BEVARINGS AFDELINGEN. Preservation conditions in the area bordering the sheet piling at Bryggen, Bergen:

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1 BEVARINGS AFDELINGEN Preservation conditions in the area bordering the sheet piling at Bryggen, Bergen: Resultats from new dipwells MB 15, 30, 31, 32 and MB 33 installed in 2009

2 Department of Consetvation Preservation conditions in the area bordering the sheet piling at Bryggen, Bergen: Results from new dipwells MB15, 30, 31, 32 and 33 installed in Henning Matthiesen REPORT no June 2010

3 Report from the Department of Conservation National Museum of Denmark IC Modewegsvej, Brede DK-2800 Lyngby Denmark Telephone Telefax Case: Date: 10th June 2010 Title: Preservation conditions in the area bordering the sheet piling at Bryggen, Bergen: Results from new dipwells MB15, 30, 31, 32 and 33 installed in Author: Henning Matthiesen Summary: Five new dipwells have been installed at Schotstuene and near the sheet piling at Bryggen in Bergen, in order to evaluate the preservation conditions for the cultural deposits. In this report the results are discussed, including a review of earlier studies and reports from the area. Two main threats are discussed: drainage, and increased through-flow of water. The extent of the drained area has been better documented through the new dipwells, and the presence of medieval cultural layers above the groundwater level has been shown near Scluzitstuene. Some of the layers above the groundwater level are surprisingly well preserved, possibly due to a thick layer of "garden soil" above, which may function as an oxygen scavenger and protect the layers underneath. The different soil layers still have a high organic content and a large settling potential. Continuous measurements in four soil strata above the groundwater level show a slow decrease in water content since The preservation conditions in the area are considered critical and the groundwater level should be raised. The area alongside the sheet piling has been investigated in terms of horizontal and vertical waterflow and its consequences for the preservation conditions. The horizontal waterflow is estimated to be significant in the area, causing very dynamic conditions and flow of oxygen-rich water through the upper deposits (shown at MB5); the water flow may also explain a low salt content in the upper soil layers along the sheet piling, and possibly also a low content at FB1. The vertical waterflow at the sheet piling is estimated to be significantly higher than in the middle of Bryggen, and the groundwater chemistry in dipwells near the sheet piling is characterised by an increased dilution by rainwater compared to the more stagnant areas. A preliminary geochemical model has been made according to which the decay rate for organic material near the sheet piling is faster than in the more stagnant areas, but better estimates of the waterflow are necessary to confirm it. Some suggestions are given with regard to future monitoring in the area, which will document the effect on the preservation conditions by the planned construction work around the sheet piling. Henning Matthiesen Author David Gregory Control 2

4 Table of contents Introduction 4 Earlier studies at Bryggen 5 Site and methods 7 Results 8 Discussion 15 Area A - drained 16 State of preservation. 16 Preservation conditions. 17 Further monitoring. 19 Area B increased water flow 20 State of preservation. 20 Preservation conditions. 22 Further monitoring 28 Conclusions and future work 29 References 31 Appendix 1: Results from analysis of soil samples from MB15, 30, 31, 32 and 33 (Eurofins) Appendix 2: Results from analysis of groundwater from MB15, 32 and 33 (Eurofins) 3

5 Introduction Both drainage and oxygen-rich groundwater flowing through the cultural layers cause local preservation problems in the area around the sheet piling that surrounds the SAS-hotel site at Bryggen. Plans are currently being made to modify the sheet piling and drainage system, in order to stop the drainage from the cultural layers and at the same time decrease the waterflow along the sheet piling. In this context it is important to acquire more detailed knowledge of the conditions in the area, both before, during and after the work. In order to elucidate this, five new dipwells were installed along the sheet piling and at SchsAstuene north of it in September and October The National Museum of Denmark has been contracted by Riksantikvaren to evaluate the conditions of and threats to the cultural layers around the sheet piling based on results from analysis of groundwater, soil and wood samples from these dipwells. Some of the earlier reports from Bryggen are reviewed in order to include all available information in the conclusions / ~ MB31 Oversikiskart Miljot røn e BI:Yggen, novemb i :, 2009 MB30I manuelle målinger automatiske målinger flerniváprovetaker tidhgere miljobrønn drenering m asij drenering m asl spuntvegg tidligere bekkedrag svakhetssone i tjell 1,7330 7,7, SSO Figure 1: Map of Bryggen, showing the position of the new dipwells MB15 and MB Other dipwells and excavations discussed in the text are marked as well. The sheet piling ("spuntvegg") is marked by a thick black line. Map from Hans de Beer, NGU 4

