1 Fra: Sendt: Til: Cc: Hahn, Henrik Bramsen 8. marts :OO UM - Komcenter (t) milsekaf .dk; FMN - Comcen; Official Mailbox, Ankara Embassy; Official Mailbox, Beijing Embassy; Official Mailbox, Cairo Embassy; Official Mailbox, Damascus Embassy; Official Mailbox, Geneva FN Mission; Official Mailbox, Haag Em bassy; Official Mailbox, lslamabad Em bassy; Official Mailbox, London Em bassy; Qfficial Mailbox, Madrid Embassy; Official Mailbox, Mexico Embassy; Official Mailbox, Moscow Embassy; Official Mailbox, Oslo Embassy; Official Mailbox, Ottawa Embassy; Official Mailbox, Paris Embassy; Official Mailbox, Riyadh Embassy; Official Maiibox, Santiago Embassy; Official Mailbox, Sofia Embassy; Official Mailbox, Stockholm Em bassy; Official Mail box, Tehran Em bassy; Official Mail box, Tel Aviv Em bassy; Official Mailbox, Vienna Embassy; Official Mailbox, Warsaw Embassy; Official Mailbox, Washington Embassy; Officiel Mailbox, Berlin Ambassade; Officiel Mailbox, Bryssel DANATO; "Officiel Mailbox, EU Repræsentationen"; Braad, Michael; Christensen, Bertel Dons; Christensen, Jan Top; Christensen, Tomas Anker; Christiansen, Thure; Damsgaard, Anders Carsten; Faaborg-Andersen, Lars; Geelan, Kirsten; Hansen, Peter Lysholt; "Hjortsa, Michael Just"; Holm, Klavs A.; Horslund, Jens Otto; "Jargensen, Vibeke Rovsing (NY)"; Knudsen, Ulrik Vestergaard; Lassen, Christina Markus; Lauridsen, Morten Lykke; "Laj, Ellen Margrethe"; "Lund-Sarensen, Thomas"; Michelsen, Jette; Moesby, Ole; Mosgaard, Kurt; N.SP; N.USA; Nielsen, Helle; Riisgaard, Louise; S.FIN; S.HUM; S.MELA; Shine, Susanne; Sillasen, Grete; Skibsted, Arnold; "Sandergaard, Carsten"; Staur, Carsten; Stender, Flemming; Svensson, Nikolaj; "Taksae- Jensen, Peter"; Ullerup, Ove; "Waggsborg, Niels Henrik"; Zilmer-Johns, Michael; NYCMISU, Archive; Hahn, Henrik Bramsen Emne: FN-Mis. New York MIS273 - Irak - Aben briefing i Sikkerhedsrådet den 7. marts 2003 s pdf Blix (SC 7 MAR IlBaradei (SC 7 mar Powell (SC 7 MAR Straw (SC 7 MAR 2003).doc 2003).pdf 2003).doc 2003).doc Til: - Comcen;Official Mailbox, An kara Em bassy;official Mailbox, Beijing Embassy;Official Mailbox, Cairo Embassy;Official Mailbox, Damascus Embassy;Official Mailbox, Geneva FN Mission;Official Mailbox, Haag Em bassy;official Mail box, Islamabad Em bassy;official Mail box, London Em bassy;official Mail box, Madrid Embassy;Official Mailbox, Mexico Embassy;Official Mailbox, Moscow Embassy;Official Mailbox, Oslo Embassy;Official Mailbox, Ottawa Embassy;Official Mailbox, Paris Embassy;Official Mailbox, Riyadh Embassy;Official Mailbox, Santiago Em bassy;official Mail box, Sofia Em bassy;off icial Mailbox, Stockholm Em bassy;official Mail box, Tehran Em bassy;official Mail box, Tel Aviv Em bassy;official Mailbox, Vienna Em bassy;official Mailbox, Warsaw Em bassy;official Mailbox, W ashington Embassy;Off iciel Mailbox, Berlin Am bassade;officiel Mailbox, Bryssel DANAT0;Officiel Mailbox, EU Michael;Christensen, Bertel Dons;Christensen, Jan Top;Christensen, Tomas Anker;Christiansen, Thure;Damsgaard, Anders Carsten;Faaborg- Andersen, Lars;Geelan, Kirsten;Hansen, Peter Lysholt;Hjortsa, Michael Just;Holm, Klavs A.;Horslund, Jens Otto;Jargensen, Vibeke Rovsing (NY);Knudsen, Ulrik Vestergaard;Lassen, Christina Markus;Lauridsen, Morten Lykke;Laj, Ellen Margrethe;Lund-Sarensen, Thomas;Michelsen, Jette;Moesby, Ole; Mosgaard, Kurt;N.SP;N.USA;NieIsen, Helle;Riisgaard, Louise;S.FiN;S.HUM;S.MELA;Shine, Susanne;Siliasen, Grete;Skibsted, Arnold;Sandergaard, Carsten;Staur, Carsten;Stender, Flemming;Svensson, Nikolaj;Taksae-Jensen, Peter;Ullerup, Ove;Waggsborg, Niels Henrik;Zilmer-Johns, Michael FN-Missionen New York E-post MIS273 af 7. marts :59:57 Irak - Aben briefing i Sikkerhedsradet den 7. marts 2003 $.n!.. %i 0-35' l. Opsummering. UK fremsætter på vegne af UK, USA og Spanien et ændret resolutionsforslag, hvorefter 17. marts 2003 sættes som sidste frist for fuld irakisk samarbejdesvilje. Under den åbne debat gentog Sikkerhedsradets medlemmer stort set deres hidtidige velkendte positioner, og der fremkom ikke nye oplysninger om stemmemanster ved en afstemning om forslaget. Frankrig foreslog, at en sådan afstemning i givet fald burde finde sted på regeringschefsniveau.
