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1 An explorative study on Temporary Skills Transfer: Evidence from Mechatronics Cluster Denmark Copenhagen Business School Supervisor: Finn Valentin Page 1 of 170

2 Abstract This thesis explores two cases of temporary skills transfer (TST), a new phenomenon that involves the temporary transfer of a skill between a group of companies. The skill compensates for a shortage of human resources and solves capacity issues in the development process. We find that TST effectively solves short term problems, and due to a competitive price and speed it contributes with a competitive advantage. In the long run, however, TST becomes less valuable for a number of reasons, including that it fails to build internal competences and avoid uncertainty. The governance structure is characterised as a mean between that of a strategic alliance and an arm s length relation, and as a result managerial challenges of TST differ, but takes characteristics from both. Trust reduces transaction costs, but due to minimal commitment and investment in relation specific assets, the companies do not succeed in generating relational rents. The design of the alliance and non firm specific character of the exchange, in turn, makes the risk of opportunism obsolete. Page 2 of 170

3 List of contents 1.0 Introduction Case descriptions Focus Innovation in Mechatronics Cluster Denmark The concept of temporary skills transfer Research Question Limitations Outline PART I Theoretical Background Approach to literature review Skills shortage theory Summary of core issues - skills shortage Sustained competitive advantage theory Summary of core issues sustained competitive advantage Governance theory An overview of the TCE and social capital approaches Transaction Cost Economics Social capital theory The openness appropriability paradox Determining the degree of appropriability hazard Summary of core issues - governance Discussion Skills shortage Sustained competitive advantage Governance Summary of discussion topics PART II Method Research Strategy and approach Methodological fit Research design Collection of empirical data Case study research approach Critique of method Empirical Investigation Case description: MCS Skills shortage Summary of key findings skills shortage Sustained competitive Advantage Summary of key findings sustained competitive advantage Governance Summary of key findings - governance Case description: Post Graduate Rotation Program Page 3 of 170

4 4.2.1 Skills shortage Summary of key findings skills shortage Sustained competitive advantage Governance Summary of key findings - appropriability Key similarities and key differences between MCS and PGRP Analysis Skills shortage Summary of key conclusions skills shortage Sustained competitive advantage Summary of key conclusions sustained competitive advantage Governance Summary of key conclusions governance Conclusion Critical success factors Page 4 of 170

5 1.0 Introduction Various types of interfirm collaborations have been subject to much research. This paper explores a new type of interfirm collaboration that, to our knowledge, has not yet been observed, nor considered, by previous researchers. We term it temporary skills transfer (TST). TST involves pooling of employees and a temporary transfer of skills between a group of collaborating companies. This type of collaboration has been detected within the Mechatronics Cluster Denmark (MCD see appendix 8.1) in Sønderborg. MCD currently consists of 70 mechatronics companies predominantly global market leaders within their fields. Mechatronics is a relatively new discipline and is an amalgamation of mecha from mechanics and tronics from electronics. It means the synergistic integration of mechanical engineering with electronics and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacture of products and processes (MCD web page, 2009). Accumulatively, the companies in the area have a fiscal turnover of more than 10 billion DKK and employ more than 12,000 people. Mechatronics companies are responsible for 55 percent of private employment in Sønderborg (MCD web page, 2009). The region claims to experience a shortage of technical skills and maintains problems attracting a qualified workforce. Mechanical engineers are especially difficult to recruit, in particular during economic booms. This paper seeks to address what role such competence bottleneck problems may play for the clustered companies, and what effect it may have on innovative output. In essence, we will explore how eight local firms endeavour to mitigate the negative effects of skills shortage by use of TST, and whether TST earns them a sustained competitive advantage. This paper is a case study which is based on the exploration of two different TST initiatives implemented within the region, and it will illustrate a newly evolved trend and governance structure within interfirm collaboration. A list of definitions is found in appendix 8.7. Page 5 of 170