6 Earlier studies at Bryggen A total of 36 dipwells and 1 multilevel sampler have been installed in the Bryggen area from 2001 to 2009, in order to get an overview of the preservation conditions for the cultural layers and their current state of preservation. Furthermore small excavations were made in 2002, 2004 and The state of preservation of the deposits has been described in detail by archaeologist Rory Dunlop from NIKU in a range of reports (Dunlop ). Wood is a key material in the cultural deposits, and the state of preservation of archaeological as well as modern wood samples has been investigated on several occasions (Björdal, 2008;Gregory & Matthiesen, 2006;Klaassen et al, 2005). Continuous logging of the groundwater level in (some of) the dipwells has allowed the construction of a dynamic hydrological model for the area (de Beer et al, 2008;de Beer, 2008). Groundwater sampling has been made from the dipwells on several occasions, including sampling in all dipwells in 2005 (Matthiesen, 2006), and in 2008 (Matthiesen, 2008c). The hydrology and the groundwater chemistry are decisive for the preservation conditions in the cultural layers. A conceptual model of the groundwater and preservation conditions has been developed (de Beer & Matthiesen, 2008;Matthiesen, 2008b) and is continuously being refmed the latest version is shown in Figure 2. Oversååskárt miljøl;ronr Figure 2: Conceptual model of the preservation conditions in different areas of Bryggen, based on the groundwater level, -flow, and composition. Area A is influenced by drainage and has bad preservation conditions. Area B is influenced by flushing with oxygen-rich rainwater, possibly governed by the sheet piling, and has intermediate preservation conditions. Area C is influenced by seawater, and has intermediate preservation conditions. Area D has relatively stagnant conditions and very good preservation conditions. 5

7 Seawater with Na+, (1, so42 mg2+, K+ A " : -. ø.. Water from bedrock/natural de osits \la1c1 \ Same areas shown in profile, seen atel \\ ), from south-eastowards north-west. Area E is in the natural deposits : underneath the cultural layers: here the groundwater is a mixture of 1( ( ). I I. R t'a water from the cultural and natural I.. I., deposits. The preservation conditions vary considerably at Bryggen, and threats to the cultural layers are continuously evaluated. It is attempted to quantify the actual decay rates in the different areas, in order to compare the threats and prioritize the remedial actions: As for area C (influenced by seawater), the extent and eftects of seawater intrusion in the cultural layers at the quay front have recently been evaluated this showed that seawater intrusion may cause a substantial decay of organic material in the cultural layers, but renovation of the sewage system has decreased the frequency of flooding events substantially and the seawater seems to penetrate into the upper soil layers only (Matthiesen, 2008a;Matthiesen, 2010). As for area D (stagnant conditions) the preservation conditions seem to be very good, and probably as good as it gets at any urban site. A first attempt has recently been made to quantify the actual decay rate of these deposits, in order to have a reference level or a goal for the rest of Bryggen. The decay rates were estimated from the groundwater analyses, by setting up a numerical model in the geochemical program PHREEQC (Matthiesen, 2009). The approach was very promising, but also showed that the hydrology and geochemistry models need to be more closely linked in order to achieve better estimates of the actual rates. As for area E it consists of natural deposits with no or only very few archaeological artefacts, so the preservation conditions are less important. The hydrological model indicates that the groundwater flow mainly goes from the cultural deposits down into the natural deposits, which implies that the cultural deposits are not influenced by the groundwater composition in area E. On the other hand Dunlop has shown that for some of the dipwells (next to the sheet piling) the state of preservation of the cultural deposits worsens down towards the natural deposits, which is difficult to explain at this stage (Dunlop, 2003 and 2010). As for area A (drained area) it is characterized by a low groundwater level and high settling rate of the soil surface (Jensen, 2007). A srnall excavation was carried out in 2006 in order to study the conditions in the drained zone and install monitoring equipment (Matthiesen, 2007). This showed that the soil above the groundwater level still has a high settling potential and the settling will 6

