TOO LATE? An Analysis of Borrowers Increased Risk in the Danish Housing Market Downturn. St u d e n t s:

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1 TOO LATE? An Analysis of Borrowers Increased Risk in the Danish Housing Market Downturn Master Thesis MSc in Economics and Business Administration Applied Economics and Finance Department of Finance St u d e n t s: Ianina Sohova henriette Rasmussen Walsh Submission Date: 10 August 2009 Supervisor: Jens Lunde Copenhagen Business School 2009

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3 Executive Summary The final project of the Applied Economics and Finance Programme has been defined as an analysis of borrowers increased risk in the Danish housing market downturn. The housing market experienced an increase in transactions and prices from 1993 to the end of The analysis of the house price development cannot be explained just by fundamentals. We have found evidence of the existence of a housing bubble. The bust of the bubble has dramatic consequences for the society as a whole, and in particular on ordinary people (in our case borrowers). The work carried out was split into desk research and field research. The desk research conducted on the basis of the published secondary data gave a general overview about the development of the Danish housing and financial markets. However, the field research gave a better understanding of the problem, and illustrated the hardship of the situations that actual people found themselves in. The analysis of the consequences on a macro and micro level underlined the linkage between the housing market and the rest of the economy. Theoretical analysis of the risks in the housing downturn with the support of empirical evidence determined that the main risk is a loss of income due to different circumstances (unemployment, divorce, illness, etc). Double housing and exposure to volatility of the short interest rate when choosing ARM are considered as new features of risk in the current downturn of the housing market. The downturn of the housing market does not change the risks of borrowers radically, but it makes them more pronounced due to a high level of uncertainty and unpredictability. 1

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5 Foreword First of all we want to thank our family and friends for all the support and help you have given us during our long journey of thesis writing. We would not have been able to do it without you! Second our thanks also goes to our Supervisor, Jens Lunde, who has provided us with many invaluable inputs and ideas. Thanks for all the time you have given us, and thanks for all the great discussions, which have been the stepping-stone for the end result of this thesis. We also want to thank Bo for his incredible work with the layout. You definitely have a magic touch. And thanks to Steen for rescuing us in the end with the layout, due to Bo s absence. Last but not least we want to thank all our interviewees. Without their stories this thesis would not have been complete. So thank you all!

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7 1. Introduction Problem Statement Methodology Research Design Collection of Data Structure of the Study Definitions Demarcation Sources and Criticism of Sources Part I: Prior to the Downturn and the Turning Point Structural Changes in the Owner-Occupied Housing Market Development of Prices and Sales of Real Property Can Demographics Give an Answer? The Stability in the Owner Occupation Pattern More Space for Each Occupant The Supply of Housing Sub Conclusion Danish Economy with a Perspective of the Housing Market Expansion of the Danish Economy Impact of Tax Reform Increase in Labour Market Participation Beneficial Development of the Interest Rate Gap between Housing Prices and Wages Equity Withdrawal Sub Conclusion The Development in the Mortgage Market The Mortgage Industry Development of Mortgage Products The Fight for Market Share Consultancy A Conflict of Interest Sub Conclusion House Price Boom and the Bubble Theory Housing Prices Can Housing Prices Be Explained by Fundamentals or Was There A Bubble? The Busted Bubble Sub Conclusion Part II: Hard Consequences Macro-economic Influences What is the Current Economic Situation in the Downturn? How are the Housing Market and the Rest of the Economy Interlinked? Sub Conclusion Borrowers and the Downturn The Risks of Different Mortgage Types Too High Loans Negative Equity Refinancing and Credit Crunch Double Housing Building Projects... 86

8 Sub Conclusion Case Studies Reality Bites General Findings Case Study One Double housing Case Study Two The Divorce Case Study Three Bridging Loans and Double Housing Case Study Four Own Building Project Case Study Five Unemployment Sub Conclusion Arrears and Foreclosures Cases of Foreclosures Sub Conclusion Part III: The Housing Downturn Now and Then A Comparison Similarities and New Features Do we ever learn? Sub Conclusion Conclusion The Most Important Findings and Answers Perspectives Bibliography

