Managing small IT projects and Maintenance tasks

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1 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks Managing small IT projects and Maintenance tasks IT project management supervisors: Claus Seeberg Friis & Diego Børresen Lladó Author / students: Mohammed Ibrahim Mohammed, Semester: Spring 2009 Side 1 af 87

2 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks 1. Introduction Foreword Audience Assumptions Motivation Problem formulation Postulate Limitations Method Method Considerations Theoretical Considerations My reflections and methodological choices Data collec tion and analysis of interview data Selection of participants Reliability and validity Reliability Validity An approach to the Matrix How does the matrix works? Concepts What is a project? What are the characteristics of small IT projects? Categorization and differentiation of projects This is a simple assessment tool that I use to categorize and differentiate between the newly developed and maintenance projects (simple) Similarly, to differentiate between maintenance projects and further development (part delivery) focusing attention on some of the important areas of these Differentiation criteria for project types What are the characteristics of maintenance projects (simple projects)? What are the characteristics of further developing projects? What are the features of the new development - small projects? Management tools CMMI as an Application Development Model Theory about CMMI PRINCE Theory about PRINCE Maturity Maturity The Cases: Post Denmark, KMD and PBS Target Background Post Denmark (PDK) KMD (Payment Business Services ) PBS How do the companies in this case uses the methods in relation to management of small IT projects and maintenance projects? Analysis and messages The challenges of managing small projects Styring af små IT- projekter Side 2 af 87

3 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks 5.3 Analysis of the data collected Qualitative study Preliminary conclusion based on the qualitative study Quantitative study Preliminary conclusion based on the quantitative survey Collection Analysis of questionnaire and survey Conclusion and perspectives Bibliography Appendix Appendix 1: Working Plan Appendix 2: Questionnaires and interview data on CD in Wave format Appendix 3A: CMMI Level / Productivity versus waste Appendix 3B: CMMI Level3 / PRINCE2 project part / waste Appendix 4A: Spread by increasing maturity of supplier Appendix 4B: Spread by increasing the maturity of project owner Appendix 5: Description of CMMI level Appendix 6: PRINCE2 Light Appendix 7: Thanks for your help Side 3 af 87

4 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks 1. Introduction 1.1 Foreword I am product manager and project manager. I and many of my colleagues have been encouraged to get a challenge in relation to use some tools that can help us to manage small IT projects and maintenance tasks. Despite great efforts by management to implement a standard method for managing smaller IT projects and maintenance tasks, it is not yet succeeded. We have all been trained in PRINCE2 (Projects in Controlled Environments) and later in various introductory courses in CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration), but without the success that we wanted. PRINCE2 is used in many companies. It is a structured approach to effectively manage projects to deliver a product, simultaneously uses many companies CMMI, which is a maturity model that establishes a set of requirements for an organization's development processes to achieve a certain maturity level. Maturity levels assessed CMMI on a scale of 1 to 5 We have tried to apply PRINCE2 part, and often with CMMI. The result did not meet our expectations and was not satisfactory. The consequence of that was that many of us have given up trying, and as we used our own models for managing those type of tasks. This problem is why I want to examine whether there are some companies that have good experience in using PRINCE2 or CMMI to manage their small IT projects. The challenge seems to be high, since I have not found existing Danish literature on the subject. The intention of this project is to answer the challenges many companies faces by using PRINCE2 and CMMI in order to managing of small IT projects, and provide any suggestions for improvement regarding which tools can be used and when, a kind of roadmap. 1.2 Audience The primary target audiences are all companies involved in managing IT projects, whether it is large or small, whether it deals with maintenance tasks, or a new system. Companies could use this report as an inspiration to adjustments. The secondary target audience is IT professionals (IT project managers, IT product manager, IT management, etc..) That has an interest in gaining an insight into both technical and business challenges by implementing CMMI and /PRINCE2 and their interactions, even in compared to the control of small IT projects. Side 4 af 87

