. PERSUASIVE 09, April 26-29, Claremont, California, USA. 10. Ernevi, Anders. Palm, Samuel. Redström, Johan. Erratic Appliances and Energy Awareness. 11. Pierce, James. Odom, William. Blevis, Eli. Energy Aware Dwelling: A Critical Survey of Interaction Design for Eco-Visualizations. OZCHI 2008, Dcember 8-12, Cairns, QLD, Australia. 12. Fogg, BJ. Persuasive Computers: Perspectives and Research Directions. CHI 98, Los Angeles, CA, USA. 13. Gustafsson, Anton. Gyllenswärd, Magnus. The Power-Aware Cord: Energy Awareness through Ambient Information Display. CHI 2005, April 2-7, Portland, Oregon, USA. 14. Holmes, Tiffany. Eco-visualization: Combining Art and Technology to Reduce Energy Consumption.: C&C 07, June 13-15, Washington, DDC, USA. 15. Tiffany Holmes: 7000 Oaks And Counting Midden, C., & Ham, J A Robot That Says Bad! : Using Negative and Positive Social Feedback From a Robotic Agent to Save Energy. HRI 09, March 11-13, 2009 La Jolla, alifornia, USA. 17. Ullmer, Brygg. Ishii, Hiroshi. Emerging Frameworks for Tangible User Interfaces. In Human- Computer Interaction in the New Millenium, August Djajadiningrat, Tom. Wensveen, Stephan. Frens, Joep. Overbeeke, Kees. Tangible produtcs: redressing the balance between apperance and action. Pers Ubiquit Comput (2004) Tækker, Christina. Så Sluk dog. Internationalt nyhedsmagasin cowi 68 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

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71 A Tangible Enhancement of Movie Experiences Kristoffer Moos , Jesper Saugberg Koch & Jonas Harbo Rylund University of Aarhus, Department of Computer Science Aabogade 34, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark {moos, u053112, DANSK ABSTRACT I denne artikel præsenteres et system til at ændre filmoplevelsen i det private hjem. Ved en traditionel filmoplevelse er fokus rettet mod en skærm og det involverer kun de auditive og visuelle sanser. Med teoretisk udgangspunkt, indenfor litteratur i områderne Ambient Media og Tangible User Interface, skabes en iterativ proces. Konceptet bygger på en række små komponenter, som indsat i det private hjem, har til formål at ændre en gyserfilm-oplevelse. Et komponent kan skubbe en bog ned fra en hylde på et givent tidspunkt i filmen. Et andet projekterer billeder op der understøtter filmens handling. Et tredje element giver en følelse af varme i varme scener. Det er her væsentligt at alle komponenter er integreret i det private hjems normale omgivelser. Ved en Wizard of Oz test blev de forskellige elementer testet, diskuteret og evalueret. Herefter lærte vi at systemet ikke nødvendigvis skal være ambient og samtidig hvilke komponenter der gav en god effekt. Desuden efterlyste vores brugere en medvirken, så vi involverede bruger-interaktion i næste brugertest. Systemet giver mulighed for en mere context aware gyserfilms oplevelse, der fysisk inddrager rummet og derfor giver en mere intens oplevelse. Med udgangspunkt i litteratur og brugertest konkluderer vi at et TUI-system kan forbedre filmoplevelsen. ABSTRACT In this paper we present a platform for enhancing the experience of watching movies. Traditionally movies only apply to the visual and auditive modallity and only require the user to focus on what is happening on the screen. With the use of ambient media, we research if this experience can be enhanced by making a tangible system, which involves the whole room. The concept is a number of small components, which can be integrated in a private home and used on 2d films. One component pushes out a book at a specific time in the Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. movie. Another is projecting different images on the ceiling, for example water drips in a bathroom scene. A third component is heating the room in a hot scene. The important part is that all the components have to fit in naturally in a regular living room and interact with already existing objects. We focus on horror movies and through a Wizard of Oz test we test if the concept has substantiality and which components are best suited. After the test we learned that the system does not have to be solely ambient and so we involved interaction for a second user test. The system is set up by the user who will be able to invite friends over for a more context aware horror movie experience that involves the room physically and thereby makes the experience more immersive. Through tests and literature we back up the concept and conclude that a tangible system can enhance a movie experience. Author Keywords Ambient movie experience, ambient media, enhanced movie narratives, immersive movie experience, context aware movie experience. INTRODUCTION Story telling has been improved through history. In ancient times stories were told around a campfire, later on it was told on a stage by actors, then books and for the last century, stories have been told on television and computers. In other words the narrative world has been remediated through time with the technology available. Tangible user interfaces makes it possible to improve the narrative world in new ways and by involving ambient technology in movies, we hope to improve the narrative experience [1]. Bringing in more dimensions in the narrative experience is not a new experiment. Virtual reality have tried to involve the audience and taken advantage of the physical motion employed by humans. However virtual reality is, as the name implies, virtual and does not involve the already existing physical objects of the world [1]. The way we watch a movie has not changed drastically over the years. The most common change is the quality itself. It has changed from black and white to colors, from mono sound to stereo and finally surround sound. Picture quality has gone from normal to high definition and so on. Instead of attempting to improve these existing features, our project is changing the experience of watching movies. We use JANUARY