2 2. Aben briefing i Rådet. Rådet blev briefet af Dr. Blix, UNMOVIC og EIBaradei, IAEA vedrarende den seneste udvikling i våbeninspektionerne i lrak. Briefingen blev efterfulgt af indlæg fra samtlige medlemmer af Rådet og Irak. Alle lande undtagen Bulgarien, Cameroun, lrak og Pakistan var repræsenteret på udenrigsministerniveau (Angola viceudenrigsminister). Fra den åbne briefing kan falgende fremhæves Formanden for UNMOVIC, Dr. Blix: Blix henviste i sin breifing kort til den 12. kvartalsrapport (doc. Sl ) for perioden 1/12-02 til og koncentrede sig dernæst om udviklingen herefter. I forlængelse af udtalelser til pressen de seneste par dage fremhævede Blix Iraks destruktion af de forbudte Al Samoud II missiler (p.t. 34 stk. ud af i alt ca men ingen d.d.), destruktion af to stabehaller til fremstilling af missilmotorer samt genåbning af en tildækket installation, der angiveligt skulle have været anvendt til destruktion af kemiske våben. Irak havde også lovet samarbejde med hensyn til vedtagelse af ny lovgivning, udlevering af yderligere dokumenter samt foreslået metoder til verificering af Iraks påståede destruktion af VX-gas. Det bemærkedes, at kontrol af Iraks unilaterale destruktion af antrax kun kunne foregå, hvis man kunne fastslå den samlede produktion af antrax. Hidtil havde dette ikke været muligt. Desuden var der blevet gennemfart i alt 10 interviews - heraf 7 i den forlabne uge - med personer, som kunne have viden om destruktion af masseadelæggelsesvåben, og man havde til hensigt inden for kort tid at anmode om at kunne interviewe personer uden for Irak. Blix konstaterede, at disse tiltag var udtryk for "aktivt" eller endog "proaktivt" samarbejde, men han satte spargsmålstegn ved, hvorfor dette farst var iværksat efter tre til fire måneder. Måske skyldtes de nye initiativer, at der siden vedtagelse af resolution 1441 (2002) var blevet opbygget en kraftig international militær styrke i området. Det irakiske samarbejde kunne derfor ikke beskrives som ajeblikkeligt ("immediate"). For så vidt angik fremlæggelse af dokumneter var det særligt skuffende, at Irak med en udviklet administration fortsat ikke havde fremlagt de dokumenter, som inspektarerne i årevis havde bedt om. UNMOVIC var i gang med udarbejdelsen af det endelige arbejdsprogram, der i henhold til op. 7 i resolution 1284 (1 999) skal præsenteres 27. marts Ud over "key remaining tasks" ville arbejdsprogrammet indeholde forslag til, hvorledes inspektarerne fremover ville kunne foretage kontrol af mobile enheder og underjordiske faciliteter. Indikationer indeholdt i efterretningsoplysninger fra medlemsstater pegede på tilstedeværelsen af sådanne, bl.a. Powells briefing af Rådet den 5. februar 2003 (jf. mismail 101 af ), men inspektarerne havde ikke hidtil fundet beviser herpå. Blix gentog dermed den indirekte kritik af UNMOVIC's adgang til efterretningsoplysninger: "1 would rather have twice the amount of high quality information about sites to inspect than twice the number of experts to send". Blix konstaterede, at flere lande anskede en hurtig præsentation af inspektarernes arbejdsprogram indeholdende "key remaining tasks" eller i det mindste indsigt i UNMOVIC's arbejdsdokument "Unresolved disarmament issues - Iraq's proscribed weapons programmes" af 6. marts 2003, som ville kunne give en indikation vedrarende "key remaining tasks", hvorfor dette ville blive cirkuleret til Rådets medlemmer. Missionen har via den amerikanske mission modtaget en kopi af dokumentet (1 73 sider), som fremsendes med særskilt mail. Blix afsluttede sin briefing med at konstatere, at selv med en "proaktiv" irakisk holdning til inspektionerne samtidig med opretholdelsen af det ydre pres ville det fortsat tage tid at gennemfare en fuldstændig inspektion og drage de relevante konklusioner. Det ville ikke tage år, eller uger, men måneder. Generalsekretæren for det Internationale Atomagentur, ElBaradei: EIBaradei briefede om Iraks nukleare afvzbning. Der fremkom ikke vaesentligt nyt i forhold til den seneste briefing af Rådet den 14. februar 2002, jf. mismail 159 af IAEA havde ikke efter tre måneder med påtrængende inspektioner fundet bevis på, at Irak skulle have genoptaget sit atomprogram. Tværtimod vurderedes Iraks industrielle kapacitet til iværksættelse af et atomprogram som betydeligt lavere end i slutningen af 1980'erne. EIBaradei afviste beskyldninger om ulovlig anvendelse af aluminiumsrar og magneter til centrifuger til berigelse af uran, jf. Powells briefing af Sikkerhedsrådet den 5. februar Derudover afvistes Powells påstand om, at Irak ulovligt i perioden siden 1991 skulle have forsagt at importere beriget uran fra bl.a. Niger: EIBaradei udtalte, at "these specific allegations are unfounded". EIBaradei understregede dog med henvisning til Iraks tidligere adfærd, at der var behov for et langsigtet program til overvågning og kontrol af Iraks nukleare kapacitet. EIBaradei indlæg vedhæftes. USA's udenrigsminister: Powells indlæg i dag fremstod forskelligt fra sit inspirerende indlæg i Rådet den 14. februar 2002, hvor han blandt andet talte uden manuskrift og replicerede på fiere af de andre ministres indlæg. Hans indlæg i dag var stort set en
3 gentagelse af kendte amerikanske synspunkter. Powell spurgte således retorisk på ny om Irak havde truffet den strategiske beslutning om "full, unconditional, immediate and active cooperation" med våbeninspektarerne. Powels eget svar herpå var et klart nej. Han understregede, at Blix's briefing ikke ændrede på den amerikanske holdning; at Irak fortsat ikke samarbejder. Det drejede sig ikke om, hvor mange inspektorer UNMOVICIIAEA havde til sin rådighed, hvor længe inspektionerne skulle forsætte eller formulering af benchmarks og tidsfrister. Hvis styret i Bagdad havde til hensigt af lade sig afvæbne, ville samarbejdet med inspektarerne ikke være under tvang og trussel om militær intervention, men derimod være frivilligt og endog entusiastisk, som det havde været tilfældet i f.eks. Sydafrika og Ukraine. Med henvisning til UNMOVIC's ovennævnte arbejdsdokument konstaterede Powell, at dette indeholdte et helt katalog over Iraks manglende samarbejde. De seneste irakiske indrammelser og tegn på samarbejde indgik blot i et 12 år langt manster af Iagne og fordrejningen, den nuværende situation svarede til det frustrerende forlab i Det internationale samfund matte ikke falde tilbage på resolution 1284 (1 999), der havde fejlet med hensyn til at afvæbne Irak. Det var i stedet op til Sikkerhedsrådets medlemmer at stå ved sit ansvar fra efteråret 2002, hvor Rådet enstemmigt havde vedtaget resolution 1441 (2002). Konkret ville dette komme til udtryk, når det UK/US/spanske resolutionsudkast blev sat til afstemning inden for en meget nær fremtid. Powell gentog sin advarsel til det internationale samfund om, at en manglende reaktion fra det internationale samfund på Iraks brud på Radets resolutioner ville få varige konsekvenser for FN og Radets troværdighed og relevans. Powells indlæg vedhæftes. Frankrigs udenrigsminister: Villepins indlæg afspejlede i vid udstrækning argumenterne og forslagene i det fransk-tysk-russiske memorandum, jf. mismail 202 af Villepin fandt således ikke, at der var behov for en ny resolution på et tidspunkt, hvor Blix' briefing indikerede, at der fra irakisk side var iværksat en reel afvæbning. Hvorfor skulle man i dag engagere sig i en krig? Hvorfor skulle der for enhver pris anvendes magt, når man kunne forsætte fredeligt?villepin fremhævede falgende forhold, som argumenter imod brug af magtanvedelse: 1 ) resolution 1441 (2002) handlede om afvæbning af Irak, ikke om et nyt regime i Irak, 2) Frankrig er modstander af en deadline på få dage, der blot ville virke som en legitimering af krig, 3) konflikten er meget kompleks og en langvarig Iasning kræver inddragelse af andre problemstillinger i regionen, ikke mindst Israel-Palæstina konflikten.villepin gentog Chiracs advarsel om, at krig altid var erkendelsen af fiasko. Rådet vil