5 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks 1.3 Assumptions It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge about PRINCE2 and CMMI as a concept, but also readers without that could benefit from the report, since it describes the relevant theory, where it is relevant to the investigations. 1.4 Motivation My motivation to do this job about the management of small IT projects and maintenance tasks using the CMMI and PRINCE2, arising out of that I know of no standard approach to managing this type of IT projects. Once we have directly tried to use CMMI and PRINCE2, the result has not been satisfactory. The causes are addressed in Section 6 What I have reached will be interesting to explore and examine some of these tools in some selected Danish companies, the following matters: The need for management of small IT projects and maintenance tasks The tools used (if they are using CMMI, PRINCE2 or anything else) The strengths and weaknesses of the tools that businesses use I will task [Section 6] address the above points. 1.5 Problem formulation Initially, I discussed the claim that businesses and especially Post Denmark is experiencing challenges, both in connection with implementation of PRINCE2 and / or CMMI compared to the control of small IT projects. What I want to get to is whether the above two frame works are also suitable for controlling small projects, including maintenance projects. My question is about CMMI and PRINCE2 framework works can be used to manage small IT projects, so that small projects do not become so expensive in relation to the purpose, while they must be steerable relative to the estimate, delivery and quality. This means that it will be possible to follow up the development process. The above issues have led to the following postulate, which will be my primary focus during the task. The claim will be definitively answered in sections 5 and Postulate My claim is based on experiences in relation to my work. Also, I have throughout my education and work experience, the basis for selecting relevant theories that can substantiate my premise is: CMMI and PRINCE2 framework works cannot be used for managing small projects. This I will in the subsequent attempt to confirm or deny. Side 5 af 87

6 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks 1.6 Limitations Described below are areas that will not be covered in this Thesis and the choices I have made and the reasons. These limits are part of the project resources to do when I'm alone on the task, and partly with my daily work experience with the use of PRINCE2 and CMMI. The survey covers only CMMI project management level 2 and not Level 3 and 4, since there are few companies in Denmark, which is at those levels. I will not focus on other project management methods and tools, including XP, SCRUM, iterative and Agile, in this context, due to lack of resources. I have chosen to minimize coverage of theory about the two subjects; therefore, my focus will be directed to areas where I think theory is relevant to the investigation. Since I have only completed the study with a limited number of companies focusing on PRINCE2 and CMMI, it cannot be excluded that an even broader study would give deviations in relation to my study. My study does not address the cost of standard systems, since the topic is not treated here. And it only deals with the large and medium enterprises. Small businesses are not included, since it will not pay for them to invest the learning of a method to be used a few employees. The project focuses basically on only three companies, Post Denmark, KMD and PBS, and based on the use of CMMI and PRINCE2 for managing small projects. These companies are among the major in Denmark I would therefore emphasize here that when I mention the implementation of PRINCE2 and CMMI in companies, I would probably think big and medium sized companies in Denmark, who can afford to implement and they have also small projects / tasks and maintenance projects enough to consider investing in some frame work to control it. To classify firms into large, medium and small firms, I choose to use hiring criteria and their employment as described in a report from the Swedish Institute for Regional Research [SIR - The Institute for Regional Research, Report 98, 1996]. And acc. the definition of SMEs according to the adopted EU classification as follows: Micro Enterprises: 0-9 employees small enterprises: employees medium-sized enterprises: employees (split into and ) big business: more than 500 employees I opted to transcribe interviews were due to lack of resources. Side 6 af 87