72 output, which the user syncs with the movie, to bring the viewer a more immersive experience. The introduction of computers allowed narratives to become interactive, through computer games and hypermediacy [2]. However movies are still very popular for telling stories. The experience of watching movies can be improved and ambient media can help to give the audience a more immersive experience [7][9]. Ambient media can be described as technology such as light, sound and movement as a background interface, being used away from the users center of attention and physically placed in the periphery [15]. Figure 1 illustrates this. make the system as passive as possible in order to not distract the user from the movie, which we thought would ruin the experience. After our initial test we changed our focus. We learned that active components would not necessarily ruin the movie, but in fact give a different experience. This swift of focus changes the perspective from solely augmenting the narrative to both augmenting it and creating a new narrative. Methodology Our process is represented in figure 2 and included several methods arranged in chronological sequence: A literature review focusing on the research question and giving ground for the concept; a Wizard of Oz user test with semistructured interviews to determine if the concept had substantiality; an analysis of the user test for inputs to the prototype; an implementation of the prototype to remove the Wizard ; a second user test with the working prototype to test the new ideas and finally an evaluation of the process and design. Figure 1 Center and periphery of the users attention [15]. We want to give the user an enhanced experience when watching a movie, for example Reading the updated news feed while listening to music might provide him with an increased level of satisfaction than just reading the news feed. [5] So even though it will still be the same movie the user is watching we want to enhance the experience with the use of ambient media. Analyzing our own idea in relation to Kenneth P. Fishkin s taxonomy we see that ambient media can be defined as a tangible user interface. Its embodiment is environmental, meaning its output is around the user. Its design metaphor is in a way none, since its output does not correspond to anything in the real world. It does however correspond to what is happening in the movie, another virtual world, so in relation to the movie the design metaphor is what Fishkin s taxonomy describes as a verb, meaning that when something is happening in the movie, something in our system is being performed in that context [16]. Context awareness, when used in terms of software, is devices that use external data to build an awareness of the surroundings. Context awareness takes into account the relationship between the user and their environment [17]. Our system does not use external data, but it requires the user to set it up, so that it fits the room and the movie. So in that sense it is required of the user to make the system context aware. This is essential for the system to work and for the experience to become more immersive. Our first focus was based on passive components. After reading literature of similar projects [2][7][8], we wanted to Figure 2 Timeline of our process RELATED WORK Zachary Pousman and John Stasko describe and classify different terms in the "ambient world" and suggest a new term with a focus on information: "ambient information system" [6]. The term is divided into 4 dimensions: "information capacity, notification level, representational fidelity and aesthetic emphasis". Each dimension can be represented in greater or lesser degree, ranging from high to low. We have placed our output-product in these dimensions, in order to understand where our focus is in terms of the ambient world: The level of information is quiet low. We do not add extra information to the user. The notification level is high since we intend to draw attention from the user then its activated, towards the system. The level of representational fidelity is low, because the information in our system is symbolic or somewhat abstract. The aesthetic emphasis of our product does not make sense to determine, because it is not intended to be seen. In 2002, Ali Mazalek, Glorianna Davenport and Hiroshi Ishii describe a project where they have made a new way of enhancing the story world [1]. Their product consists of a game-board sized screen, with small pawns that explore a world and is telling a story bit by bit. The idea is that narrative experiences can be improved with tangible user interfaces because it combines the physical world with the mental world and therefore further affects our internal 72 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

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