6 1.1 Case descriptions The research is built on two cases: Founded in 2005 by the MCD steering committee, Mechanic Centre South (MCS) is an initiative where four companies in the Sønderborg region have engaged in collaboration with the objective of sharing mechanical engineering resources and competences (Ingeniøren, 2007). The participating companies are Danfoss Solar Inverters (DSI - previously PowerLynx) that produces grid-connected inverters for solar energy, Focon Electronics Systems (Focon) that produces passenger information system solutions for trains, Servodan that produces a range of products within lighting control, dynamic daylight technology and door bell systems and Saab Danmark (Saab previously Maersk Data Defence) that produces communication and control systems for military defence and civil security. General information on the companies is gathered in appendix 8.3. The four companies are not in direct competition. They make different products and cater to different markets, but make use of some of the same engineering processes and techniques such as mechanical engineering; which is a basic, but nevertheless important element of the product development process. In other words, it is not considered a firm specific competence. However, the companies lack critical mass in the sense that in peak periods there is a deficiency in capacity and in slow periods there is excess capacity when it comes to mechanical engineering resources. The companies in question each employ only one or two mechanical engineers. The arrangement is intended to improve problem solving and allow faster development and growth (CfE Annual report, 2005). Physically, the mechanical engineers are stationed in the host company during the length of the given project, which means that they are granted access to information about ongoing projects etc. Consequently, this may bring about concerns regarding appropriability and expropriation of Page 6 of 170

7 knowledge. The MCS steering committee have tackled this issue by ensuring that participating companies are not in direct competition with each other in their product markets and also by focusing on competences that are not firm specific (Ingeniøren, 2007). It is a pre-requisite that the participating companies are located in Sønderborg in order to avoid long transportation times. Ideally, the host company has to treat the engineer on loan as its own employee. All assignments are invoiced at internal cost price; the average of the companies consultancy prices, approximately DKK per hour. The steering committee has agreed that the collaboration is non-profit (Ingeniøren, 2007). Inspired by MCS and graduate programs within large local companies such as Danfoss and Sauer- Danfoss, Sønderborg s Centre for Economic Development (CfE see appendix 8.2) has spent one and a half years working on building a Post Graduate Rotation Program (PGRP) where primarily newly educated engineers have the opportunity to become stationed in three different companies over a period of two years. The graduates will be stationed in three companies for a period of eight months in each company. The idea is that the candidates become a regular part of the team, but none of the companies are guaranteed that the graduate will work for their company after the two-year period. The initiative is run by CfE and is a collaboration between Linak, Siemens Flow Instruments (Siemens), OJ Electronics (OJ), Focon (also part of MCS) and Rose Technology (MCD website, 2009). Linak produces electric linear actuator systems, Siemens produces high-tech flowmeters, OJ produces, amongst other things, electrical and hydronic floor heating, air handling solutions, thermostats and sensors, and Rose Technology is a consultancy agency within information technology solutions. General information on the companies is gathered in appendix 8.3. Initially seven companies agreed to collaborate on the initiative, but two had to cancel their participation early on due to the financial crisis, leaving CfE with five companies (CfE, 2009). All companies share a similar need for competences within the field of mechatronics. In opposition to MCS, participation this arrangement does not necessitate that the companies operate in different Page 7 of 170

8 product markets. In fact, OJ and one of the companies that was initially part of PGRP (Lodam) are in direct competition. The primary motive behind the initiative, both from the perspective of CfE, is attracting qualified employees to the region and companies (CfE, 2009). The status is that due to the financial crisis, the pilot phase has been postponed (the companies could not argue for hiring during a period of layoffs). CfE has received a large number of qualified applications from graduates from around the country, but the program will not commence until 2010 (CfE, 2009). 1.2 Focus In order to explore the concept of TST the paper will hold MCS as the centre of analysis. MCS is empirically richer in information compared to the limited evidence available from PGRP. However, ex ante activities related to the PGRP will be used primarily as comparison to MCS (which will function as the benchmark) and as evidence to support the wider acceptance of TST among the eight companies in the mechatronics cluster. 1.3 Innovation in Mechatronics Cluster Denmark Mechanical engineering takes its role in the product development process as one piece of a bigger puzzle (DSI manager), so the MCS initiative does not seem to be intended for conducting basic research, but rather on applied research. MCS thus seems to be an initiative that solves competence bottleneck problems by making the best use of the available resources in a combined effort. In general, according to a recent MBA dissertation addressing front-end innovation in mechatronics firms in Sønderborg, the mechatronics industry is mainly dominated by incremental innovations (Haugaard, 2008: p. 41), i.e. it comes down to identifying customer problems that need to be solved or existing solutions that need to be improved (p. 19). Although innovations are mainly low-risk and incremental of nature, innovation is regarded as important to the local companies (p. 51). However, Haugaard (2008) suggests that the focus on incremental innovations limits the companies abilities to leverage external sources of ideas (p. 54). In 69 percent of the cases studied, the respondents stated the importance of internal R&D employees as the source of ideas (p. 41). Page 8 of 170