7 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks 2. Method This section describes the method which I have chosen to use for this task. The aim is to support my studies while enabling answering the questions I asked in the assignment problem formulation. 2.1 Method Considerations Theoretical Considerations In science there are two relevant principal directions, positivism and hermeneutics (the science of interpreting texts sense) to this topic: Positivism : based on facts and not perceptions. Things should be measured and weighed and there are strict requirements for evidence. Thus, positivism characterized by the use of quantitative methods, such as can be questionnaires. According to the positivist direction, people have two ways to recognize the fact - that we can observe with our senses and we can calculate using our logic. The information we receive through the senses, is the basis of the empirical cognition. It is through this that we can establish what the facts are. Hermeneutics: used in the humanities and social sciences. It is a hermeneutics in which interpretation of others' experiences from their own memories and experiences. Hermeneutics is characterized by using qualitative methods such as interviews, observations or historical studies. The table below shows some of the advantages and disadvantages which are respectively the qualitative - and quantitative method, and to make it out of the analysis I have undertaken in this area. Based on the form, do I then decide which method I think is most suited for my job. Qualitative methodology - Hermeneutics Benefits The interview is open, there may be broad question and it is comparable to a conversation. I see it as an advantage because the dialogue is two-way communication. This means that I can, for example. Substantiate the first question with additional questions, and thereby gain a deeper understanding of any subject. Qualitative interviews are suitable when the purpose is to describe and understand the interviewee's world. Strength is the ability to have a depth and detailed understanding of the problem / phenomenon is studied. Disadvantages Data from the few respondents would not provide a representative result which by quantitative methods. Quantitative method- Positivism Answer quantitative questions. Interviewing many people in a short time. anonymity There can be compiled statistics on data collection, and quantitative research methods are the aim to generalize. Can be hard to get people to answer questionnaires. They may choose to dodge some of the questions or answer them in a Side 7 af 87

8 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks The quality of data collection is very dependent on the individual interviews and makes great demands on interviewers' skills. Systematization and analysis of the collected data is very laborious. Table 1: Method Consideration Source: Self developed specifically for this task way that they are not usable My reflections and methodological choices I have chosen to do a study based on interviews [Annex 2] of selected employees in the three companies. For this purpose I have prepared a questionnaire. I will initially hold personal interviews with those officers also use tape recorder, where I note their answers into the forms and find it on tape. I will re write respondents were also using the tapes and then I send the form to them so they are able to check the contents. I will, in other words, choose to take advantage of both the qualitative method and quantitative method, for through it to create a dialogue that is based on 2-way communication. This is important in light of that I hereby given an opportunity to ask further questions, if not answers to specific questions from the questionnaire is sufficiently justified. I also get the opportunity to "dig" deeper into a topic where, for example. proves that the company has made some exciting initiatives that I have not covered in the first survey question. By simultaneously applying the quantitative method, I support myself to the facts that in all likelihood can be considered safe. Then, the facts are analyzed logical for there to draw inferences. The two types of data, qualitative and quantitative, will often complement each other so that together they illustrate and cover a larger part of the problem formulation than a study that uses only one form of data Data collection and analysis of interview data I choose to avail myself of interviews with selected employees in the selected companies, and I will illustrate how I will choose to analyze my data. The article "Qualitative research interview" has the following views on the analysis of audio tapes: "Data processing can be done by analyzing the audio or you can choose to print the interviews in full length. Method choice will depend on how the data material to be analyzed "[2]. The article "Assessment of qualitative articles" describing such as follows: "In qualitative research should explain clearly and completely the methods used for data analysis, since part of the study's validity rests on this description," [1]. For that using the above recommendations from the two articles, I will make the following selections: Side 8 af 87