snart skulle tage stilling til det essentielle spargsmal: Skal Irak afvæbnes gennem krig eller fred? Derefter udtrykte Villepin med en klar vetotrussel Frankrigs modstand mod enhver ny resolution, der indeholdt en automatisk autorisation til magtanvendelse: "As a permanent member of the Security Council, I will say it again: France will not allow a resolution to pass that authorizes the automatic use of force". Afslutningsvis bemærkede Villepin, at sparsmålet om eventuel magtanvendelse er så vigtig, og berarer hele verdenen, at en beslutning må træffes af stats- og regeringschefer på et nyt made i Rådet. UK's udenrigsminister: Straws indlæg var det mest engagerede og modtog også dagens eneste bifald. Særligt hans nærmest personlige udfald mod udenrigsminister Villepins indlæg var bemærkelsesværdigt (bl.a. ved i en sikkerhedsrådssammenhæng noget så usædvanligt som gentagen brug af den franske udenrigsministers fornavn). Straw afviste Villepins forslag om yderligere inspektioner og mere tid, herunder afviste Straw på det kraftigste, at det, som anfart af Villepin, var det "diplomatiske pres" (og ikke det militære), som havde fået Iraks regering til nu at udvise samarbejdsvilje. Derudover var de små irakiske tiltag, f.eks. destruktionen af Al Samoud li missilerne, kun toppen af en kæmpemæssigt isbjerg af udestaende afvæbningsopgaver. Budskabet i talen var ikke til at tage fejl af: "There is only one possible, sensible conclusion that we can draw: We have to increase the pressure on Sadam Hussein. We have to put this man to the test." I forlængelse af Powells tale referede Straw til UNMOVIC's ovennævnte arbejdsdokument, der blev beskrevet som "a chilling read". En gennemgang af det 173 siders lange dokument afslarede 12 års manglende irakisk efterlevelse af Sikkerhedsradets resolutioner. Irak ville endnu kunne ggre rent bord m.h.t. til sine ulovlige ~Zibenprogrammer: "lt may take time 4s fabricate further falsehood, but the truth takes only seconds to tell.". Dermed afviste Straw, direkte henvendt til Villepin, enhver form for "automaticity" i det fremsatte resolutionsforslag. Ingen forventede inspektarerne kunne gennemfare deres arbejde med hensyn til en verificeret afvæbning af Irak på få dage. Men ingen havde sagt, at Irak ydede: "fully, actively and immediately compliance with 1441". Indtil videre havde Irak ikke grebet den sidste mulighed for fredelig afvæbning. UK fremlagde på vegne af medforslagsstillerne (UWUS/Spanien) vedhæftede ændrede resolutionsforslag vedrarende Irak. I modsætning til det tidligere udkast indeholder forslaget tre nye operative paragraffer. Vigtigst er op.3, som beslutter, at Irak har undladt at gribe "the final opportunity" man fik i resolution 1441 (2002) medmindre Rådet den 17. marts 2003 eller tidligere konkluderer, at Irak har demonstreret "full, unconditional, immediate and active cooperation" i overensstemmelse med nedrustningsforpligtelserne i resolution 1441 (2002). Endvidere er der indsat en ny op 1, som understreger behovet for fuld implementering af resolution 1441 (2002), og ny op.2, der anmoder Irak om "immediately to take the decisions necessary in the interests of its people and the region". Desuden er formuleringen vedrarende "material breach" i præambulære paragraf 3 blevet strammet op. Straws indlæg vedhæftes. Ruslands udenrigsminister:
4 Ivanov fastslog, at Blix' rapport var udtryk for, hvorledes et stærkt mandat fulgt op at et stærkt internationalt pres - herunder militært - kunne fare til en reel afrustning af Irak med fredelige midler. Inspektarerne havde faet ajeblikkelig og uhindret adgang til alle faciliteter, og samarbejdet havde været langt bedre end under det tidligere UNSCOM inspektionsregime. Der var derfor ikke behov for nye resolutioner, men derimod aktiv international statte til inspektarerne. Irakernes seneste tiltag, bl.a. i forbindelse med destruktion af missiler, kemiske sprænghoveder og bomber, var vigtige skridt, der åbnede vejen for en fredelig Iasning på de udestående spargsmål, der ville fremgå af inspektarernes kommende arbejdsprogram, jf. resolution 1284 (1 999). Den svære afvæbningsproces gennem inspektioner var at foretrække frem for krig. Kinas udenrigsminister: Tang Jiaxuan mente, at resolution 1441 (2002) overordnet var blevet implementeret uproblematisk ("smoothly on the whole") hensyn til procedure, og at dette nu farte til resultater. Samtidigt opfordrede han dog Irak til at styrke det substantielle samarbejde, der var påkrævet for at inspektarerne kunne gennemfare deres arbejde i henhold til mandatet i resolution 1441 (2002). Kun forsat fastholdelse af en fredelig Iasning gennem bestemthed, tålmodighed og klogskab ville sikre, at det endelige slutmål - destruktionen af Iraks masseadelæggelsesvåben og ballistiske missiler - lykkedes. Kina var derfor modstander af en ny resolution, især hvis denne autoriserede magtanvendelse. Uden de resterende medlemsstaters opbakning havde Rådet ingen magt, og dets medlemmer gjorde derfor klogt i at lytte til de mange medlemsstater og den offentlige opinion verden rundt, der krævede en fredelig Iasning. Tysklands udenrigsminister: Fisher understregede, at fredelig afvæbning af Irak var mulig, og at der derfor endnu var et alternativ til krig. Blix' briefing havde således vist, at selv om Iraks samarbejde med IAEA og UNMOVIC ikke havde været tilstrækkeligt, så havde der den seneste uge været tegn på betydelige substantielle forbedringer, ikke mindst den påbegyndte destruktion af forbudte missiler. Den faste tidsfrist til destruktion af missilerne havde presset Irak til det positive resultat, og sådanne tidsfrister burde indarbejdes i inspektarernes arbejdsprogram. Der var enighed om slutmalet - afvæbningen af Irak - men der var uenighed om strategien for afvæbningen. Tyskland var imod en 2. resolution. Inspektionerne kunne ikke forsætte uendeligt, men Fischer understregede, at inspektionerne endnu burde foretages i henhold til resolution 1441 (2002) med et styrket inspektionsregime. Spaniens udenrigsminister: Palacio stattede det britiske initiativ til et ændret resolutionsforslag og udtrykte reservation over for det fransk-tyskrussiske memorandum. Med reference til Villepins forslag om yderligere inspektarer konklurede Palacio således: "Disarming Iraq is not a question of more inspectors or more time, this, to quote a French thinker, is merely a strategy of impotence". Hvis medlemmerne af Rådet så bort fra deres særlige ansvar, hvilken besked blev da sendt til omverdenen? Rådet måtte ikke under nogen omstændigheder udviklede sig til en "media platform to showcase its differences", hvor Sadam Hussein havde held med at fa Radets medlemmer til at fremstå som agressoren. Der skulle sendes et klart signal om, at Rådet ikke accepterede Sadams legen kispus med det internationale samfund. Bulgariens FN-ambassadar: Ambassadaren fastholdt, at det britiske/amerikanske/spanske resolutionsudkast var foreneligt med det fransk-tyskrussiske memorandum, men udtrykte dog for farste gang i Rådet fuld opbakning til det fremsatte resolutionsudkast. Resolutionen ville være et effektivt middel til en foragelse af presset på Irak og en logisk opfalgning på resolution 1441 (2002). Tavrov udtalte sig også positivt om det fremlagte ændreede resolutionsforslag, som den bulgarske delegation dog ikke havde været orienteret om forinden. Mexicos udenrigsminister: Derbez udtrykte bedravelse over situationen i Irak og styrets: "lack of active, immediate and effective cooperation". Der havde ved vedtagelsen af resolution 1441 været konsensus om målene der skulle nås, men den seneste udvikling og udmeldinger om Irak gjorde det klart, at der var forskellige visioner for afvæbningen af Irak. Man stod over for en kompleks beslutning, der i fremtiden ville have betydning for Radets evne til at håndtere vigtige spargsmål som afvæbning for masseadel~ggelsesvåben. Den internationale offentlige opinion krzvede, at Rådet handlede samlet og med klogskab. Mexico