9 1.4 The concept of temporary skills transfer Existing literature on interfirm collaborations does not embody phenomena directly comparable to TST, however, inspiration and insights can be accumulated from adjacent literature based on related phenomena such as joint ventures, R&D consortia, strategic alliances and arm s length market transactions (such as fee-based services acquired from consultancy agencies). Traditionally, scholars have focused their attention of comparing trade-offs between full integration with arm s length market transactions (the so-called make or buy decision), and progressively, scholars have explored advantages of R&D consortia and strategic alliances across company borders. TST is best characterised as an alliance that to some extent is dominated by the similar close relationships as seen in strategic alliances, but where the collaboration does not embrace the complete R&D bundle, but only certain specialised knowledge assets and skills. In that sense, it is argued to require less commitment. Resources are acquired on a need basis and the companies are billed for the service accordingly, which in turn is very similar to an arm s length market transaction. We thus argue that TST is best placed between strategic alliances and arm s length market transactions on the spectrum of alliance types (see Figure 1 Spectrum of alliance types). Figure 1 Spectrum of alliance types Page 9 of 170

10 1.5 Research Question Our research is conducted in order to gain a better understanding of TST and its implications for mitigating opportunity barriers caused by skills shortage, as well as other possible advantages or disadvantages. It initially caught our interest because, amongst other things, it seemed to challenge some common theoretical notions with regards to appropriability concerns and the threat of expropriation of knowledge. In addition, we found the subject to be relevant because many companies experience skill shortage problems, and we find it interesting to explore whether the lack of core technical skills has an influence on innovative capability and if so, if negative effects can be avoided by TST. We also wonder whether the TST can exceed functioning as a means to solving capacity issues and contribute with a sustained competitive advantage. Given the novelty of TST, we find this research area important. We illustrate the link between the two literature bodies by drawing a pyramid (Figure 2 Pyramid of TST potential), where skills shortage mitigation is in the bottom of the pyramid, as a basic objective, and can be seen as a short term competitive advantage earning modest rents. Sustained competitive advantage is then at the top of the pyramid as potential that solves long term needs and earns above normal rents. Figure 2 Pyramid of TST potential Page 10 of 170

11 While the external acquisition of skills can take many governance structures, ranging from joint ventures, strategic alliances to arm s length market transactions; little attention has been given to collaborations falling outside these categories. Phenomena equivalent to TST has, to our knowledge, not previously been explored. Nor have we observed similar arrangements in industry. Thus, by exploring and analysing this phenomenon observed in Sønderborg, this paper presents a new governance structure that in this case also seems to function as a new possible solution to the skills shortage problem. Comprehensive research on the matter is useful because other companies experiencing skills shortage problems and, as a result, possibly reduced innovative capacity may find inspiration in TST. The phenomenon and its position on the interfirm collaboration continuum (Figure 1 Spectrum of alliance types) may represent a viable and perhaps value optimising alternative. Theoretically, the study presents a new unit of analysis (the temporary exchange of skills), which may urge future scholars to incorporate the concept when talking about interfirm collaborations. The paper is motivated by following research questions: 1. How is innovative performance affected by shortage of technical skills and can the effects be mitigated by TST? 2. Can TST contribute to a sustained competitive advantage? 3. How do the governance and managerial challenges of TST differ from those of strategic alliances and arm s length market transactions? Page 11 of 170