9 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks I will use sound recordings in connection with the holding of my interviews. The advantage of using tape recordings is that I want the whole interview on tape. I can return to the tapes to listen to the interview again, and thus have worked my interview thoroughly. To support my compilation, I choose to write down the answers from my interview in a template with the background of my recordings from the audio guide. This template will also be my interview guide (Appendix 2). The article "Assessment of qualitative articles" describing such as follows: "It's an absolute criterion of quality that made a systematic data analysis so that results are not generated randomly based on what the researcher by a quick perusal found interesting" [1]. I will choose to relate myself to this; I have systematically worked with the answers and information I have gained from the interviews. If I find out I'm missing a clarification on some of my questions, I will return to my contacts in the selected companies I will work iteratively with my analysis of interview data, and know I can always return to my tapes and my contact person in the selected companies, I have the best opportunities for a good working of the data Selection of participants The articles "Qualitative research interview" and "Assessment of qualitative articles" describing such following some qualitative studies and participants for these studies: "The purpose of selecting participants for a qualitative interview study is that the researcher will have such an information-rich material as possible, which illuminates the problem of sufficient width and depth. One should aim at getting such a nuanced and varied picture of the problem as possible "[2] "In qualitative studies aimed Mon qualitative representation; it means that the researcher considers the causal field. Participants will, through their various qualitative characteristics provide an opportunity to look at different aspects and nuances of the subject field "[1] "Important that participants represent the qualities that are important in relation to the problem. And it is likely that participants can illustrate the problem "[1] "The number of participants is not crucial for the study quality, but depends on the research question "[1] In the selection of individuals within companies to my interviews, I will try and reply to the above recommendations. I will arrange an interview meeting with my chosen interviewee in the selected companies. I would choose to limit the interviews to address the respective management of small IT projects and maintenance tasks in respect of the interviewees' busy schedules. Side 9 af 87

10 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks I held interviews with: these companies' IT department, Post Denmark (PDK), KMD & PBS. That companies the project manager, responsible approach Reliability and validity Reliability Reliability is based on the survey methodology, including data base, is trustworthy, so that coincidences do not affect the result. I.e. the same measurement can be repeated with the same result by different researchers, and they still could categorize the result the same. In the book Theory for Beginners: "If you count right, if it fairly successfully eliminate ti1fæ1digheder if several investigators using the same method to get the same result, so the study has high reliability. [2] As mentioned in Section 1.6 Boundaries, build my data based on interviews of selected employees in these companies. I want to address that there is some uncertainty over whether it is credible information that I have to work with. I must assume that there is an uncertainty over the credibility of the data relative to the interviewees in these companies. In the table below, I will elaborate on this. The book "Theory for Beginners" describes among other things as follows: "Interview form may affect reliability if you ask leading questions or openly express their own views in relation to questioning, interviews requiring routine. In interviews, you can get out that there is a lack of trust from the interviewed person to the questioner. It may be that the person is equivalent crazy, or what he thinks questioner even think about the subject. It may also be that the interviewee is trying to impress the questioner "[3]. I think the above is also important to have in the overall assessment of my data base is credible. You can never be quite sure whether the emergence of the necessary confidence, and if I get the right answer. I will strive to earn the trust of the people interviewed and also make them aware that the information I obtain will not be communicated further if they choose not to Validity Validity implies that the measurement provides comprehensive and valid information about what we want to investigate and to empiricism (observation) is adequate for the theory (concepts) content, and that measurement is representative and can be used generally over similar objects. The book "Theory for Beginners" describes among other things as follows: Validity implies that one has really studied what one would look and nothing else. [2] The article "Qualitative research interview" describes among other things as follows: Side 10 af 87

11 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks "Validity means that 'whether a study investigates it, or the phenomena it was meant to explore." Validity generally cannot be measured but can be argued and discussed "[2]. The concept of validity has various aspects: "For example. to be mentioned relevance. - The methods are for example relevant to the project's problem? Is the theoretical framework appropriate to describe the study's key concepts? Pragmatic validity should also be noted that cuts to what extent the developed knowledge can be used by others "[2]. Emne Credibility Alternative Case: I have chosen to gather information about the management of small IT projects in the three selected companies. I could have chosen to include some more of this through to get a more comprehensive and nuanced view of the project, but this would also have increased the time and resource pressures in the company. Interviews I chose to interview a limited number of persons engaged in the processes of the aforementioned companies. The interviewees have all been working directly with project management for a long time. They have built up here through the skills and experience which in itself provides a certain level of credibility in relation to having to interview them. This choice is made based on a desire to limit the scope of the assignment, of a purely temporal reasons This means that in my information gathering will be a risk that I do not get the really correct information, maybe better write that you are risking the information is not as wide and varied representation, as in a larger and broader range of interviewees, however offset by the elect skills If I should have had a more accurate picture, I could have chosen to interview people in some other companies where similar IT management also takes place. It had to be some companies where their work with maintenance tasks or small IT projects were of a certain size to be comparable as possible with this selected case. Had I chosen this angle of attack, I'd be able to compare the interviews with each other. This could be all things being equal, have achieved a greater credibility in the analysis of data from the study. Table 2: Validation Source: Self developed specifically for this task Side 11 af 87