9 1. Introduction The housing market experienced a boom in transactions as well as prices that has no comparison to anything seen before. The upturn lasted from 1993 till 2007, with a nominal price increase of 241%, or by 207% in real prices. This is illustrated by a quarterly price index for single-family houses from the third quarter of 1993 till the third quarter of 2007 (Statistics Denmark). The peak in transaction volume was reached in the fourth quarter of Prices reached an all time high in the third quarter of 2006 for flats, and in the third quarter of 2007 for single-family houses (Statistics Denmark). Since then, the housing market has been in a drastic decline that has dramatic consequences. From earlier downturns, we know that it not only has an impact on the society as a whole, but also on ordinary people (in our cases borrowers), which will be our main focus in this paper. Borrowers are affected to various extents by the downturn; some are obviously affected more than others. They have terminated my loan...the situation is untenable because it means that they want all the money back in a lump sum. I can risk that I m taken to bailiff s court, even though I paid all my payments so far 1. We have taken different risks into account however, we could not predict a situation, where both of us were laid off at the same time... emotionally it was the most difficult situation 2. The statements are from interviews with people who are feeling the consequences of the downturn, and the seriousness of the topic becomes even clearer. The two citations are in stark contrast to various reports that until recently stated that the economic situation of Danish households could be considered as still fundamentally sound (EIU. DK: Country Report, 2008), and the landing would be soft (Madsen, 2008; BRF Kredit, 2006). 1 Appendix Appendix

10 However, the statements have become redundant. Denmark has experienced two crashes before, and , with a maximum fall in real house prices of 37% from the peak to the end of the crash (Girouard et al., 2006). This was the downturn in , which lasted 14 quarters. From the fourth quarter of 2006 and the fourth quarter of 2007 to the fourth quarter of the real prices for respectively flats and single-family houses have decreased by 18.5% and 7%, and the time frame is shorter. According to a housing review conducted by RICS, 2007, the previous downturn took place in an era of economic instability, combined with high but varying rates of general price inflation prior to the last crisis. At that time, borrowers were also affected greatly which could be seen in the foreclosure statistics at that time. The time lag between the peak in housing prices and the peak in foreclosures were three years during the first housing crisis and four years during the second crisis. How will it be this time? Does this downturn differ from the last crisis in terms of economic stability or the lack of it? Inflation was low prior to this downturn, but has started to increase in Moreover unemployment, credit crunch and loss of housing value are all a bitter cocktail for borrowers. This is not a new phenomenon though, as these were also some of the ingredients in the previous housing crises. However, the all time low interest rates, new mortgage instruments, and the eased access to loans prior to the downturn are new features in this prevailing housing crisis. In the light of this, we propose the following problem statement and a further detailed analysis of the topic Problem Statement HOW DO BORROWERS INCREASED RISKS IN THE HOUSING DOWNTURN MANIFEST THEMSELVES? 3 Data is only available to the fourth quarter of

11 The following sub questions will be at focus in our research, as they will be a means of pursuing our goal: 1. What made a lot of people buy homes at a time when housing prices almost reached their peak? 2. Which factors were the most influential in a rise in transaction turnover and in price? 3. Was there a housing bubble, and by which factors can this be concluded? 4. What effect does a housing bubble deflation have on borrowers? 5. How is the housing market interlinked to the whole economy? 6. What impact does the house price decrease have on households? 7. What are the borrowers risks in general when entering the housing market, and how are the risks increased in the housing market downturn? 8. What are the new features of this housing downturn compared with the previous crisis? 1.2. Methodology In this section we address the methodology applied. We look at the research methods used combined with data and sources. Our aim is to clarify as much as possible what our contemplations have been, why we have chosen one research method over another and what the pros and cons are of the chosen research methods Research Design When starting off it is always immensely hard to give a precise description of what the overall purpose is because in the beginning you have many ideas. The sensitivity of the topic, i.e. the financial and emotional risks of real people, has determined our methodology and research design, which was defined to include the following: Questionnaires disseminated among the borrowers in arrears Personal interviews with selected families in arrears Interviews with experts Collection of the statistical data and analysis of these Data collection and analysis of the current foreclosures 5