8 probably not stop before the groundwater level is raised. It also indicated that the decay and settling mainly takes place in the uppermost soil layers (1-1% m) in the excavated area, and it was hypothesised that the decay rate is controlled by the flux of oxygen into the soil layers (Matthiesen et al, 2008). The exact extent of the drained area is not known yet, and it is also unknown whether the area excavated in 2006 is representative for the rest of the drained area. As for area B (flushed by rainwater) it has been shown that the conditions in the upper soil layers can be very dynamic this was clearly demonstrated by a combined water level and oxygen logger placed in MB5, showing how the groundwater level and the oxygen concentration in the groundwater fluctuated on a daily basis depending on the rainfall (Matthiesen, 2005b). Modern wood samples installed in the fluctuating zone showed the occurrence of wood-decaying soft-rot, which requires oxygen for growth (Gregory et al, 2009;Gregory & Matthiesen, 2006). Further studies in the area include a small excavation and several drillings to evaluate if the sheet piling had a direct effect on the cultural layers next to it (Christensson et al, 2008;Dunlop, 2006): The state of preservation was found to be poor in the upper deposits (down to 1-3 m below sea level), with medium to good preservation deeper down, and with a tendency of showing a slightly worsened preservation in the deepest deposits just above the natural deposits. Chloride measurements showed that the upper soil layers (down to 2 m below sea level) were "washed out" with a very low salt content, possibly because the sheet piling forms a barrier that may guide the rainwater flow towards the quay front (Matthiesen, 2004;Matthiesen, 2005a). There is also an increased vertical water flow at the sheet piling (de Beer, 2008, p 35) as water flowing beneath and through the piling gives a reduced hydraulic head in the natural deposits beneath the cultural layers. Finally, temperature loggers in the groundwater have shown that the highest temperatures are found in dipwells near the hotel (de Beer, 2008). Overall, this indicates non-ideal preservation conditions in the deposits in area B, but it is still unclear if decay takes place at all depths in the deposits and if the decay rate is critical. In order to elucidate the conditions in area A and B further, five new dipwells were installed in the drained area and along the sheet piling in September and October This report focuses on the results from the new dipwells, but also includes earlier material from areas A and B. Some suggestions are given on how monitoring should proceed in the area when the drainage system and sheet piling are modified. Site and methods The new dipwells are shown in Figure 1, along with other dipwells and excavations referred to in the text. The drilling work was carried out in September and October 2009 by Multiconsult and archaeologist Rory Dunlop from the Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research (NIKU). The soil stratigraphy and state of preservation is described in two reports by Dunlop (Dunlop 2009; 7

9 Dunlop 2010). Twenty seven soil samples were analysed for p1-1, water content, loss on ignition (LOI), and water-soluble chloride; eighteen of these were also analysed for water-soluble sulphate, total sulphur, total nitrogen and total phosphorus; and two samples were also analysed for pyrite. The results are shown in Appendix 1. Some of the samples from the drillings contained wood. A total of 15 pieces of wood were retrieved and their density (dry weight vs. wet volume) was measured. The position of the dipwells and the level of their water intakes (fdter) are shown in Table 1. Table 1: Position of dipwells (data from Multiconsult/NGU). On 29th October 2009 water was sampled from the dipwells by Multiconsult. The dipwells were emptied before the actual sampling, to ensure that fresh water from the cultural layers was sampled. The water samples were filtered in the field (0.45 tm Gelman high capacity in-line filter). Samples for methane were (as far as possible) taken inline before the filter, to avoid de-gassing of methane. Two of the dipwells were empty (MB30, MB31), and only MB15 had sufficient water flow to ensure a good sampling for methane - de-gassing may have taken place for the samples from MB32 and MB33. The samples were sent to the laboratory (Eurofins) and analysed for alkalinity, salt (sodium, chloride), nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate), redox-active species (sulphate, nitrate, dissolved iron, dissolved manganese, sulphide, methane), and other major ions (calcium, magnesium, potassium), which gives a good description of the chemical conditions in the groundwater. The reports from the laboratory are shown in Appendix 2. At the site of the 2006 excavation the water content of four different soil strata in the unsaturated zone is measured continuously by SM200 probes cormected to a datalogger - the setup and soil strata are described in Matthiesen (2007). Data are downloaded at intervals, latest on 8th June Furthermore, sensors measuring temperature and oxygen content were installed in three soil strata. These sensors are not connected to a logger, but are measured manually at intervals when the necessary measuring equipment is available in Bergen. Results The results from analysis of soil and wood samples from MB30, 31, 32, 33 and 15 are presented in Figure 3, along with the preservation category of the different soil strata given by Dunlop. Results 8