12 1.6 Limitations The unit of analysis in this example is the exchange of mechanical engineering skills in the research and development process. Whether the results can be directly transferred to other competence areas in the research and development process remains unknown but could be subject for further studies. The paper focuses on R&D collaborations only and thus omits any discussion on whether results are applicable to other value chain activities such as marketing. A major limitation to our analysis of competitive advantage is that we have not conducted field research with regards to competition. We therefore know little about how the case companies are positioned relative to their competitors and whether competing companies are bound by similar constraints or have other advantages that influence their relative competitiveness. Instead we rely on theoretical assumptions with regards to firm ability to obtain competitive advantage, and determine progress based on the companies performance before and after engaging in TST, and disregard whether or not this performance raises the companies over the competition. The explorative nature of our research means that we provide insight and deepen understanding of TST, but we do not provide strategic or operational advice for companies to follow as such. We do, however, treat certain managerial challenges and critical success factors that can be taken into consideration by managers wishing to engage in TST, but with vast deliberation. Page 12 of 170

13 1.7 Outline As Figure 3 Outline) depicts, the research question motivates the outline of the thesis. It is divided into three parts. In Part I, the research question links to three literature bodies from which core issues are deducted. Key theoretical gaps are identified and formulated into questions. The questions and possible scenarios are subsequently discussed. Part II involves building the case study. We use the case study method to explore the key theoretical gaps identified in the literature review and qualitatively provide key findings. Based on the empirical evidence in Part II, Part III analyses the key findings in relation to existing literature and provides key conclusions about TST. We examine generalisation and transfer potential of the Sønderborg experience and, as a result induct a new theory on the phenomenon of TST and its critical success factors. Part I Part II Part III Figure 3 Outline Page 13 of 170

14 PART I Page 14 of 170

15 2.0 Theoretical Background Extensive research exists on interfirm collaborations. The topic has been discussed by many reputable scholars for the past decades and continues to receive much attention. Due to the overwhelming amount of information available we carefully screened the domain in search of issues related to strategic alliances and arm s length transactions as well as other governance structures and phenomena which we regard as adjacent to TST; thus adjacent literature and what comes closest to viably suggesting the managerial challenges connected to the TST. Because the phenomenon has not previously been described, we make sure to remain objective and critical and keep in mind that adjacent literature may not be directly applicable to the TST context. Nevertheless, we seek to understand implications of closely related phenomena. 2.1 Approach to literature review Secondary data is necessary when doing explorative research (Saunders et al, 2007: p. 248) because it offers the possibility of reanalysing data that has already been collected for other purposes (ibid: p. 246). An advantage of secondary data is that it allows us to compare our findings with existing literature (ibid: p. 259). On the flip side, secondary data is collected for different purposes that may not always be equivalent to the content of new research (ibid: p. 260). The challenge is to select evidence that is relevant and that adds value and insight to our research (ibid: p. 87). We vetted and evaluated the evidence in order to determine whether the data was useful as evidence to support the claim (ibid: p. 270). We kept in mind and tried to regulate for validity by choosing only to rely on evidence tested in related sectors, or sectors dominated by the same level of technology intensiveness. We also chose to focus on literature of alliances within the research and development part of the value chain in order to be able to make more precise comparisons, and where possible, relied on research conducted with special attention to small firms. In general, we were careful to screen sources for reliability and chose to place our emphasis on reputable scholars and literature published by reputable journals. We also tried to maintain a preference and dependence on current sources of knowledge; however, we noted that much of Page 15 of 170

16 the founding research traces back to the 1980s and continues to be influential, so it was studied with vast deliberation. Based on a preliminary investigation of the two cases three relevant research questions were formulated, and as a result, three theoretical strands within interfirm collaboration literature were deemed relevant to explore: 1. Skills shortage theory 2. Sustained competitive advantage theory 3. Governance theory (broad definition including managerial challenges arising from openness and appropriability concerns) Page 16 of 170