12 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks I have chosen to relate myself to the above claims / definitions from the literature. To work with validity in my study, I have chosen to compare and discuss these companies case study against the theory says about the topics. I have been based on three literary books that relate to management of small IT projects and maintenance projects. 2.3 An approach to the Matrix In an attempt to find answers to my problem formulation FAQs in section [1.5], I ask the following questions: Why does not the formalized methods for all kinds of projects, large or small, when we know that it will reduce the risk of project failure? Any project management objective is to have control of costs. They are working on having the lowest possible cost and less overhead. If we take the PRINCE2 as an example, acc. Larry Webber & Frederick Webber of the book "IT project management essentials," "PRINCE2 kill excessive overhead for small and medium-sized efforts". It makes no sense economically to use the full version of the formalized approach to managing smaller IT projects. Even in those organizations where there is a degree of tolerance and acceptance to have overhead, sees such organizations, however, that this is only appropriate for a transitional period. In the context of the problem may be very difficult to find the appropriate version of a formalized method to be used to control any small IT tasks. This is because it is a huge challenge to find a balance between the use of the formalized methods while avoiding or minimizing the overhead that goes with it. In an attempt to find the above balance, we should seek answers to following questions: "Which elements of the formal methods can be reduced or omitted in relation to small projects?" There is no simple answer to this. Even small projects vary greatly in type and style, and have the same characteristics or requirements. When the overall purpose of the formal methods can be considered to reduce the risk that the project fails, it will be regarded as taking a risk when any element of these methods would be relaxed or removed. One can prepare a PRINCE light or mini CMMI that can be used to control any small IT projects. This will not be optimal, since, as I have mentioned before, even small projects vary greatly in type and style. That is a mini CMMI or PRINCE light would be suitable for a small IT project but maybe not for another project. This also applies to other methods, with a full version of these methods are also intended for larger projects where there is room for overhead, because application of the full version outweighs the overhead that may follow. I have therefore chosen the following matrix approach as a solution from the book "PRINCE2 Revealed" by Colin Bentley [7]. Matrix is flexible so that it can be applied to any kind of small IT Side 12 af 87

13 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks projects. Elements in the matrix can be adapted for all small projects. In this way the solution can be used as an essential part of a comprehensive standardized procedure consisting of the matrix, and workflows that are designed to find the optimal alignment method for the formalized methodologies (CMMI / PRINCE2, etc.). Thus it becomes possible to reduce overhead while that one can observe the three existing requirements (delivery within budget delivery within the deadline and delivery of the agreed quality) How does the matrix works? "The matrix can be a very useful guide for what levels of PRINCE2 controls are necessary for a project that does not" deserve "full work". [7] The assumptions in order to use this method is that we know the customer's requirements and project characteristics. At the same time you must decide which inspections and follow-up items that are seen to be necessary. Within the matrix marks the project's properties (duration, deadline to be met, and / or budget to be respected, quality, project organization, estimate / resources, etc.), and by defining the controls that are needed for the project (if to be steering, Product Breakdowns, Gantt, etc.) You get a list of the elements / processes of the method's full version as the supervisor and the customer must approve. The matrix can be changed so that other project properties added / removed, and other project processes are removed and added. Conditions/Features of Proposed Project Complex Dependencies? Critical Deadlines? Culture Change? Duration up to 5 weeks? Duration between 5 weeks and 3 months? Y Y Y Y Y Duration greater than 3 months? Effort greater than 180 days? Management spread over two or more sites? More than 2 User Teams? More than 20 major end products? Resource Intensive? Estimated Spend > 5000? Estimated Spend > ? Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Control Elements Required Business Case Statement of Benefits [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Full Business Case [ ] Organization Side 13 af 87