12 Analysis of the surveys and materials from previous housing crises Collection of the theory related to the topic and application of the one that is relevant to the topic under study Case studies based on the face-to-face interviews with the people affected by the downturn Structuring and analysing of the material collected Initially our goal and ambition was to conduct a survey and interview people in arrears in order to get an understanding of the reasons behind their arrears. There were two reasons for this: 1) We felt that people in arrears would really be able to tell us about the risks and hardship involved in being a borrower, especially in a downturn and 2) We wanted a study that combined the existing theory with primary data from real borrowers. By using borrower s specific cases in order to conclude something in general we would use an inductive method (Andersen, 2009). Moreover conducting a survey and personal interviews would secure both a quantitative and a qualitative analysis in our study. This would be a way to first get a representative feedback, and hereafter go in depth with personal interviews. Moreover, by using the responds from questionnaires and personal interviews we would both have a quantitative and a qualitative analysis in our study. This would be a way to first get a representative feedback, and hereafter go in depth with personal interviews. However, some significant changes occurred during the initial process of writing, the most important factor being that it was impossible to find borrowers, who were willing to help, implying a change in the method. The purpose is still the same, but our approach is now deductive. This means that our starting point is based on general knowledge from which we conclude something on specific events (Andersen, 2009), and implies that we are now primarily using a theoretical framework based on secondary data. This framework follows a logical order, starting broadly from the macro economic perspectives and then narrowing down to household level of the problems. In addition, case studies based on in-depth interviews will serve as empirical input to the theoretical analysis. 6

13 Collection of Data The choice of data and sources is first and foremost based on our wish to get as much relevant material for our study in order to cover our topic. Secondly, the data used is based on what was obtainable Initial Data Collection In order to get in contact with borrowers in arrears, our first thought was to use our network, such as family and friends. We hoped, despite the tragic topic, that they might know somebody, who could be suitable for our study. However, finding interviewees turned out to be very difficult, thus contact with experts on the field was initiated instead. Our first expert interview was with Mads Frazier, the Chief of Credit Department at Nykredit, who is responsible for customers in arrears. We had hoped that we could use him as a bridging partner to borrowers in arrears, but due to their policy of confidentiality of their customers this was not possible. However, he did provide us with some good input. Amongst other things he pointed out that banks use a scorecard system and market evaluation to evaluate borrowers, which was also one of our burning issues; we wanted to know what the lending criteria were like in 2005 and These short cuts saved us time and energy on looking for something that was not possible to find. Our second expert interview was with Tove Hansen, chief of customer service department, from Experia-RKI 4. We made an agreement with her, that she would send a cover letter with a kind request to answer our questionnaire, which was made available on-line to all the debtors they needed to send letters to themselves (See Appendix 1). Even though we got this agreement with Experia- RKI, there was no one who answered the on-line questionnaire. Tove Hansen had warned us about the difficulty of getting borrowers to answer such sensitive questions. Experia-RKI had once sent out questionnaires and the response was sparse. While waiting for the response from Experia-RKI, we also tried a so-called house-wife s approach, where we printed a lot of sheets with our contact information and asked for help to our project by people in arrears. We distributed the sheets in different supermarkets around Copenhagen. Neither of the attempts gave any result at all. The last expert we contacted was Jan Swyrtz, who is known from a program called Luksusfælden 4 Denmark s biggest agency for registering and collecting debt 7

14 (translated as The Luxury Trap ). He is a finance consultant and is used to counseling indebted people, who live beyond their means, hoping that he would be able to provide us with some contacts with borrowers in arrears, however we were turned down again due to confidentiality. With all respect to people s privacy we tried to find people in arrears via internet. We found different sites on the internet, e.g. Gældsforum (a forum where indebted people can write to each other seeking help, advice etc). We wrote a contribution urging borrowers to contact us, but with no response here either. We did the same on Mybanker, but with no result. We could see that many had read the contribution, but no one was willing to get in contact with us. 5 In addition to finding borrowers in arrears, our ambition was to find people who were hurt by foreclosures. The only way to meet these people was to attend foreclosure auctions personally. Thus, we attended 12 foreclosure auctions in the period of September through to November in 2008, hoping to get in contact with the borrowers forced to sell their homes. However, only one time out of 12 did we get in contact with the borrower, and that was not fruitful either because the man was in such a bad shape due to what was happening, that he could not focus on talking about it. However, he agreed to answer our questions if we sent it to his , but, unfortunately, he never replied. At all the other foreclosure auctions we attended there were only the creditors present. At that point we realized that we had to change our method. It should be noted though, attending foreclosure auctions gave us an invaluable knowledge and insight into the difficulties that were facing the borrowers in foreclosure; in just 15 minutes people had lost their home, and were deeply indebted Change of Method, Change of Data Collection Due to the impossibility of getting in contact with borrowers in arrears and/or who were forced to give up their homes, we have thus decided to build our analysis on the general findings from other researches (often inspired by studies conducted by Janet Ford), and find people, who could illustrate these findings and give our analysis fruitful empirical data. We used our own networks and finally got five interviewees that fitted into our analysis, and who were willing to talk to us. We want to stress the fact here, that with the limited number of interviews, we do not claim any representativeness of our empirical part of the analysis. The idea of using our case studies in the 5 See homepages: and 8