anskede, at der blev udviklet flere "formulas" til sikring af en effektiv afvæbning af Irak: "Mexico stuggles f ~ the r adoption of more effective ways of pressure in order to enforce the csoperation that we all demand from Iraq". Rådet måtte stå fast og håndhæve sine beslutninger med fredelige midler. Dette krævede en radikal holdnings- og adfærdsændring fra det irakiske regime. Chiles udenrigsminister: Alvear Valenzuela fastslog, at hovedkonklusionen fra Blix' rapport stod ved magt på trods af tegnene på fremskridt i samarbejdet de seneste ti dage, dvs. Iraks samarbejde med inspektarerne endnu efter flere måneder var utilstrækkeligt. Der var forsat behov for ajeblikkelig og fuld afvæbning af Irak, der skulle samarbejde uden forbehold. Multilateralt diplomati var dog den eneste vej frem, og brugen af magt til gennemtvingelse af Radets resolutioner vedr. afvæbning af Irak måtte kun sættes i værk, når alle forsag på fredelig afvæbning var udtamt. En sådan fredelig fremgangsmåde kunne være en styrkelse af inspektionsregimet med klare tidsfrister og krav. 0vrige lande: Angola, Cameroon, Guinea og Pakistan applerede til enighed i Rådet, men uden at give udtryk for en konkret holdning til det fremlagte resolutionsforlslag. Syrien var fortsat stærkt imod en ny resolution, og fremhævede den Arabiske Ligas bestræbelser på at finde en fredelig Iasning. Iraks FN-ambassadar al-douri afviste forudsigeligt kritikken af det
5 - irakiske regime og konkluderede i stedet, at Irak allerede i 1991 havde taget den strategiske beslutningen om afvæbning af sine masseadelæggelsesvåben. USA og Storbritannien producerede Iagnagtige beviser med hensyn til Iraks WMD-programmer, men disse havde hverken kunnet overbevise inspektarerne eller det internationale samfund. Henrik B. HahnIEllen Margrethe Laj <<s pdf>> <<Blix (SC 7 MAR 2003).doc>> <<EIBaradei (SC 7 mar 2003).pdf>> <<Powell (SC 7 MAR 2003).doc>> <<Straw (SC 7 MAR 2003).doc>> FN-Missionen New York MIS273
6 United Nations Security Council Provisional 7 March 2003 Original: English Spain, I Jnited Ungdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America: draft resolution The Security Council, Recalling all its previous relevant resolutions, in particular its resolutions 661 (1990) of August 1990, 678 (1990) of 29 November 1990, 686 (1991) of 2 March 1991, 687 (1991) of 3 April 1991, 688 (1991) of 5 April 1991, 707 (1991) of 15 August 1991, 715 (199 1) of 11 October 1991, 986 (1995) of 14 April 1995, 1284 (1999) of 17 December 1999 and 1441 (2002) of 8 November 202, and all the relevant statements of its President. Recalling that in its resolution 687 (1991) the Council declared that a ceasefire would be based on acceptance by Iraq of the provisions of that resolution, including the obligations on Iraq contained therein, Reculling that its resolution 1441 (2002), while deciding that Iraq has been and remaiils in material breach of its obligations, afforded Iraq a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations under relevant resolutions, Recalling that in its resolution 1441 (2002) the Council decided that false statements or omissions in the declaration submitted by Iraq pursuant to that resolution and failure by Iraq at any time to comply with, and cooperate fully in the implementation of, that resolution, would constitute a further material breach, Noting, in that context, that in its resolution 1441 (2002). the Council recalled that it has repeatedly warned Iraq that it will face serious consequences as a result of its continued violations of its obligations, Noting that Iraq has submitted a declaration pursuant to its resolution 1441 (2002) containing false statements and omissions and has failed to comply with, and cooperate fully in the implementation of, that resolution, Reaffirming the commitment of all Member States to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq, Kuwait, and the neighbouring States, Mindfitl of its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, Recogniring the threat Iraq's non-compliance with Council resolutions and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles poses to international peace and security, (E)
7 Deternliited to secure full compliance with its decisions and to restore international peace and security in the area, Acling under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, 1. Reaffims the need for full implementation of resolution 1441 (2002); 2. Calls on Iraq immediately to take the decisions necessary in the interests of its people and the region; 3. Decides that Iraq will have failed to take the final opportunity afforded by resolution 1441 (2002) unless, on or before 17 March 2003, the Council concludes that Iraq has demonstrated full, unconditional, immediate and active cooperation in accordance with its disarmament obligations under resolution (2002) and previous relevant resolutions, and is yielding possession to UNMOVIC and the IAEA of all weapons, weapon delivery and support systems and structures, prohibited by resolution 687 (1991) and all subsequent relevant resolutions, and all information regarding prior destruction of such items; 4. Decides to remain seized of the matter.
8 L 7 MARCH 2003 Oral introduction of the 12th quarterly report of UNMOVIC Executive Chairman Dr. Hans Blix 7 March -Thank you, Mr. President, Mr. President, for nearly three years, I have been coming to the Security Council presenting the quarterly reports of UNMOVIC. They have described our many preparations for the resumption of inspections in Iraq. The 12th quarterly report is the first that describes three months of inspections. They come after four years without inspections. The report was finalized ten days ago and a number of relevant events have taken place since then. Today's statement will supplement the circulated report on these points to bring the Council upto-date. Inspection process Inspections in Iraq resumed on 27 November In matters relating to process, notably prompt access to sites, we have faced relatively few difficulties and certainly much less than those that were faced by UNSCOM in the period 1991 to This may well be due to the strong outside pressure. Some practical matters, which were not settled by the talks Dr. EIBaradei and I had with the Iraqi side in Vienna prior to inspections or in resolution 1441 (2002), have been resolved at meetings which we have had in Baghdad. Initial difficulties raised by the Iraqi side about helicopters and aerial surveillance planes operating in the no-fly zones were overcome. This is not to say that the operation of inspections is free from frictions, but at this juncture we are able to perform professional no-notice inspections all over Iraq and to increase aerial surveillance. American U-2 and French Mirage surveillance aircraft already give us valuable irnagery, supplementing satellite pictures and we would expect soon to be able to add night vision capability through an aircraft offered to us by the Russian Federation. We also expect to add low-level, close area surveillance through drones provided by Germany. We are grateful not only to the countries which place these valuable tools at our disposal, but also to the States, most recently Cyprus, which has agreed to the stationing of aircraft on their territory. Docurnents and intewiews Mr. President, Iraq, with a highly developed administrative system, should be able to provide more documentary evidence about its proscribed weapons programmes. Only a few new such documents have come to light so far and been handed over since we began inspections. It was a disappointment that Iraq's Declaration of 7 December did not bring new documentary evidence. I hope that efforts in this respect, including the appointment of a governmental commission, will give significant results. When proscribed items are deemed unaccounted for it is above all credible accounts that is needed - or the proscribed items, if they exist.