17 2.2 Skills shortage theory Concentrating on the first research question, how is innovative performance affected by shortage of technical skills and can the effects be mitigated by TST, this section reviews skills shortage literature in order to learn more about the nature of skills shortage problems, and how they can be tackled. It furthermore reviews literature that is especially targeted to small firms and to firms in unfavourable peripheral regions. We temporarily disregard cluster theory related mitigation efforts (as it is a condition the companies find themselves in regardless) but touch upon it in the next section when we look at how firms obtain a competitive advantage. We know from theory that skills shortage problems may be further deepened by a regional disadvantage (Vaessen and Keeble, 1995: p. 490), and that it may occur more frequently in small firms (Westhead, 1997 p. 61; Bosworth, 1989 p. 66). It is also proposed by many that a considerable attractiveness barrier exists between small firms and graduates (Freel, 1999: p. 148). Although conventional regional development theory claims that unfavourable peripheral regions place constraints on business growth (Vaessen and Keeble, 1995: p. 490), Vaessen and Keeble show that small firms can overcome external barriers because, amongst other reasons, they do not remain passive towards external pressures and constraints imposed by their regional environment. Instead enterprises in peripheral regions may actively and even successfully work to develop strategies to overcome these constraints (p. 503). Those firms that succeed may acquire so much business expertise and market intelligence that they can even outstrip their counterparts in more favourable, resource rich environments (p.503). According to Bosworth (1989: p. 66) small firms are generally disadvantaged in the market for skilled labour as they are rarely able to match wage rates, career development opportunities or job security as available in larger firms (supported by Westhead, 1998: p. 61). On the contrary, Vinten (1998), who studied human resource management and recruitment habits as well as possible effects of skills shortage in small firms, found that, although the majority of the respondents did not directly claim to experience a skills shortage problem, small firms may have advantages when it comes to flexibility in work patterns. i.e. small firms can make use of part time workers, job-sharing and contracting out to a greater extent than large firms. Page 17 of 170

18 Small firms are more dependent on external rather than internal labour markets in opposition to larger firms that have greater possibility of relying on and training internal labour (Vinten, 1998: p. 238; Scott et al, 1996: p. 88). However, we know that due to resource constraints, small firms rarely participate in formal training (Marlow, 1998: p. 46; Bosworth, 1989: p. 72). Freel (1999: p. 151) found that although a general skills shortage was claimed by his sample population of small firms to exist, the firms seemed to favour improving in-house competencies over accessing external knowledge; in other words, he observed a reluctance to hire new personnel. As such, constraints on access to sources of knowledge and skills are not necessarily imposed by external labour markets or inadequate linkages with external expertise, but by an internal skills gap (i.e. training capabilities). According to Vinten (1998: p. 238), the small firm approach to recruitment is generally more relaxed than the large firm approach, and often dominated by little, or only local, advertisement, little advice from personnel specialists, and in some cases (11 percent) the small companies do not use application forms. Instead personal references are deemed important. Vinten (1998) proposes that small firm dependency on outside factors for human resource supply can be moderated by the effect of local influences, e.g. an interfirm collaboration such as subcontracting in a region (p. 238). The few companies in specialist areas in Vinten s study (1998: p. 239) that did suffer from a severe skills shortage problem attempted to mitigate it by retaining and retraining existing staff and recruiting from wider areas and also by employing more creative job design methods, i.e. removing unskilled tasks from skilled workers allowing them to concentrate on skilled tasks. Also, a tendency towards fitting the job to the available skills (rather than vice versa) was observed. As such, human resource systems, i.e. a set of distinct but interrelated activities, functions and processes that are directed at attracting, developing and maintaining (or disposing of) a firm s human resources (Lado and Wilson, 1994: p. 701) can be used to counter the skills shortage problem. When it comes to exploitation, Freel (1999: p. 148) expresses concern that the employment of graduates (with the focus on scientists and engineers) and the immediacy of their impact is unlikely to be sufficient (possibly due to managerial competency barriers encountered by small firms). Nonetheless, it is anticipated that the employment of graduates will raise competence Page 18 of 170