14 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks Project Board [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Delegation of Executive's Project Assurance role [ ] Delegation of Senior Supplier's Project Assurance role [ ] Delegation of Senior User's Project Assurance role [ ] [ ] Use of Team Manager(s) Planning Stage Plans, ESA's &Highlight Reports [ ] [ ] Product Descriptions [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Product Breakdowns & Product Flows [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Network Analysis (Critical Path Analysis) [ ] Gant Charts [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Controls Statement of Tolerances [ ] Highlight Reports [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Use of Checkpoints Full Project Change Control [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Risk Assessment Checklist [ ] End Project Report [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Post-Project Review Lessons Learned Report [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Table 3:Matrix approach Source: [7] For example, if you have a project with critical deadlines, so is the use of the Gantt chart, a truly "must have" The matrix works as follow First you have to consider whether a particular condition is applicable to the project you are working on. Certain conditions, such as policies on the project's approval is based on certain financial thresholds may be necessary for your organization to define. When one condition applies, you must then follow the row to 'Y', and then follow the column down to the bottom half of Table 3, labeled "control elements that are necessary." Here you will find the control elements that will complement even the smallest management environment. The matrix indicates the ' 'that the use o condition. A '[ ]'indicate do not use it for your project An example from the book One project, for example, 'Two critical requirements / the first are a total effort (estimate) greater than 180 days' and the second is that changes will result in a change in culture. If we follow the two colons all the way down and combine the results, it will result in the recommended mix of controls in the table below. Side 14 af 87

15 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks Note that with the new conditions, some of the elements have been promoted to "highly desirable" status (e.g. Project board), plus some new ones introduced (e.g. a full business case). Note: The mode 'More than 20 major products' means that more than twenty products are large enough to be identified in the project plan, and there will be a report about them to the steering committee. Desirable Phase Plan Statement of Tolerance Resource plan Business case Participation of the supplier Project assurance role Change management Completion Report Post-project review Highly desirable Steering committee Gantt charts, project plan Product Description. PBW product break downs Gantt Report Project Plan Status report Statement of benefits purposes of the assignment User assurance Table 4: Matrix approach Source: [7] 3. Concepts The structure of how I want to work with the analysis of my collected data is reflected in the following sections: Section 3 is built up of several tracks. In track, where I give definitions of a project [Section 3.1], characteristics of small IT projects [Section 3.2], Categorization and differentiation of projects [Section 3.3] Differentiating Criterion for project types [section 3.3.1], Characteristics of maintenance projects (simple projects) [section 3.3.2], the definition of additional development projects [section 3.3.3], definition of new development projects - small projects [section 3.3.4], and a section dealing with management tools [section 3.4]. This section will help us to create a similar structure to the analysis of these areas. 3.1 What is a project? A project is temporary A project is unique Characterized by progressive development i.e. developed incrementally, and grows in detail A management environment that is created with the purpose of delivering one or more business products according to a specified business case. 3.2 What are the characteristics of small IT projects? When is a small project? Does it cost that determines the - one million kr.? Or body size, which determines it? Side 15 af 87

16 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks Perhaps the project's temporal length, which determines it - less than 6 months? The following are my suggestions for the definition of small projects: A project that takes less than 6 months Has less than 3 team members Involve limited areas Have a single goal and solutions that are achievable With a narrow scope & definition Does a single business units and has a simple decision maker Costs less than 300 hours This is described further below. 3.3 Categorization and differentiation of projects This is a simple assessment tool that I use to categorize and differentiate between the newly developed and maintenance projects (simple). Similarly, to differentiate between maintenance projects and further development (part delivery) focusing attention on some of the important areas of these Differentiation criteria for project types There are several other ways to differentiate IT projects, for example user "Cadle & Yates 'projects' purpose as differentiation factor. On the way they categorize IT projects for nine types including: Software development Package implementation System enhancements System Migration Disaster recovery Infrastructural projects Small project. And Biering-Sorensen differentiates projects like the following: Long term - a few years routine and predictable Outcome unknown Short term - a few weeks. While divides KMD projects A, B and C projects - based on project complexity. The following model is another way to differentiate projects at: Side 16 af 87