10 from groundwater analysis of samples taken in MB32, 33 and 15 in October 2009 are presented in Figure 4, along with results from May 2008 from other dipwells at Bryggen; the figure also includes results from a geochemical modelling of the groundwater composition in the cultural layers, based on a slow vertical water flow of 0.1 m/year. Results from water content measurements in the unsaturated zone are given in Figure 5, and results from oxygen and temperature measurements in the same zone are given in Table 2. A note about the units used: Dissolved species are given as "mol/l" to allow an easy evaluation of the ion balance in the water and a good overview of their quantitative importance. Results from soil analysis are, on the other hand, normally presented as mg/g dry soil. Modelled decay of organic material (in Figure 4) is given as mol/l/year, which is the annual decay of organic matter in a soil volume containing 1 L pore water. Where it is necessary to make a direct comparison, the recalculation is made in the text. 9

11 % LOI dry matter dry matter (Multiconsult) Dipwel 0 5 mg/g dry weight ci e so4 ph mg/g dry weight S-tot N-tot P-tot Wood dens ty (g/cm3) - Pres.Cat (*0.1)

12 5 4 - Soil surface 50 MB32: Description by Dunlop (NIKU) Stones (fillforsheet pile). Strong diesel stench Layerof clay, 60 cm thick Layers of wood and clay Compact, laminated mossw. woodchips. Sand from 0.3 m asi 100 % LOI dry matter dry matter (Multiconsult) Dipwel mg/g dry weight Cn co 3 2.c a> mg/g dry weight MB < a. 0-1 Soil surface MB33: Description by Dunlop (NIKU) Stones(fillforsheet pile). Humus w. wood chips Layers of sand and wood e Compact, laminated moss w. woodchips. -3 Drilling abandoned at m asl % LOI dry matter dry matter (Multiconsult) BDipweI mg/g dry weight mg/g dry weight Cl SO4 ph 0 S-tot N-tot P-tot Wood density (g/cm3) - Pres.Cat (*0.1) 11

13 2 Soil surface 5: Description by Dunlop (NIKU) Stones (fillforsheet pile) Groundwater Humus/sand - eavesdrop deposit. ei cu Medium preservation -1-1 (7) E -2 co -2 Very organic, no humus, compact E ie _c -3 Well preserved wood a Good preservation Å (1) le Gyttja from -6 m asl -6 Á % mg/g dry weight mg/g dry weight 118 LOI dry matter dry matter (Multiconsult) Dipwel CI Á ph S-tot N-tot P-tot Figure 3: Description and soil analyses of drillings MB30, 31, 32, 33, and 15. LOI is loss-on-ignition, Cl is water extractable chloride, SO4 is water extractable sulphate, S-tot N-tot and P-tot are the total Wood density (g/cm3) Pres.Cat(*0.1) amount of sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus, and density of wood is the dry weight to wet volume density. The preservation category of the different soil strata is evaluated by Dunlop on a scale from 1 (very poor) to 5 (very good) here the numbers have been downscaled by factor 10 to include them in the graph. 0 is used for inorganic or modern f111. Black lines are for soil beneath the groundwater level (C1-05) and red lines are for soil above the water level (Al-A5). 12

