Winther. Environmental sustainability of Gore- Tex. [Copenhagen University College of Engineering]

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1 Winther 10 Environmental sustainability of Gore- Tex [Copenhagen University College of Engineering]

2 Xpro-1 Mads Balsig Nielsen (100057) Kasper Laustsen Simonsen (101201) Line Kynde Lynnerup (101617) Line Kolling (101632) 2

3 Abstract The Gore-Tex membrane in The North Face W Point Five jacket protects consumers against cold weather conditions, but there are also environmental issues regarding the membrane. Using the exploratory method to approach this, the report examines and explores knowledge to identify the environmental impact of Gore-Tex. Throughout the jacket s lifetime it emits kg CO 2, and has a total energy consumption of MJ. The Gore-Tex membrane has been compared with a Dermizax (PU) membrane from Toray, and the result shows how they impact the environment equally. It is possible to save energy, if the usage phase is increased to more than five years, provided the consumer buys less and keeps the jacket longer. The chemicals, which appear in the process of manufacturing and combusting, are known to harm both environment and humans. However, these processes take place in a closed system that does not release harmful by-products into the environment. 3

4 Table of Contents ABSTRACT... 3 INTRODUCTION... 6 PROBLEM STATEMENT... 7 PROJECT LIMITATION... 8 METHOD... 9 FUNCTIONAL UNIT SUSTAINABILITY GORE- TEX PICTURES FROM GORE-TEX.COM THE NORTH FACE GORE- TEX FUNCTION IN THE NORTH FACE W JACKET...14 PICTURES FROM GORE-TEX.COM MECO- TABLE MATERIAL PHASE...18 Gore- Tex production...20 Environmental aspects and workers health...21 MANUFACTURING PHASE...24 USAGE PHASE...25 Energy consumption...25 Nikwax...25 Target group and approaching the product...27 Who buys Gore- Tex jackets...27 Why would one buy a Gore- Tex jacket?...29 Which factors make the consumer buy the jacket?...31 DISPOSAL...31 Degradation of PTFE...32 Actual Disposal...32 TRANSPORT...34 MECO OVERVIEW DISCUSSION CONCLUSION GROUP WORK REFLECTION INTRODUCTION...41 REFLECTION AND DISCUSSION...41 MAINTENANCE OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT...41 CONCLUSION...42 BIBLIOGRAHPY ONLINE DOCUMENTS

5 WEBLIOGRAPHY...45 APPENDIX 1: HOMEPAGE APPENDIX 2: PLASTICS APPENDIX 3: CALCULATIONS APPENDIX 4: E- MAILS AND CONVERSATIONS APPENDIX 5: CONSIDERATION OF DATA

6 Introduction The world is filled with challenging terrain, from hot deserts to cold glaciers. In the cold conditions it is especially important to use the appropriate technical clothes in order to keep warm. For this, there are countless products such as jackets, gloves and shoes. Jackets in particular are important, as they need to keep people warm but also to keep water out, and preferably made of breathable material. Gore-Tex is a product that meets all these requirements. Many ski jackets are fitted with Gore-Tex and if you are a skier, your jacket probably has it too. In spite of its popularity we had no knowledge of the technology behind Gore-Tex before we threw ourselves into this project. This is one of the reasons for choosing Gore-Tex: to understand the material, its use, its manufacture and the impact on the environment of using it. The life cycle assessment of a The North Face ski jacket with Gore-Tex Pro Shell is included as well as the environmental aspect of making the Gore-Tex and the rest of the jacket. All this will be viewed in a life cycle assessment simply illustrated in a MECO table, which will contain calculations of materials in the jacket, and how much energy is consumed in its lifespan. It is a cradle to grave analysis from the raw material used in the making of Gore-Tex and through the use of the jacket, how much energy is used to maintenance of the jacket, and finally the disposal of the jacket. We want to elucidate what happens to the jacket after usage, at the waste disposal and which way is less polluting for the environment. 6