17 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks Differentiatingsparameter New developed further maintenance Large projects Small projects developed projects projects 1 Time limited >6 months Max. 6 Max 6 months. Max. 6 months months 2 Project organization >=10 Max. 10 Max 10. Max. 5 (the nr. of the participants) 3 Subject areas Several Minor business Less One business area area 4 Interfaces to other systems Can be Limited Limited Very limited multiple systems 5 How many business area Can be Simple Simple Simple will be affected several 6 How many decision-taking, Can be Simple Simple Simple the project has? several 7 Cost in hours >2500 Max Max 2500 Max Table 5: Source: Self developed specifically for this task What are the characteristics of maintenance projects (simple projects)? With this headline, I think error correction of the existing system. Since, there is full documentation and an existing base organization that undertakes the operation of the application. Errors in the system are treated during maintenance task and business budgets every year for this kind of tasks. Normally we are not dealing this kind of tasks as projects even if they produce a unique product because of their size, and duration. That's because they do not require the same formalities as large projects require. To treat this type of tasks as projects gives you as a project opportunity for a better definition of expectation, better resource management and more effective use of these resources. There is another argument for this type of task to be treated as projects. It is that such tasks as large projects must also achieve the three goals, delivering on time and with the right quality, and adherence to budget. That is, you do not wish violation of the estimate for a small project, delivering something the customer did not order or delivery much later than has been agreed. For this kind of jobs there is less focus example. to: Stakeholder analysis Security Communication framework is already established Configuration management - application exists and is managed today. Business case Project contract - there is a maintenance agreement But on the other hand, there is much focus on Change Management. Side 17 af 87

18 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks What are the characteristics of further developing projects? By this I mean when you add extra functionality / new interface with other systems to an existing system. But here I am talking about an addition of one single or a few new features to the existing application What are the features of the new development - small projects? It would create a project organization dedicated to creating a new application that supports the customer's business purpose. If you have not already, everything should be constructed from project organization to the completed application. Small IT projects, some companies will not be regarded as a project because of their size, duration and focus. It is a problem, because you risk that the process will fail if the supervisor does not manage it via general project management processes. Others try to fit small IT projects into the process and the tools that are designed for large projects. This is also problematic since it is likely to be redundant and a waste of time and resources if this option is selected. I choose the above categorizations because they suit the purpose of this project, namely to deal with small IT projects, i.e. it refers to projects where estimates, timing and number of participants is crucial for the project, while "Cadle & Yates categorizations projects generally focus on areas in which implementation of these projects. 3.4 Management tools During this I will describe only CMMI Level 2-3 and PRINCE2, because project management practices are common between these two methods. [Annex 3]. When there are not many companies in Denmark have been certified to level 3, I will deal with PRINCE 2 and CMMI level 2. I have chosen these formal methods, partly because I use them in my work both when I manage major projects as project manager and / or when I manage small IT projects such as product manager at Post Denmark, and secondly I could get in touch with some companies that also using CMMI. I have chosen to describe these two formal methods only to give an idea about them CMMI as an Application Development Model Theory about CMMI CMM is a model for developing processes and identifying the key practices required to increase the maturity needed for the software improvement process, but does not give CMM processes themselves or process descriptions. The model can be used to define process improvement lenses (objectives) and priorities, improve processes and provide guidance for ensuring stable, capable and mature processes General information about CMMI maturity level 2 Why do I restrict myself to CMMI Level 2 & PRINCE2? because: Side 18 af 87