9 Where authentic documents do not become available, interviews with persons who may have relevant knowledge and experience may be another way of obtaining evidence. UNMOVIC has names of such persons in its records and they are among the people whom we seek to interview. In the last month, Iraq has provided us with the names of many persons, who may be relevant sources of information, in particular, persons who took part in various phases of the unilateral destruction of biological and chemical weapons, and proscribed missiles in This provision of names prompts two reflections: The first is that with such detailed information existing regarding those who took part in the unilateral destruction, surely there must also remain records regarding the quantities and other data concerning the various items destroyed. The second reflection is that with relevant witnesses available it becomes even more important to be able to conduct interviews in modes and locations, which allow us to be confident that the testimony is given without outside influence. While the Iraqi side seems to have encouraged interviewees not to request the presence of Iraqi officials, so-called minders, or the taping of the interviews, conditions ensuring the absence of undue influences are difficult to attain inside Iraq. Interviews outside the country might provide such assurance. It is our intention to request such interviews shortly. Nevertheless, despite remaining shortcomings, interviews are useful. Since we started requesting interviews, 38 individuals were asked for private interviews, of which 10 accepted under our terms, 7 of these during the last week. As I noted on 14 February, intelligence authorities have claimed that weapons of mass destruction are moved around Iraq by trucks and, in particular, that there are mobile production units for biological weapons. The Iraqi side states that such activities do not exist. Several inspections have taken place at declared and undeclared sites in relation to mobile production facilities. Food testing mobile laboratories and mobile workshops have been seen, as well as large containers with seed processing equipment. No evidence of proscribed activities has so far been found. Iraq is expected to assist in the development of credible ways to conduct random checks of ground transportation. Inspectors are also engaged in examining Iraq's programme for Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPVs). A number of sites have been inspected with data being collected to assess the range and other capabilities of the various models found. Inspections are continuing in this area. There have been reports, denied from the Iraqi side, that proscribed activities are conducted underground. Iraq should provide information on any underground structure suitable for the production or storage of weapons of mass destruction. During inspections of declared or undeclared facilities, inspection teams have examined building structures for any possible underground facilities. In addition, ground penetrating radar equipment was used in several specific locations. No underground facilities for chemical or biological production or storage were found so far. I should add that, both for the monitoring of ground transportation and for the inspection of underground facilities, we would need to increaae our staff in Iraq. I am not talking about a doubling of staff. I would rather have twice the amount of high quality information about sites to inspect than twice the number of expert inspectors to send. Recent developments On 14 February, I reported to the Council that the Iraqi side had become more active in taking and proposing steps, which potentially might shed new light on unresolved disarmament issues. Even a week ago, when the current quarterly report was finalized, there was still relatively little tangible progress to note. Hence, the cautious formulations in the report before you. As of today, there is more. While during our meetings in Baghdad, the Iraqi side tried to persuade us that the Al Samoud 2 missiles they have declared fall within the permissible range set by the Security Council, the calculations of an international panel of experts led us to the opposite conclusion. Iraq has since accepted that these missiles and associated items be destroyed and has started the process of destruction under our supervision. The destruction undertaken constitutes a substantial measure of disarmament - indeed, the first
10 since the middle of the 1990s. We are not watching the breaking of toothpicks. Lethal weapons are being destroyed. However I must add that the report I have today tells me that no destruction work has continued today. I hope this is a temporary break. Until today, 34 Al Samoud 2 missiles, including 4 training missiles, 2 combat warheads, 1 launcher and 5 engines have been destroyed under UNMOVIC supervision. Work is continuing to identify and inventory the parts and equipment associated with the Al Samoud 2 programme. Two 'reconstituted' casting chambers used in the production of solid propellant missiles have been destroyed and the remnants melted or encased in concrete. The legality of the Al Fatah missile is still under review, pending further investigation and measurement of various parameters of that missile. More papers on anthrax, VX and missiles have recently been provided. Many have been found to restate what Iraq already has declared, and some will require further study and discussion. There is a significant Iraqi effort underway to clarify a major source of uncertainty as to the quantities of biological and chemical weapons, which were unilaterally destroyed in A part of this effort concerns a disposal site, which was deemed too dangerous for ful1 investigation in the past. It is now being reexcavated. To date, Iraq has unearthed eight complete bombs comprising two liquid-filled intact R-400 bombs and six other complete bombs. Bomb fragments were also found. Samples have been taken. The investigation of the destruction site could, in the best case, allow the determination of the number of bombs destroyed at that site. It should be followed by a serious and credible effort to determine the separate issue of how many R-400 type bombs were produced. In this, as in other matters, inspection work is moving on and may yield results. Iraq proposed an investigation using advanced technology to quantify the amount of unilaterally destroyed anthrax dumped at a site. However, even if the use of advanced technology could quantify the amount of anthrax said to be dumped at the site, the results would still be open to interpretation. Defining the quantity of anthrax destroyed must, of course, be followed by efforts to establish what quantity was actually produced. With respect to VX, Iraq has recently suggested a similar method to quantify a VX precursor stated to have been unilaterally destroyed in the summer of Iraq has also recently informed us that, following the adoption of the presidential decree prohibiting private individuals and mixed companies from engaging in work related to WMD, further legislation on the subject is to be enacted. This appears to be in response to a letter from UNMOVIC requesting clarification of the issue. ivir. Presideni, What are we to make of these activities? One can hardly avoid the impression that, after a period of somewhat reluctant cooperation, there has been an acceleration of initiatives from the Iraqi side since the end of January. This is welcome, but the value of these measures must be soberly judged by how many question marks they actually succeed in straightening out. This is not yet clear. Against this background, the question is now asked whether Iraq has cooperated "immediately, unconditionally and actively" with UNMOVIC, as is required under paragraph 9 of resolution 1441 (2002). The answers can be seen from the factual descriptions that l have provided. However, if more direct answers are desired, I would say the following:
11 The Iraqi side has tried on occasion to attach conditions, as it did regarding helicopters and U-2 planes. It has not, however, so far persisted in these or other conditions for the exercise of any of our inspection rights. If it did, we would report it. It is obvious that, while the numerous initiatives, which are now taken by the Iraqi side with a view to resolving some long-standing open disarmament issues, can be seen as "active", or even "proactive", these initiatives 3-4 months into the new resolution cannot be said to constitute "immediate" cooperation. Nor do they necessarily cover all areas of relevance. They are nevertheless welcome and UNMOVIC is responding to them in the hope of solving presently unresolved disarmament issues. Mr. President, Members of the Council may relate most of what I have said to resolution 1441 (2002), but UNMOVIC is performing work under several resolutions of the Security Council. The quarterly report before you is submitted in accordance with resolution 1284 (1999), which not only created UNMOVIC but also continues to guide much of our work. Under the time lines set by that resolution, the results of some of this work is to be reported to the Council before the end of this month. Let me be more specific. Resolution 1284 (1 999) instructs UNMOVIC to "address unresolved disarmament issues" and to identify "key remaining disarmament tasks" and the latter are to be submitted for approval by the Council in the context of a work programme. UNMOVIC will be ready to submit a draft work programme this month as required. UNSCOM and the Amorim Panel did valuable work to identify the disarmament issues, which were still open at the end of UNMOVIC has used this material as starting points but analysed the data behind it and data and documents post l998 up to the present time to compile its own list of "unresolved disarmament issues" or, rather, clustered issues. It is the answers to these issues which we seek through our inspection activities, and it is also from the list of these clustered issues that UNMOVIC will identify the "key remaining disarmament tasks". As noted in the report before you, this list of clustered issues is ready. UNMOVIC is only required to submit the work programme with the "key remaining disarmament tasks" to the Council. As I understand, several Council members are interested in the working document with the complete clusters of disarmament issues, and we have declassified it and are ready to make it available to members of the Council on request. In this working document, which may still be adjusted in the light of new information, members will get a more up-to-date review of the outstanding issues than in the documents of 1999, which Members usually refer to. Each cluster in the working document ends with a number of points indicating what Iraq could do to solve the issue. Hence, Iraq's cooperation could be measured against the successful resolution of issues. I should note that the working document contains much information and discussion about the issues which existed at the end of including information which has come to light after It contains much less information and discussion about the period after 1998, primarily because of paucity of information. Nevertheless, intelligence agencies have expressed the view that proscribed programmes have continued or restarted in this period. It is further contended that proscribed programmes and items are located in underground facilities that I mentioned, and that proscribed items are being moved around Iraq. The working document contains some suggestions on how these concerns may be tackled. Mr. President, Let me conclude by telling you that UNMOVIC is currently drafting the work programme, which resolution 1284 (1999) requires us to submit this month. It will obviously contain sur proposed list of key remaining disarmament tasks; it will describe the reinforced system of ongoing monitoring and verification that the Council has asked us to implement; it will also describe the various subsystems which constitute the programme, for instance, for aerial surveillance, for information from governments and suppliers, for sampling, for the checking of road traffic, etc.
12 How much time would it take to resoive the key remaining disarmament tasks? While cooperation can and is to be immediate, disarmament and at any rate the verification of it cannot be instant. Even with a proactive Iraqi attitude, induced by continued outside pressure, it would still take some time to verify sites and items, analyse documents, interview relevant persons, and draw conclusions. It would not take years, nor weeks, but months. Neither governments nor inspectors would want disarmament inspection to go on forever. However, it must be remembered that in accordance with the governing resolutions, a sustained inspection and rnonitoring system is to remain in place after verified disarmament to give confidence and to strike an alarm, if signs were seen of the revival of any proscribed weapons programme. Thank you, Mr. President.
13 THE STATUS OF NUCLEAR INSPECTIONS IN IRAQo AM UPDATE Meeting of the United Nations Security Council New York 7 March 2003 Mohamed ElBaradei Diaector General INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY
14 THE STATUS OF NUCLEAR INSPECTIONS IN IRAQ: AN UPDATE My report to the Council today is an update on the status of the International Atornic Energy Agency's nuclear venfication activities in Iraq pursuant to Security Councd resolution 1441 (2002) and other relevant resolutions. INSPECTION AGTIVITIES When I reported last to the Council, on 14 February, I explained that the Agency's inspection activities had moved well beyond the "reconnaissance phase" - that is, re-establishq our knowledge base regarding Iraq's nuclear capabilities - into the "investigative phase", hch focuses on the central question before the IAEA relevant to disarmament: whether Iraq has revived or attem~ted to revive its defunct nuclear weapons programme over the last four years. At the outset, let me state one general observation: namely, that during the past four years, at the rnajority of Iraqi sites, industrial capacity has deteriorated substantially, due to the departure of the foreign support that was often present in the late 1980s, the departure of large numbers of skilled Iraqi persomel in the past decade, and the lack of consistent rnaintenance by Iraq of sophisticated equipment. At only a few inspected sites involved in industrial research, development and manufacturing have the facilities been irnproved and new personnel been taken on. This overall deterioration in industrial capacity is naturally of direct relevance to Iraq's capability for resuming a nuclear weapons programme. The IAEA has now conducted a total of 218 nuclear inspections at 141 sites, includmg 21 that had not been inspected before. In addition, the Agency experts have taken part in xnany joint UNMOVIC- IAEA inspections. Techmcal support for nuclear inspections has continued to expand. 'T'he three operational air samplers have collected, from key locations in Iraq, weekly air particulate samples that are being sent to laboratories for andysis. Additional results of warer, sediment, vegetation and rnatenal sample analyses have been received from the relevant laboratories. Our vehicle- borne radiation survey team has covered some 2000 kilometres over the past three weeks. Survey access has been gained to over 75 facilities, includmg military garrisons and carnps, weapons factories, truck park, manufacturing facilities and residential areas. NEW YORK, 7 MARCH 2003
15 THE STATUS OF NUCLEAR INSPECTIONS IN IRAQ: AN UPDATE Interview have continued with relevant Iraqi personnel - at times with individ& groups in the workplace dwing the course of unannounced inspections, and on other occasions in pre-arranged meetings with key scientists and other specialists knoan to have been involved with Iraq's past nuclear programme. The IAEA has continued to conduct interviem even when the conditions were not in accordance with the IAEA's preferred modalities, with a view to gaining as much information as possible - information that could be cross-checked for validity with other sources and which could be helpful in ow assessment of areas under investigation. As you may recall, when we first began to request private, unescorted interviews, the Iraqi interviewees insisted on taping the interviews and keeping the recorded tapes. Recently, upon our insistence, individuals have been consenting to being interviewed without escort and without a taped record. The IAEA has conducted two such private interview in the last 10 days, and hopes that its ability to conduct private interviem will continue unhdered, including possibly interviews outside Iraq. I should add that we are looking into further refining the modalities for conducting interview, to ensure that they are conducted freely, and to alleviate concem that interviem are being listened to by other Iraqi parties. In our view, interviews outside Iraq rnay be the best way to ensure that interview are free. And we intend therefore to request such interview shortly. We are also askmg other States to enable us to conduct interviews with former Iraqi scientists that now reside in those States. and SPECIFIC ISSUES In the last few weeks, Iraq has provided a considerable volume of documentation relevant to the issues I reported earlier as being of particular concem, including Iraq's effom to procure a l d u m tubes, its attempted procurement of magnets and magnet production capabilities, and its reported attempt to import uranium. I will touch briefly on rhe progress made on each of these issues. NEW YORK, 7 MARCH 2003