7 Problem statement Proofing of textiles is vital in order to keep dry and warm, especially within technical outdoor gear. Gore-Tex jackets are highly prevalent among skiers and the popular membrane is widely distributed. It protects consumers against nature but does it also preserve the environment? This report will examine the environmental impact of the well-known Gore-Tex membrane. In order to clarify the cradle to grave impact of the membrane in a tangible way, it will be viewed in a life cycle assessment of a North Face W Point Five jacket size large with Gore-Tex Pro Shell. The project will result in a written report and a website disclosing the LCA of The North Face jacket, resulting in an environmental assessment. Primary question: What are the possible environmental-related issues regarding Gore-Tex? Sub questions: - What is Gore-Tex? - How is the LCA for The North Face W Point Five jacket with the Gore-Tex Pro Shell membrane? - Who is the target group and how do they approach the product? - Are there any alternatives to Gore-Tex? 7

8 Project limitation Missing information from relevant players on the market will perhaps reduce our basis for decision 1. Restricting resources consisting of time, economy and status will cause an insufficient information foundation. Usage phase in the LCA is only calculated upon in a perspective of five years. These five years will include calculations on impregnation and washing, which are the energy taxing factors. Whatever happens with the jacket after the five-year duration is hard to define. There is a great possibility of the jacket being sold as a second-hand product. It is not possible to make any clear assumptions on usage of a second-hand product. Assuming that the energy of manufacturing is one seventh of the material energy. In the report there are several figures and information provided by various sources e.g. concerning the quantification of The North Face W Point Five jacket, Gore-Tex estimates and usage 2. The credibility of each source has been evaluated and thoroughly examined in order to provide an estimate that borders the reality. The calculations of transport of the jacket are for one jacket without the packaging and pallets. The group consists of four first-year students who have not worked with the subject environmental assessment before, which is the main purpose of the report on Global Business Engineering, first term. 1 Appendix 5. 2 Appendix 5. 8

9 Method To ensure that no decisions are made on a random basis, the report will make use of methods and models that can support our analysis and thought processes in preparation to create a secure basis for decision making as possible. The purpose in this report is to devise a life cycle assessment of a The North Face W Point Five jacket size large with Gore-Tex Pro Shell. The report will be based on a model from the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, which reviews the main elements of an LCA 3. The model illustrates the connection between the individual elements and how to alternate between them. Figure from the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. 1 3 LCA- center.dk webliography. 9

10 The approach through the project is an exploratory 4 assessment in order to identify the environmental impact of Gore-Tex. The report will examine the consumers buying-behavior on the basis of qualitative interviews with four sales people 5 engaged in advising them when they purchase technical clothing. The information from the interviews has been evaluated in order to make a final decision. Throughout the report both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and used to establish the facts. The uncertainty is considered in assessing the data collected 6. Functional unit The functional unit is a central term regarding environmental appraisal and it describes the function of the product or output. Below, the functional unit will be thoroughly described. In order to achieve a certain functionality and gain a definite standard of a ski jacket, the following quantities ought to be fulfilled. - The average water column pressure 7 value for a ski jacket is mm 8 - The jackets are water repellent due to an exterior waterproofing. - An exterior coating is employed to give the jackets their water repellant properties. To be regarded as wind protective the material must be completely impervious to wind. - The minimum breathability of a jacket must be 7000 g/m2/24hrs 9,10 - The jacket ought to be flexible. 4 Den skindbarlige virkelighed, page Appendix 5. 6 Appendix 5. 7 Water column pressure is a unit, which measures materials ability to withstand water penetration The unit describes how much water vapour there is able to penetrate one square meter fabric in one day

11 Sustainability The word sustainability has its origin in the Latin word sustinere meaning, to hold up. The Longman dictionary of Contemporary English expounds the word sustainable as: able to continue without causing damage to the environment and the thesaurus holds words as maintain, support and endure. A more accurate and modern definition would be the widely quoted one of the United Nations General Assembly 1987; sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 11 However, it is vital to comprehend sustainability in the light of three dimensions: Environment, social and economic. In order to achieve sustainability all three factors need to be accounted for. The North Face knows that there is no market for a product that lies in one of the three extremes of the model they have to reach a compromise between the three whilst delivering the technical performance that their brand is renowned for. These three pillars of sustainability have an equal influence on the LCA, and can be interpreted through the four phases of the MECO table: Material, manufacturing, usage and disposal