19 levels, introduce new skills and be indicative of an attitude or willingness conducive to growth and innovation (Freel, 1999: p. 149; Westhead, 1998: p. 76) and additionally it may strengthen and sustain exchanges of information with the university (Wood, 1997: p. 22). Nearly all firms regard enhanced technical skills as the primary means to achieve improvements in innovative output (Freel, 1999: p. 144). In other words, firms with substantial innovative output typically have a higher proportion of staff that is technically skilled (Wood, 1997: p. 21). Scott et al (1996) argue that in the absence of higher skills levels and when faced with a competitive labour market, small firms risk becoming tied to levels of existing technology, which further undermines competitiveness (p. 94). When aware of skills shortages small firms tend to focus on immediate needs and rarely raise themselves higher than the intermediate skill levels with which they are familiar (ibid: p. 87). Page 19 of 170

20 2.2.1 Summary of core issues - skills shortage Skills shortage: o May be caused by regional disadvantage. o May occur more frequently in small firms. Small firms are more dependent on external labour. Small firms may have an internal skills gap (i.e. training capabilities). Small firms are rarely able to match wage rates. An attractiveness barrier exists between small firms and graduates. But small firms can employ more flexibility in work patterns. Mitigation efforts: o Negative effects can be moderated by local influences (e.g. regional initiatives) o Retaining and retraining existing staff. o Recruiting from wider areas. o Employing more creative job design methods. Removing unskilled tasks from skilled workers allowing them to concentrate on skilled tasks. Tendency towards fitting the job to the available skills (rather than vice versa). Risks: o Firms with substantial innovative output typically have a higher proportion of staff that is technically skilled. o In the absence of higher skills levels and faced with a competitive labour market, small firms risk becoming tied into levels of existing technology. Regional efforts by the municipality or a cluster organisation to attract labour are said to help solve skills shortage problems, but can similar effects be accumulated by an independent group of companies, to what extent does it solve the problem? Small firms have the advantage that they can employ more flexibility in work patterns does TST qualify as such flexible work pattern or a viable alternative? Firms may prefer retaining and training internal staff, but are there additional benefits associated with TST that make it more preferable? Page 20 of 170

21 2.3 Sustained competitive advantage theory We just learned that technical skills are the primary means to achieving improvements in innovative output. In order to determine whether the TST, apart from solving capacity issues is capable of earning the companies a sustained competitive advantage (the second research question), this section examines the competitive disadvantage by looking at the flip side what does it take for a company to obtain a sustained competitive advantage? Many scholars have sought to find out what it takes a company to obtain a [sustained] competitive advantage (Porter, 1980; Metcalfe and Gibbons, 1989; Barney, 1991; Dyer and Singh, 1998). Where Porter s (1980) classical view of competitive advantage is focused around industry based competitive circumstances (i.e. opportunities and threats), Metcalfe and Gibbons (1989) studied in greater detail the relation between technology and long run competitive performance and found that in the short run, it depends on the position of the technology within a relevant technological distribution and in the long run, the ability of a firm to maintain a momentum of technological improvement within the constraints of the relevant agenda (p. 160). Because we do not explore market position and technological momentum in relation to the competition (see limitations in section 1.6), we focus primarily on literature attesting to other sources of competitive advantage. Resource Based view Where prior research centred on market position, Barney (1991) increased emphasis on internal resource endowments, and the valuable, rare, non-imitable and non-substitutable attributes of these (p. 211), as the determinant of a firm s ability to achieve above normal returns. Competences must be relatively immobile so that they cannot easily be transferred from one firm to another (Barney, 1991: p. 209). Adding to the resource-based view (RBV), Lado and Wilson (1994: p. 699) contend that firms can attain to sustained competitive advantage by facilitating competences that are firm specific, by producing complex social relationships that are embedded in a firm s culture and by generating tacit organisational knowledge. Lado and Wilson (1994) simplify the meaning of competencies by breaking it into input-based (p. 704), transformational (p. 705) and output-based (p. 708) competences. Essential to our cases are the input-based competencies, which are physical Page 21 of 170

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