14 ME32-4 M B , -2 / : M B15 o ph -10 II Alkalinity (mol/l) T1C (mol/l) P CO2 (atm) s _ E 4 O si & 6 -S NH4 (mol/l) P (mol/l) P CH4 (atm) 13 1J 3 o / 't -4 8 _5 O -s -S ale -s Na (mo1/1) -10 i Fe (rnol/l) O Ca (mol/l) K (mol/l) 3 z s O Cl(mol/L) 504 (mol/l) Sulfid (mo1/1.) delta Orge (rnol/l/year) Figure 4: Results from groundwater analyses data from MB32, MB33, and MB15 are shown as orange points, where the uppermost is MB32 (1.54 m as1), MB33 is in the middle (-1.99 m as1), and the lowest is MB15 (-5.59 m as1). For comparison, data from sampling of other dipwells on Bryggen in May 2008 are shown (some results are missing as they are higher than the maximum value on the x-axis). The different colours indicate different types of water identified hitherto: Green water from relatively stagnant conditions; red influenced by seawater; pink "young" samples very diluted by rainwater; and blue samples from natural deposits undemeath the cultural layers. The black lines are the output from a numerical groundwater geochemistry model made in PHREEQC attempting to model the stagnant condition using a moderate vertical flow of 0.1 m/year through organic deposits. It must be emphasized that the model still needs validation and the numbers should not be over-interpreted. Updated from Matthiesen (2009). 14

15 Excavation Water content, Unsaturated zone, Bugården ) jul-06 jan-07 jul-07 jan-08 jul-08 jan-09 jul-09 jan ,27 m asi (mixed) 2,81 m asi (chalk) 2,43 m asi (stone) 1,98 m asi (organic) Figure 5: Results from SM200 sensors shown as approximate water content. Standard calibration curves have been used for the different soil layers, as described in Matthiesen (2007). The results from soil samples taken during the excavation in September 2006 are shown as well (soil porosity shown as horizontal lines, water content during the excavation shown as diamonds). The daily precipitation values are taken from wnn met.no for the Florida weather station in Bergen. Data are missing for two periods (summer 2007 and spring 2009) due to logger problems. The output from the sensor at 1.98 m asl(organic) was "over range" for the first two years, indicating a water content higher than 80% vol. The soil surface (cobble-stone) is at 4.15 m asl. The results from oxygen and temperature measurements in the unsaturated zone are shown in Table 2: Date Oxygen Temp. Oxygen Temp. Oxygen Temp. Oxygen Temp. Oxygen Temp. De th (% sat) ( C) (% sat) ( C) % sat) ( C) (% sat) ( C) (% sat) ( C) 2.81 m as m asi 1.98 m asi Table 2: Oxygen concentration and soil temperature at different depths in the excavation pit from 2006, measured with sensors lell in situ. The oxygen sensor at 2.43 m as1 was not working. Discussion The discussion is organised to discuss the following: first, the results from the drained area A (MB30, 31, 32, 33 as well as old dipwells MB7, 8, 21 and 22), and secondly area B (MB 15 as well as old dipwells 4, 5, 13, 16, 17, and drillings PB1-3). There is some overlap, as the group MB13, 15, 16 and 17 also belong to the drained area. For both areas firstly the actual state of preservation is discussed, then the preservation conditions above and beneath the groundwater level, and finally some suggestions are given concerning monitoring before, during and after the construction work at the sheet piling, to document its effect on the preservation conditions. 15

16 Area A - drained State of preservation: In the area around Schøtstuene (MB30 and MB31) the upper 21/2 meters consist of postrnedieval "garden soil" with an indefmable state of preservation Figure 3. Beneath this up to 2 m of relatively organic medieval layers with medium to good state of preservation (A3-A4) are found (Dunlop, 2009). A similar picture was observed for MB22 nearby. MB32 is unusual as the sequence contains some thick layers of pure clay. As for MB33 the upper 2 m consists of modern fill from the installation of the sheet piling. Beneath this 4 m of medieval layers with poor to good state of preservation (C2-C4) are found (Dunlop, 2010). MB7 is placed nearby, but further from the sheet piling. Flere there is only 1/2 m of rnodern fill, but the upper 11/2 m of the medieval deposits are in a very poor to poor state of preservation (A 1-A2). Beneath this 41/2 m of medieval layers of medium to very good state of preservation (C3-05) are found (Dunlop, 2007) significantly better than at MB33. MB21 was only drilled to a depth of 4 rn, here there is 1 m of modern full, and beneath this 3 rn of medieval deposits of very poor to medium state of preservation (A1-A3) are found. A few archaeological wood samples have been retrieved from the drillings and characterized in terms of their density (Figure 3). In area A samples have been retrieved from MB30, 31, 32, 33, 21, and the excavation in Bugården in 2006, and their densities are compiled in Figure 6. Most of the samples are from above the groundwater level and most of them show a low density around 0.2 g/cm3. The tree species have not been forrnally identified for these sarnples, but it is assumed that most are pine. For cornparison, fresh pine has a density of approximately g/cm3, dependent on the proportion of early and late wood in the sample. A decrease in density indicates that different components in the wood have decayed. Depending on the environrnental conditions this decay may be caused by either bacteria or fungi, which have different consequences for the wood as described in Gregory & Matthiesen (2006). A density of only 0.2 g/cm3 indicates that the wood will collapse if it is excavated and allowed to dry without conservation. It is difficult to decide if the decay is ongoing, or if it took place a long time ago. A decay experiment in an active compost heap (trying to simulate pre-burial conditions for archaeological material) showed that the density of fresh pine could decrease to 0.33 g/cm3 in 20 months (Gregory et al, 2009) and further to 0.24 g/cm3 in 30 months (unpublished) under hurnid, oxic conditions. 16