12 Gore-Tex Gore-Tex is a part of W. L. Gore & Associates founded in 1958 by Bill and Vieve Gore. Mr. Gore was a former employee at DuPont 12 and envisioned that PTFE had a great, unexploited potential. After ten years of impressive progress, Bob Gore, son of Bill Gore, revolutionized the business by stretching PTFE. The outcome was not expected, and it led to eptfe, which is the material used in Gore-Tex membranes in order to keep customers dry and provide breathability. The present Gore Corporation still has its focus on fluoropolymer, but its product range stretches far beyond outdoor clothing into electronic and medical fields. Bill s vision has certainly proven prosperous and PTFE continues to advance its innovative importance. Gore-Tex is synonymous within the outdoor clothing market for keeping dry and comfortable. Other brands and technologies are slowly gaining a reputation as the science of nanotechnology evolves. However, the market is slow to adopt these unknown brands, allowing Gore-Tex to retain its pre-eminent position. The membrane The Gore-Tex membrane consists of eptfe (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene). PTFE is a thermosetting plastic with a high melting point at 327 C, but its properties degrade above 260 C (according to DuPont). It has a density at kg/m The PTFE emits a toxic gas at temperatures above 260 C. zoom Pictures from Gore-tex.com 14 Fluorine is a halogen, which is placed in Group 7 of the Periodic Table of Elements. It has seven electrons in its outer shell, and it wants one more electron to become stable. The fluorine atom 12 PTFE was accidently invented by DuPont industries in1938, when trying to make a CFC refrigerant. 13 Plast teknologi

13 shares an electron pair with a carbon atom. Fluorine is the most electronegative of the halogens, and therefore it forms an extremely strong bond with carbon (C-F). When fluorine is a part of a molecule, the fluorine repels anything that tries to come close to it. The polytetrafluoroethylene is made of many fluorine atoms, and these atoms do not like other kinds of molecules, and therefore they try to be as far away from the other molecules as they can get. This is the reason why nothing sticks to PTFE. The carbon-fluorine bond is very strong, and the fluorine atoms shield the vulnerable carbon chain. The PTFE is very stable and inert compared to other plastics. The North Face The North Face has its name from the coldest, most unforgiving side of a mountain, but ironically it all started at San Francisco's North Beach. In 1966, two hiking enthusiasts determined to follow their passions and founded a small mountain-climbing retail store, which later became known as The North Face, a supplier of high-performance climbing and backpacking equipment. Through the 1970s, The North Face became a well-respected brand and was worn by many outdoor athletes and began sponsoring expeditions to some of the most remote corners of the globe. By the early 1980s, The North Face introduced itself to the ski world by adding extreme skiwear to their product offering. By the end of the decade, The North Face became the only supplier in the United States to offer a complete collection of high-performance outerwear and skiwear. This highperformance was caused by a laminate inside the clothes, called Gore-Tex. The North Face use both Gore-Tex and Hyvent in their jackets. Hyvent is a coating painted on the inside of the jacket, while Gore-Tex is a membrane, which is laminated inside the jacket. This makes Gore-Tex better than Hyvent, and it is used in expensive quality jackets. The North Face W Point Five jacket has the following specifications: Water column pressure value at 28,000 mm and a breathability of 14,000 g/m/24h, which are in accordance with the minimum requirements of the functional unit in the report. 13

14 Gore-Tex function in The North Face W jacket The jacket with the Gore-Tex membrane is completely waterproof and breathable at the same time. The membrane contains more than 1.4 billion microscopic pores per square cm. The pores are 700 times larger than a single water vapor molecule, and 20,000 times smaller than a water droplet, which makes the membrane breathable, waterproof, and perfect for skiing and outdoor wear. The vapor can easily escape, so the jacket can release perspiration. The Gore-Tex membrane is not very elastic, so it has to be protected from excessive strain. Two layers of protection are employed to shield the fragile membrane and this results in an extremely long service life. PTFE with stands extreme temperatures, ultraviolet light, solvents and oxidizing agents and so retains its original properties for long periods. Pictures from Gore-tex.com