19 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks 1) There are not many companies in Denmark have been certified to level 3-5 2) CMMI Level 2 & 3 and PRINCE2 project management have in common [See Annex 3 B] These include the following elements: CM - Configuration Management REQM - Requirements Management MA - Measurement and Analysis PPQA - Process and Product Quality Assurance PMC - Project Monitoring and Control PP - Project Planning SAM - Supplier Management Agreement As is detailed in [Annex 5] PRINCE2 I, along with a mate tried to prepare a mini version of PRINCE2 to manage small IT projects, but without success. We have named the PRINCE Light. [Appendix 6] We did not get the endorsement of our other colleagues and managers about our trials, and the idea died, but I always believed that you can do PRINCE 2 scalable at some ways. I got a confirmation of my thoughts about the PRINCE 2 can be scalable, since I had been approached by my supervisor about the book "PRINCE2 Revealed" by Colin Bentley Theory about PRINCE2 PRINCE2 is a process-based project management methodology that is scalable to meet organizations' requirements, depending on project complexity and risk. A central concept in the PRINCE2 method is that the projects are broken down into manageable phases so that the effective management of resources and regular progress monitoring throughout the project. The project manager has control of a project on a day-to-day basis in a phase, so long as the projects are kept within tolerances defined by the project steering committee. Project planning using PRINCE2 is product-based which means that the project plans are focused on delivering results and not simply about planning when the various activities in the project will be performed. PRINCE2s process model consists of eight different management processes, from getting the project off on the right track through to control and manage the project development to completion of the project. The common Planning (PL) process is used by four of the other processes. The eight processes in PRINCE2 process model are: 1. Starting a Project (SU) is the first process in PRINCE2. It is a pre-project process to ensure that the prerequisites for initiating the project are in place. The process expects the existence of a project mandate that defines a large extent as the basis for the project and what the product is required. The process should be very short. 2. Manage a Project (DP). Taking aim at the project board, a group of senior decision makers representing industry, users and suppliers. The project board trustee of the exception, monitors via reports and controls through a series of decision points. 3. Initiating a Project (IP). Target planning and costing projects, audit and certify business cases, and if a baseline for decision making, once approved by the project board. The main products of this Side 19 af 87

20 Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks process is the project initiation document that defines what, why, whom, when and how the project. 4. Management of the phase transition. Managing Stage Boundaries (SB) produces the information that the project board will make important decisions about whether to proceed with the project or not. Activities in this process should verify that all products are planned in the current plan has been implemented as required, provide the project board and other information necessary to approve the current phase is completed, allow the beginning of the next phase, and record any measurements or lessons which can help later stages of this and / or other projects. The main product of this process is completed phase report provided by the project manager for the project board, which contains information on the stage results, a revised project plan and a plan for the next phase. 5. Control of a phase. Controlling a Stage (CS) are the activities that should be implemented by a project manager to manage the work, react to events and report to the project steering committee 6. Management of product supply. Managing Product Delivery (MP) consists of those processes in connection with the establishment and delivery of products. This involves the specification and acceptance of work packages and team management activities in defining, delivering and accepting work packages. 7. Closing a project. Closing a Project (CP) are the processes required by the project manager's work to wrap up the project either at its end or at an early close. Most of the work is to prepare input to the project board to get confirmation that the project can be completed. 8. Planning (PL), the processes required for development plans at various stages in the project lifecycle. All projects must address each of these processes in one form or another. But the key to a successful application of the model is to tailor it to the needs of the individual project. Each process should be approached with this question: How should this process is extensively used for this project? In addition, PRINCE2 describes a number of components used for the relevant activities. PRINCE2 provides guidance on how each affects the project and provides guidance on when and how to solve the problems that are part of the various processes. The components include a business case, organization (project team, responsibilities and relationships), plans (project plan, stage plan, team plan, quality plans, except plan) and control (e.g. to monitor progress, detect problems), risk management, quality of project management, configuration management and change control. 3.5 Maturity Maturity Ability to develop software is measured as efficiency, effectiveness, accountability at some designated areas. That is what is called the organization's maturity. Implicit in this is that with maturity comes the ability to develop software effectively. That maturity is a high probability to implement IT-enabled business projects, so they give the expected value - with such a low level of risk as possible. Acc. IT and Telecom Agency under the Ministry of Science: Side 20 af 87

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