16 THE STATUS OF NUCLEAR INSPECTIONS IN IRAQ: AN UPDATE Since my last update to the Council, the primary technical focus of IAEA field activities in Iraq has been on resolving several outstandkg issues related to the possible resumption of efforts by Iraq to enrich uranium through the use of centnfuges. For that purpose, the IAEA assembled a specdy quaified team of international centrifuge manufacturing experts. With regard to Ahm5zzI~n~ tt/bes, the IAEA has conducted a thorough investigation of Iraq's attempts to purchase large quantities of high-strength aluminium tubes. As previously repolred, Iraq has rnaintained that these aluxninium tubes were sought for rocket production. Extensive field investigation and document analysis have failed to uncover any evidence that Iraq intended to use these 81mm tubes for anyproject other than the reverse engineering of rockets. The Iraqi decision-&g process with regard to the design of these rockets was well documented. Iraq has provided copies of design documents, procurement records, mliutes of committee meetings and supporting data and sarnples. A thorough analysis of this mformation, together with mformation gathered from interview with Iraqi personnel, has dowed the IAEA to develop a coherent picture of attempted purchases and intended usage of the 81mm aluminium tubes, as well as the rationale behd the changes in the tolerances. Drawing on this mformation, the IAEA has leamed that the original tolerances for the 81mm tubes were set prior to 1987, and were based on physical measurements taken from a smal1 number of imported rockets in Iraq's possession. Initial attempts to reverse engineer the rockets met with little success. Tolerances were adjusted during the following pars as part of ongoing efforts to revitalize the project and improve operational efficiency. 'Ihe project languished for long periods during thk time and became the subject of several committees, which resdted in specification and tolerance changes on each occasion. Based on available evidence, the IAEA team has concluded that Iraq's effom to import these aluminium tubes were not &ly to have been related to the rnanufacture of centnfuges and, moreover, that it was highlyunlikelythat Iraq codd have achieved the considerable re-design needed to use them in a revived centrifuge programme. However, this issue will continue to be scrutinized and investigated. iifag/~eiet,.. Wirh respect to repom about Iraq's effom to irnporr high-strength permanent magnets - or to acheve the capability for producing such magnets - for use in a centnfuge emichrnent programme, I s hodd note that, since 1998, Iraq has purchased high-strength magnets for various uses. Iraq has declared inventories of magnets of twelve different designs. The IAEA has NEW YORK, 7 MARCH 2003
17 THE STATUS OF NUCLEAR INSPECTIONS IN IRAQ: AN UPDATE venfied that previously acquired magnets have been used for rnissile guidance s)stems, industrial machery, electricity meteis and field telephones. Through visits to research and production sites, reviews of engineerhg drawings and analyses of sample magnets, IAEA experts f dar with the use of such rnagnets in centnfuge enrichment have vedied that none of the magnets that Iraq has declared could be used directly for a centduge magnetic beaxing. In June 2001, Iraq signed a contract for a new magnet production line, for delivery and installation in The delivery has not yet occuned, and Iraqi documentation and interviews of Iraqi personnel indicate that this contract will not be executed. However, they[centnfuge enrichment expem] have concluded that the replacement of foreign procurement with domestic magnet production seems reasonable from an economic point of view. In addition, the tra;ung and experience acquired by Iraq in the pre penod makes it likely that Iraq possesses the expertise to rnanufacture high-strength permanent magnets suitable for use in enrichment centnfuges. The IAEA will continue therefore to monitor and inspect equipment and materials that could be med to m& magnets for e~chment centnfuges. With regard to Urantt/nnl Acq~~zi2io11, the IAEA has made progress in its investigation into reports that Iraq sought to buy uranium from Nqer in recent years. The investigation was centred on documents provided by a number of States that pointed to an agreement between Niger and Iraq for the sale of uraniurn between 1999 and The IAEA has discussed these repom with the Governments of Iraq and Niger, both of which have denied that any such activity took place. For its part, Iraq has provided the IAEA w& a comprehensive explanation of its relations with Niger, and has described a visit by an Iraqi official to a number of African countries, includmg Niger, in February 1999, which Iraq thought rnight have given rise to the reports. The IAEA was also able to review correspondence comlig from various bodies of the Government of Niger, and to compare the form, format, contents and signatures of that correspondence with those of the alleged procurement-related documentation. Based on thorough analysis, the IAEA has concluded, vkh the concurrence of outside expem, that these documents - which formed the basis for che repom of recent transactions between Iraq and Niger - are in fact not authentic. We have therefore concluded that these specific allegations are unfounded. However, we will continue to follow up any additional evidence, if it emerges, relevant to efforts by Iraq to illtcitly import nuclear materials. NEW YORK, 7 MARCH 2003
18 THE STATUS OF NUCLEAR INSPECTIONS IN IRAQ: AN UPDATE Many concems regarding Iraq's possible intention to resume its nuclear programme have arisen from Iraqi procurement effom reported by a number of States. In addition, many of Iraq's effom to procure commodities and products, including rmgnets and al&um tubes, have been conducted in contravention of the the sanctions controls specified under Security Council resolution 661 and other relevant resolutions. The issue of procurement efforts remains under thorough investigation, and further venfication d be forthcom;ig. In fact, an IAEA team of technical experts is currently in Iraq, composed of customs investigators and computer forensic specialsts which is conducting a series of investigations, through inspections at trading companies and comrnercd organizations, airned at understanding Iraq's patterns of procurement. In conclusion, I am able to report today that, in the area of nuclear weapons - the most lethal weapons of mass destruction - inspections in Iraq are moving forward. Since the resumption of inspections a little over three months ago - and particularly during the three weeks since my last oral report to the Council - the IAEA has made important progress in identifying what nuclear- related capabllties rernain in Iraq, and in its assessment of wherher Iraq has made any efforts to revive its past nuclear programrne during the intervening four pars since inspections were brought to a halt. At this stage, the following can be stated: One, there is no indication of resumed nuclear activities in those buildings that were identified through the use of satellite imagery as being reconstructed or newly erected since 199 8, nor any indication of nuclear-related prohibited activities at any inspected sites. Second, there is no indication that Iraq has attempted to import uraniurn since Third, there is no indication that Iraq has attem~ted to import aluminium tubes for use in centduge enrichment. Moreover, even had Iraq pursued such a plan, it would have.. encounrered practicd difficulries in manufacniring centrifuges out of the alumum tubes in ques tion. Fourth, although we are still reviewing issues related to magnets and magnet production, there is no indication to date that Iraq irnported magnets for use in a centduge enrichment programme. As I stated above, the IAEA will naturally continue further to scrutinize and investigate all of the above issues. NEW YORK, 7 MARCH 2003