15 analysis is to support the theoretical findings, to illustrate some interdependence of the hard consequences, and at the same time to illustrate the hardship of the situation actual people can find themselves in. The work carried out consists mostly of desk research of the theory, based on all kinds of published secondary data gathered in the library of the Copenhagen Business School and on the internet in combination with our field research. The desk research gave a good understanding of the situation in the Danish housing market and an overview of the theoretical concepts of macro economic factors, as well as mastering our skills in gathering secondary data from amongst others Statistics Denmark, which are presented in the form of graphs and tables throughout the whole report. In addition we have made telephone interviews with the financial institutions, in order to confirm the data that we collected from their homepage, as well as getting information that was not revealed on their homepages Structure of the Study We start from defining the possible causes for a rise in transactions and prices in the housing market prior to the downturn. We have broadened the scope of the analysis, since the price increase was not possible to explain only by fundamentals. Thereafter, we are addressing the consequences of the downturn. In Part I, the upturn and the downturn in the Danish housing market is analysed. Part II, Hard Consequences, is the core analysis of the thesis, starting broadly with macro economic perspectives of the risks, and then carry on with the risks on household level. The demographical factors and macro-environmental factors are analysed with an assumption of influencing the demand for housing and rise in housing prices in the Danish residential housing market. This is followed by the analysis of the development in the mortgage market, in terms of how the supply of housing finance was prior to the downturn and at the turning point. The consequences of the deflation of the housing bubble are analysed on both macro economic level 9

16 and household s level. The increased risk of borrower is further illustrated through the case studies and the particulars from foreclosures. The resulting plan in Part III is a comparison of the issues from the previous housing crises and the current crisis, where we will look at similarities and new features of this crisis. 6 The overall structure is illustrated in figure below. Fig All calculations are made in DKr. The process of data gathering was finished in the first quarter of

17 1.4. Definitions Throughout this paper we use a number of terms, which we will elaborate on in order to avoid misunderstandings. Borrowers are used for owner-occupiers who have a mortgage and any other loans. However, it can also be used for buyers, because we assume that they will need to take up a mortgage or loan in order to be able to buy. Downturn, as defined in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, is a downward turn especially toward a decline in business and economic activity. In our definition we refer to the downturn in the housing market as to the point, when transaction volume of residential property sold started to decline, and also when the housing prices started to decline. Risk refers to situations, events, processes and so on with uncertain or unpredictable variations in outcomes or, as defined by the same dictionary, as possibility of loss or injury and also the degree of probability of such loss. Foreclosure is defined in the same dictionary as a legal proceeding that bars or extinguishes a mortgagor s right of redeeming a mortgaged estate. As we saw it in the courtroom it is the compulsory or voluntary return of a mortgaged property by a borrower to a lender, or to a combination of a lender and creditors at a very unfavourable price. Housing prices throughout the whole analysis are also called for property prices, real estate prices, etc. which give just a variation in language, but not the interpretation of it. Dwelling is the combination of owner-occupied flats and single-family houses, because they are our focus in our study. In case we only look at one of them, we will specifically write the category. Single-family houses are used interchangeably with one-family houses Second homes are dwellings that are only used for vacation and the like. This is only used when statistics did not give the possibility to only choose owner-occupied flats and single-family houses. Real Estate refers to single-family houses and flats, except if otherwise stated Demarcation To restrict the scope of the study to manageable proportions, it is necessary to impose several limitations on the analysis. However, in case of our study the limitations came as a natural part of the process and in most cases were imposed by the relevancy to the title. 11