17 Density of archaeological wood Loss on ignition of samples from samples from area A (drained) drained area ?) 0 o) -2 a> Density (g/cm3) Excav2006 M821 MB30 M1331 MB32 MB LOI (%) 100 MB30 MB31 MB32 -~ MB33 MB7 MB21 Excav2006 Figure 6: Density of wood samples (left), and loss on ignition of soil samples (right) from area A. Loss on ignition (LOI) is used to characterize soil samples and their vulnerability to oxidation; it is closely linked to the amount of organic matter in the soil. LOI is very variable in the drained area, as seen in Figure 6, where results from the different drillings are compiled. There is a vague tendency towards increasing LOI with depth, but not as clear as one might expect thus there is no distinct difference between LOI values measured above and below the groundwater level, which is found at approximately 1 m as1 in this area. This indicates that the LOI values found today are mainly determined by the origin of the deposits, rather than a possible decay and decrease in LOI over time. The high LOI values found for some of the soil samples from above the groundwater level means that there is still a large settling potential for the soil. For MB7 it was estimated that if all the organic material above the groundwater level disappeared over time, the theoretical worst case settling potential would be up to 2 m (Matthiesen, 2004). Figure 6 shows that the other drillings from the area have LOI values similar to MB7 and thus similarly large settling potentials. Preservation conditions: Groundwater level: In the area around Scheitstuene the water level is several meters below the soil surface. At MB30 the cultural deposits are all above 3.3 m as1; the dipwell was dry during the groundwater sampling on 29th October 2009 (meaning that the water level was below 3.5 m as1) and on I Ith November it was measured at 3.86 m asl. At MB31 the cultural deposits are all above 2.7 m as1; the dipwell was dry during the sampling (meaning that the water level was below 1.65 m as1) and on 1 h November it was measured to 3.13 m asl. At MB22 the groundwater level fluctuates 17

18 between 0.4 and 1.6 m asl, and the cultural deposits are all above 0.55 m asl. This means that for these 3 dipwells all the cultural deposits are often or at least occasionally above the groundwater level. At MB32 the cultural deposits extend down to 0.3 m as1 and the groundwater level on 11 th November was 1.57 m asl. At MB33 the cultural deposits extend down to at least m asl(not drilled to the bottom) and the water level was 0.27 m asl. At MB7 the cultural deposits extend down to -1.8 m asl and the groundwater level fluctuates between 0.4 and 1.6 m asl. At MB21 the cultural deposits extend down to at least 0.3 m as1 (not drilled to the bottom) and the water level fluctuates between <1.25 and 2.5 m asl. This means that for these four dipwells the cultural deposits are found both above and below the groundwater level. Preservation conditions above the groundwater level: The conditions above the groundwater level are critical for the cultural layers as there may be a significant supply of oxygen through unsaturated soil the transport rate of oxygen through air is >1000 times faster than through water. Oxygen is used by microorganisms to decompose organic material, which can result in the settling of buildings and ground surface that is observed in the area (Jensen, 2007). However, the organic material doesn't all disappear overnight, and there may be a lag phase where the soil layers gradually dry out and where the oxygen is consumed in the upper soil strata before it reaches the deeper deposits. Results from the water content logger (Figure 5) placed in the excavation pit from 2006 show a decreasing tendency over time: the water content at the uppermost sensor at 3.27 m as1 decreases from approximately 58% vol in autumn 2006 to 40-50% vol in autumn 2009 (the absolute values should not be over-interpreted, as no soil-specific calibration could be made). A very low water content (down to 25% vol) is seen during the winter 2009/10 with a sudden increase to 45-50% in March 2010 this is because the precipitation is stored as snow during the winter, which then melts in March. The next sensor at 2.81 m as1 is placed in lime this shows a decrease from 70 to 60% vol. The fluctuations in water content over the seasons are much lower for lirne, as it is a finegrained material with a good ability to retain water. The third sensor at 2.43 m as1 is placed in coarse stone material, which has a low water-retaining ability. Here the water content decreases from 60% to 40% and the fluctuations are much larger. During the autumn/winter 2009/10 the fluctuations are very rapid and difficult to correlate to the precipitation it cannot be excluded that this is due to the water content being below the reliable measuring range, or the sensor may be at the end of its use-life. The deepest sensor at 1.98 rn asl is of prime interest, as it is placed in a very organic soil layer. For the first two years the water content was above the measuring range of the sensor (above 80% vol), but since the summer of 2008 it has decreased from 80% vol to 60-70% vol, with an apparent seasonal variation. It thus seems that the layers even 2 meters below the soil surface are slowly drying out. The results from the srnall excavation in 2006 indicated that most 18