19 THE STATUS OF NUCLEAR INSPECTIONS IN IRAQ: AN UPDATE After three months of inuusive inspections, we have to date found no evidence or plausible indication of the revival of a nuclear weapons programme in Iraq. We kend to continue our inspection activities, mahg use of all the additional nghu granted to us by resolution 1441 and all additional tools that might be available to us, including reconnaissance pladorms and all relevant technologies. We also hope to continue to receive from States actionable mformation relevant to our mandate. I should note that, in the past three weeks, possibly as a result of ever-increasing pressure by the international community, Iraq has been forthcorning in its co-operation, partkularly with regard to the conduct of private interview and in makmg available evidence that could contnbure to the resolution of matters of IAEA concern. I do hope that Iraq will continue to expand the scope and accelerate the pace of its CO-operation. Tne detailed knowledge of Iraq's capabilities that IAEA expexts have accumulated since combined with the extended righu provided by resolution 1441, the active commitment by all States to help us fulfil our mandate, and the recently increased level of Iraqi co-operation - should enable us in the near future to provide the Security Council with an objective and thorough assessment of Iraq's nuclear-related capabilities. However credible this assessment rnay be, we will endeavour - in view of the inherent uncertainties associated with any verification process, and, particularly in light of Iraq's past record of CO-operation - to evaluate Iraq's capabilities on a continuous basis as part of our long-tern monkoring and venfication programme, in order to provide the international com~tywith ongoing and real time assurances. NEW YORK, 7 MARCH 2003
20 Remarks to the United Nations Security Council Secretary Colin L. Powell New York, New York March 7, 2003 (12:OO p.m. EST) SECRETARY POWELL: Thank you very much, Mr. President and Mr. Secretary General, distinguished colleagues. Mr. President, let me join my colleagues in congratulating you on the assumption of the presidency, and I know you will lead us in these difficult days with great distinction. And let me also express to my German colleagues my thanks and admiration for the stewardship that they provided to the Council over the past month. We meet today, it seems to me, with one question, and one very, very important question before us: Has the Iraqi regime made the fundamental strategic and political decision to comply with the United Nations Security Council resolutions and to rid itself of all of its weapons of mass destruction, all of the infrastructure for the development of weapons of mass destruction? It's a question of intent on the part of the Iraqi leadership. The answer to that question does not come from how many inspectors are present, or how much more time should be given, or how much more effort should be put into the inspection process. It's not a question of how many unanswered clusters of questions are there, or are there more benchmarks that are needed, or are they enough unresolved issues that have been put forward to be examined and analyzed and conclusions reached about. The answer depends entirely on whether Iraq has made the choice to actively cooperate in every possible way, in every possible manner, in the immediate and complete disarmament of itself of its prohibited weapons. That's what 1441 called for. I would like to thank Dr. Blix and Dr. EIBaradei for their reports this morning which shed more light on this difficult question. I listened to them very carefully. I listened to them very, very carefully to see if I was hearing that, finally, Iraq had reached that point where it understood that the will of the international community must now be obeyed. I was pleased to hear from both of these distinguished gentlemen that there has been some continuing progress on process and even some new activity with respect to substance. But I was sony to learn that all of this still is coming in a grudging manner, that Iraq is still refusing to offer what was called for by 1441: immediate, active, and unconditional cooperation. Not later, immediate. Not passive, active. Not conditional, unconditional in every respect. Unfortunately, in my judgment, despite some of the progress that has been mentioned, I still find what I have heard this morning, a catalog still of non-cooperation. If Iraq genuinely wanted to disarm, we would not have to be worrying about setting up means of looking for mobile biological units or any units of that kind. They would be presented to us. We would not need an extensive program to search for and look for underground facilities that we know exist. The very fact that we must make these requests seems to me to show that Iraq is still not cooperating. The inspectors should not have to look under every rock, go to every crossroad, peer into every cave for evidence, for proof. And we must not allow Iraq to shift the burden of proof onto the inspectors. Nor can we return to the failed bargain of Resolution 1284; which offered partial relief for partial disclosure requires ful1 and immediate compliance and we must hold Iraq to its terms. We also heard this morning of an acceleration of Iraqi initiatives. I don't know if we should call these things initiatives. Whatever they are, Iraq's small steps are certainly not initiatives. They are not something that came forward willingly, freely, from the Iraqis. They have been pulled out or have been pressed out by the possibility of military force by the political will of the Secretary Council. They have been taking these initiatives, if that's what some would choose to call them, only grudgingly, rarely unconditionally, and primarily under the threat of force. We are told that these actions do not constitute immediate cooperation, but that's exactly what is demanded by And even then, progress is often more apparent than real. I am pleased, very pleased, that some al-samoud II missiles are now being broken up, although perhaps the process of breaking them up has now paused for a moment.
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Electrolysis for Energy Storage & Grid Balancing in West Denmark A possible first step toward the creation of a transport hydrogen Infrastructure in West Denmark Report of the Work Group CONTENTS 1. Executive
Indholdsfortegnelse Forord 322 QUO VADIS; NATO? Brigadegeneral Søren Falk Portved The operational level that disappeared? Major Niels Klingenberg Vistisen Shaping the Information Environment in Afghanistan
Managing small IT projects and maintenance tasks Managing small IT projects and Maintenance tasks IT project management supervisors: Claus Seeberg Friis & Diego Børresen Lladó Author / students: Mohammed
Agenda for meeting in Academic Council, Thursday October 6 th 2011 at 10:00 to 12:00, Kilen, K 1.53. 1. 10.00-10:05 Approval of Agenda 2. 10.05-10:15 CBS Strategy 3. 10:15-10:50 CBS s Education Strategy
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Indholdsfortegnelse Temaartikler: Militære Operationer Forord ved Selskabets formand 3 Forord 5 The Mathematics of War: Quantifying Insurgencies 6 Daniel Brooks The South African Border War (1966-1989)
...den sovjetiske ledelse synes reelt at have været bange for, at installeringen af de første INF-raketter i Vesteuropa samtidig med øvelsen skulle have været brugt til et forkøbsslag mod Sovjetunionen.
The Practice of Regulating Insulin Dependent Diabetes - An Empirical Study With a Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Perspective Techno-Anthropology Teknoantropologi Aalborg University Copenhagen
U N I VERSITET publikationer This is numbers 1-2 in the fourth volume in a series of publications of educational development projects made by participants in the teacher development course for assistant
Indholdsfortegnelse Forord 343 Security in the Twenty-First Century Alyson J.K. Bailes 344 Globale tendenser i krigsførelsen og konsekvenser for udvikling af hærdoktriner Studerende på OFU 2002-2003 på
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Business Plan GreenFleet An empty taxi is good for nobody Bergur Ziska Brian Haunstrup Johannes Lund Matias Bjørling Simon A. F. Lund EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 3 MOTIVATION AND BACKGROUND FOR THE GREEN-TAXI
Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke Rådsmøde den 30. Og 31. Maj 2015 Bilag 2.b INDLEDNING DEN RULLENDE POLITISKE PLAN 2014 2015 Bestyrelsens beretning Rådet modtager tre beretninger om Mellemfolkeligt Samvirkes arbejde:
p æ y M i h Å S A G T u B E n W q The Online Library E17 and Adult Dyslexics - Investigating issues and values from a user perspective Bachelor Project IT-University of Copenhagen Digital Media & Design,