15 MECO-table An LCA, Life Cycle Assessment, is a method that evaluates the possible environmental impact and resource consumption of a product or a service. The LCA enables one to assess the environmental impact of a product throughout its entire life cycle cradle to grave. It forces the manufacturers to look beyond the CO 2 emissions of the production, which is only one phase of the product, and consider the CO 2 emissions of the product from raw material to disposal. This enables one to identify and highlight the phase where CO 2 emissions are critical and then turn the attention to enhancing the efficiency. Some LCAs are considered to be a cradle to cradle assessment, because some or most of the materials in the product are recycled. In the case of The North Face W Point Five jacket it is reasonable to assume it to be incinerated. This assumption is based upon a few facts: - - It is possible to recycle Gore-Tex, but the cost is exorbitant. Furthermore, The North Face jacket consists of various plastics and metals, which would be complex and costly to disassemble. Jackets are regarded as textiles and are either binned or donated to second hand suppliers such as The Red Cross. The Red Cross estimates that 10 % is sent to incineration, 7-8 % is sold in their stores, and the remaining part is sold to the European recycling industry. The jacket often ends its journey at an incineration plant. 16,17 The MECO table is a simple way to illustrate the figures and chemicals of an LCA. The table divides the LCA into four phases: Material, manufacturing, usage and disposal. Furthermore it subdivides each phase into the MECO overview: Material, Energy, Chemicals and Other. This report will regard the transport in between each phase as one calculation. It is due to the fact that most transportation takes place between the manufacturing and usage phase. Therefore the 16 Mail from Red Cross. Appendix

16 presented MECO table has five phases, transportation being the fifth one. The report regards Gore-Tex as a part of The North Face jacket, and therefore the LCA of the Gore- Tex membrane is considered in accordance with the LCA of the jacket. As a result, the functional unit of this MECO table is the jacket. Below is in short terms how the MECO table is formed. Raw material In order to meet with the MECO sources The North Face jacket has been quantified. This was carried out at The North Face Store. The non-sustainable materials are measured in PR (Person- Reserve). The energy consumption of processing each material is calculated in the program CES 2010 and is expressed in mega joules. There is a detailed description of the Gore-Tex manufacturing together with a short overview of the other plastics used in the jacket. Manufacturing Due to the difficulty of gaining this information from Gore-Tex and North Face assumptions have been made. Usage Usage is related to more than just wearing the jacket. In this phase assumptions have been made to describe the typical buyer of The North Face jacket and how jacket is maintained. In this part calculations on energy, in relation to washing the jacket and producing the impregnation, have been made. 16

17 Disposal The LCA of The North Face jacket is, as mentioned, considered being cradle to grave. Therefore calculations on the heat of combusting and CO 2 emissions when incinerated are present in the MECO table. No matter how many times the jacket is recycled, it will eventually end up in an incineration plant. The energy of recycling is not included, because the difficulties of recycling the materials. Transport It is a fact that transportation takes place between each MECO phase. However, the only tangible transportation is from the manufacturer to the store where the jacket is bought. Hence this is the only transportation calculated upon. The figure is measured in mega joule. 17

18 Material phase The jacket has a total weight of 472g = 0.472kg. Constituents in the jacket Membrane Laminate Velcro Zipper protection Nifco strings YKK Zipper, 5cn Wire in hat Black plastic attached to the zippers Material PTFE Nylon (PA) PVC tppur POM Polyester Aluminum Polyester The North Face Store - Appendix 4. The scheme is divided into two parts. The first part is primary material production with the embodied energy and CO 2 footprint. The second part is the disposal, where the heat of combusting and the combusting of CO 2 are shown. Given values: Material Embodied energy (MJ/kg) CO 2 footprint (kg/kg) Heat of combusting (MJ/kg) Combustion CO 2 (kg/kg) PTFE Nylon PVC Polyurethane (tppur)

19 Polyoxymethylen (POM) Polyester Aluminum x x Values. 18 There are two extremes, where the average value of these is used. Material Quantity (kg) Embodied energy (MJ) CO 2 footprint (kg) Heat of combusting (MJ) Combustion CO 2 (kg) PTFE , Nylon PVC Polyurethane (tppur) Polyoxymethylen (POM) Polyester Aluminum x x Total *0.80 = 10.79* Calculations - Appendix 3. *The heat of combusting is found by multiplying 80 percent, because 20 percent is lost in combustion. It is difficult to decide the exact material of the wire in the jacket. Aluminum would be a qualified guess, because of its ability to bend. The exact aluminum alloy is harder to determine though. 18 CES program 19