18 Our first limitation concerns the housing market, where we have chosen to focus on the private residential housing market only and not commercial property market due to the title and the purpose of our analysis. Moreover we have not included co-op properties because the information about the market is scarce. Emphasis is put on the residential market at the national level. Where of particular significance, regional issues are considered, but it is beyond the scope of this study to undertake detailed regional and city analyses. Our focus is on primary used dwellings, i.e. owner-occupied dwellings that are used all year around. In particular single-family houses, since the majority of the Danish population lives in such form of dwellings, and flats because they are popular forms of living in big cities. The time series used for graphs and tables has an overall time frame of 30 years, i.e. Q Q1 2009, as we only include the last two housing downturns prior to this downturn. For our purpose it has not made sense to use a longer time series. Within this time series we have used shorter time series as well. This is based on following: 1) The statistics obtainable is limited to a certain number of years, 2) We only use the time frame that is relevant for the specific case, 3) There has been a change in statistics due to municipality reforms and 4) Change of statistical methods executed by the statistical unit itself Sources and Criticism of Sources The access to the Copenhagen Business School s library simplified the process of gathering the information, and the internet allowed access to the most recent publications about the development of the Danish housing market and recent development of the downturn. However, there was a limit to how much information that can be processed. The housing market developed in tact of our analysis. Sometimes we were ahead, and later on our own findings became just data from the latest statistics. Another criticism concerns the empirical findings of our interviews. The cases are strictly based on what the interviewees have told us, however we know that there are always to sides of the same coin. In order to really go in depth with their stories, we would have had to get documentation, such 12

19 as communication with the financial institutions, loan agreements, etc., that could confirm their stories. Furthermore it would have been necessary to get their stories confirmed by the financial institutions but this has not been possible. 13

20 2. Part I: Prior to the Downturn and the Turning Point Stimulated by strong demand, housing prices increased sharply over the past fourteen years, both in the bigger cities as well as the outlying regions. Housing prices have now exceeded the peak reached in 1986 (the previous housing boom, illustrated in Appendix 2). The peak in transactions was reached in 2005 and has since then been declining. Due to this we find it relevant for our study to investigate which triggers were the most significant in this housing boom and made so many people buy their dwellings, when housing prices almost reached its peak. In this part of the report we observe the situation on the housing market first where we look at whether there were any shifts in demand or supply of housing that could push prices out of equilibrium. In addition, we analyse the macroeconomic factors with the assumption that potential owner-occupiers improved economic situation made them think that housing was affordable to them. We go further and analyse the development of the mortgage market in terms of whether it contributed to the price increase, and how the situation is after the turning point. Finally the closing chapter in this part addresses the psychological variables with the assumption of pushing up the prices, and check whether there were signs of a housing bubble in the Danish housing market Structural Changes in the Owner-Occupied Housing Market The main focus of this chapter is to observe the development of the sales in the real estate market in Denmark prior to year 2005 and at the turnaround. The objective will be to find any significant changes in demographics of the Danish population that could lead to the rise in the trading activities and housing prices, and see if these changes had any impact on the structure of the owner-occupiers. The upturn in the housing market lasted from 1993 to 2007 and therefore this year range will be primarily used through the whole analysis of the prior to the downturn and the turning point. In case of extending or narrowing the year range, it will be particularly explained in the text. Fundamentally the pricing of the real estate depends on the demand and supply of housing units. Inspired by different models suggested in a research made on metropolitan regions (Andersson, et al., 2007), we have come with our own approach. Namely we analyse the demand for housing in terms of development in demographics, and check whether it had any impact on the owner occupation structure. We study the development of the Danish housing stock and analyse whether 14

21 there was any evidence of a lack of supply of housing. We also discuss whether there were any trends that could be observed in the housing markets that could illustrate preferences of a certain kind of housing over others. In this setting, we will study the following factors: Demographics Owner occupation structure Trends among owner-occupiers Supply of housing Development of Prices and Sales of Real Property Since the end of the previous property cycle in 1992, housing prices have been rising rapidly, as illustrated in figure The graph dates back to 1992, but it would have been interesting to have data going back to the last two downturns, in order to see the development in the prices prior to the downturns. However, this has not been possible, as we could not obtain data that was segregated into housing segments, and we have therefore chosen to use the data from Statistics Denmark. Though data dating longer back can be seen in Appendix 2, however the prices are not separated into the two categories. For one-family houses, which are the largest segment of the market, the prices increased with an average yearly growth of 9%, which is more articulated after year For flats, an average growth increased during the period from 1993 to 2006 was about 13% in nominal prices, and from year 2006 they began to fall, which can also be observed in the graph. 15

22 Figure : Development of the price index of one-family houses and flats (Source: Statistics Denmark) The rise in home values was accompanies by increase in a number of transactions, which is illustrated by figure Figure : Annual realised sales of one-family houses and flats (Source: Statistics Denmark) The total number of sales includes all kinds of realised sales, such as ordinary free trade, intrafamily sales, and other sales, where ordinary free trade makes up the most. Figure illustrates 16

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