20 Gore-Tex production The Gore-Tex membrane consists of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, usually referred to as eptfe. At a glance PTFE is made from the monomer tetrafluoroethylene, TFE, by free radical vinyl polymerization. The short review does not disclose the complexity of the Gore-Tex manufacturing. The Gore Corporation has to take several matters into account: The synthesizing of TFE lists fluorspar, hydrofluoric acid and the highly toxic chloroform TFE is highly flammable. The heating of PTFE generate fumes that, if inhaled, can cause Teflon flu also known as polymer fume fever. Due to the flammability of TFE, it is manufactured at the site to avoid transportation. Prior to the pyrolysis 19 of TFE there is a preparation of chloroform and hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid, HF preparation: CaF 2 + H 2 SO 4 2 HF + CaSO 4 Chloroform, CHCl 3 preparation: CH Cl 2 CHCl HCl CHCl 3 and HF are then synthesized into chlorodifluoromethane: CHCl HF CHClF HCl Then the actual pyrolysis takes place: 2 CHClF 2 CF 2 =CF HCL Among these compounds a few other less volumetrically significant ones are produced: Hexafluoropropylene, C 3 F 6 and tiny amount of highly toxic perfluoroisobutylene, PFIB 20. In order to gain purity of TFE the products are cooled, scrubbed with a dilute base solution to remove HCL and then dried. At this point TFE is a highly explosive gas, which ought to be handled with care to avoid explosive decomposition CF 2 =CF 2 C + CF 4. The gas is then compressed and distilled to recover the CHClF 2 that have not reacted and to gain further purity. 19 An action where ingredients are heated in absence of oxygen. 20 PFIB is listed on the Chemical Weapons Convention as a Schedule 2. 20

21 There are two main commercial ways to polymerize TFE: Suspension and dispersion. However, the process is company confidential 21 and therefore one can only assume that Gore uses dispersion polymerization, because the outcome is fine powder or a paste-like substance, which can be further processed into PTFE coatings or finishes. TFE is liquefied in an aqueous container in presence of an initiating chemical. The substance is then mixed gently and water is gradually removed as TFE polymerizes. A vast amount of the PTFE is created in the early stage and it grows slowly into a milky paste-like substance, known as PTFE dispersion. The simple theoretic description is given by the image below. The TFE polymer is polymerized into PTFE by breaking the double bond between the carbon atoms giving an opportunity to create a long chain of TFE polymers. This chain often consists of a vast number usually described by the letter, n. The last step in manufacturing the Gore-Tex membrane is extracting the PTFE in order to produce a semi-crystalline film. It is achieved by expanding the PTFE under its melting point of 327 o C in presence of aromatic hydrocarbon. The aromatic hydrocarbon creates porosity, which is the vital feature in Gore-Tex that allows vapour, but not water molecules, to pass. Environmental aspects and workers health The Danish Environment Ministry, MST and the Danish Labour Inspectorate, AT, have published a legislation on substances and materials that ought to be limited at workplaces. However, the Gore Corporation is situated in the US but it seems reasonable to argue that these limits are similar in every modern industrial country. 21 Mail from Martin Amnell - Appendix 4. 21

22 In the chart below is information on the substances that occur in the process of manufacturing the eptfe membrane. Name Molecular formula CAS-No. Boiling point o C Limit NB Chloroform CHCl ,2 10 mg/m 3 EHK Fluorite CaF 2 Fluorides ,5 mg/m 3 E Calcium Sulfate CaSO Hydrogen Fluoride HF ,6 1,5 mg/m 3 E Hydrogen Chloride HCL ,1 7 mg/m 3 EL Hexafluoropropylene C 3 F Perfluoroisobutylene PFIB ,082 mg/m 3 L HCFC-22 CHClF ,7 AT guidance The synthesizing of TFE is done at a temperature at which most of the substances are in their gaseous state. There is a considerable danger if the reactors leak. The health hazards are given by the limits in the chart and the letters E, H, K and L E: The substance has an EU limitation. H: The substance can be absorbed through the skin. K: The substance is suspected of being carcinogenic (cancer-producing). L: The limitation given is the absolute maximum. Chloroform and PFIB are to be highlighted as health hazards. In both cases an oral dose is known to be fatal. PFIB is known to be the source of Teflon flue. Gore takes practical measures to ensure that these toxic chemicals are not released into the environment by producing PTFE within a closed reactor. Chloroform is also listed on MST s list of unwanted substances with the classifications: Xn;R22 - Xi;R38 - Carc3;R40 - Xn;R48/20/22. These can be boiled down to the risk clauses H373, H315 and H351, which basically state that chloroform can cause organ damage, skin irritation and cancer. 22

23 Another vital consideration regards the storage of TFE. Viewed in the light of its properties it seems harmless. However, the presence of oxygen can ignite the TFE causing it to explode and release heat at a scale much like black gunpowder. Detonation of oxygen and TFE can increase the pressure up to 100 times the initial pressure. Therefore safe storage requests no more than 20 ppm. oxygen. TFE has the physical properties including a boiling point of o C at normal pressure KPa. Therefore it is reasonable to assume that it is stored as liquid, under conditions of high pressure and low temperatures. Taking the environment into account C 3 F 6 and HCFC-22 are both considered ozone depleting. Both listed as fluorinated greenhouse gasses on MST s list of unwanted substances. HCFC-22 is also highlighted in the Montreal Protocol adjustments of 2007 applying it to the HCFC Phase-out Schedule. This means by 2013 the production and consumption of such chemicals have to be frozen on at the average level of Furthermore the level is reduced in a number of phases until a complete phase-out estimated to be achieved in The question that ought to be asked is how this will impact upon the production of the Gore-Tex membranes. In this case the answer is to comprehend HCFC-22 as a direct and fully exploited feedstock to manufacture PTFE, whether this is regarded as a temporarily solution is not certain. The interpretation forces the Gore Corporation to fully convert HCFC-22 into TFE in the pyrolysis. However, economic drivers that have been present since PTFE first became commercialized have ensured that today s technologies are % efficient at converting HCFC-22 into TFE. When PTFE was first invented, the synthesizing was considered exorbitant, therefore techniques was applied so it was possible to recover and reuse the non-reacted HCFC ,23,24,25 22 Mail from MIM. Appendix Listen over uønskede stoffer 25 Fluoroplastics: Non-melt Processible Fluoroplastics Chapter 4. 23

24 Manufacturing phase The Gore-Tex membrane is manufactured in China by Gore. They apply the laminate that protects the membrane and therefore most of the textile is produced before it is sent to The North Face production unit in China. 26 It is cost efficient to place The North Face production unit in China, both in an economic and environmental matter. Both Gore and The North Face know that they mainly meet with the economic sphere of the sustainability when producing the jacket in China. In this case they ought to make it equitable in order to achieve social acceptance. Therefore both companies have a Code Of Conduct ensuring that they do not benefit from child labor or insufficient living wage. 27 The North Face has to consider the environment, both regarding manufacturing and transport, in order to make their jacket sustainable. Since the jacket is made of different materials, it is hard to find an exact value of how much energy is absorbed in manufacturing the jacket. It is assumed that the industry norm of one-seventh of the embodied energy is the energy it costs to produce the jacket: 7.95 MJ Mail from Martin Amnell - Appendix Well Dressed - Page 29 24

25 Usage Phase Energy consumption The energy consumption, which is consumed in a washing machine while the jacket is cleaned, is estimated by measuring how much electricity and water are used every time the machine washes. A washing machine marked with an A, the electricity utilization is very small, only 0.95 kwh, or 3420 Joule 29. The usage of water for every wash is 49 litres 30. If the jacket is washed once a year for 5 years, the energy consumption will be 17,100 Joule and 245 litres. Nikwax Gore-Tex wash and maintenance guideline recommends re-impregnating of the outdoor jacket with DWR (Durable Water Repellent), which is a product produced by numerous brands. In this case most Danish suppliers and outdoor stores endorse Nikwax. Nikwax is simply a product that prolongs the life of an outdoor jacket because the re-impregnation ensures that water will not soak the material and therefore enable the Gore-Tex membrane to breathe. This should be considered as a positive environmental contribution. Nikwax has recognized the importance of taking the environment into account. Consequently the waterproofing company has achieved several eco awards and published a Corporate Social Responsibility report. 31 Though the exact formula is company confidential, Nikwax emphasizes that Energistyrelsen - vaskemaskine. 31 Nikwax CSR report. 25

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