19 decomposition of organic material was taking place in the uppermost 1% m of the soil (Matthiesen, 2007), but the slow drying out could mean that the decomposition will also take place in deeper soil layers in the future. As for the oxygen concentrations measured in situ it was observed during the excavation that the layer of fme-grained lime formed an efficient oxygen barrier. The high water content of the lirne slowed down the oxygen transport so no oxygen reached the deeper deposits (Matthiesen, 2007). The oxygen measurements carried out after the excavation (Table 2) confirms this picture and no oxygen has been present during the four visits made until now. However, only two out of the three installed sensors are working, and it would be more informative to have continuous logging of the oxygen at several depths. The lime layer doesn't cover all of Bryggen, and there is no guarantee that the excavation pit from 2006 is representative for the whole of the drained area. At MB30 and MB31 there is a 2 m thick layer of post-medieval "garden soil" instead. This covers some surprisingly well-preserved organicrich medieval layers (C3-C4), and it seems likely that the garden soil functions as an oxygen barrier stopping the oxygen penetration from above, just like the lime layer. However, oxygen measurements down through the different soil strata would be necessary to confirm this. Conditions below the groundwater level: In the area around Scheftstuene (including MB30, 31 and 22) all the cultural layers are (at least occasionally) above the groundwater level, and it is not relevant to discuss the preservation conditions for the natural deposits underneath. For MB32 and 33 some of the cultural layers are permanently beneath the groundwater level. The groundwater composition is shown in Figure 4 (orange points) and in Appendix 2. Oxygen measurements could not be made in the water sarnples, but there is no nitrate and the concentration of dissolved iron is high, both of which indicate anoxic conditions in the water at the time of sampling. The concentration of sulphate is low so there is little to oxidize organic rnaterial in the soil. It is, however, too early to say if this is a stable condition this will require repeated sampling or even better the use of an automated oxygen logger. Furthermore it is necessary to know the water flow through the deposits to evaluate the decay rate and preservation conditions. Further monitoring: The preservation conditions around the sheet piling have to be improved in order to stop the ongoing settling of the buildings and soil surface. It is planned to raise the groundwater level by making the sheet piling watertight. In order to verify the effect it is necessary to continue the monitoring before, during and after the construction work: Obviously, logging of the groundwater level and measurements of the settling in the area must continue. In the soil strata above the groundwater level, logging of water content in the excavation 19

20 pit from 2006 must continue, in order to see if the "drying out" tendency is stopped (Figure 5). It is recommended to supplement this with measurements of oxygen in the different soil strata, ideally with automated equipment. Also it is recommended to make similar measurements in other parts of the drained area, for instance near Scheitstuene, as the conditions at the excavation pit are not necessarily representative for the whole area. For the conditions beneath the groundwater table it is recommended to use one or more oxygen loggers that are moved between the dipwells in the drained area. If an oxygen logger is not available, a conductivity logger may also reveal if the conditions are stable or dynamic. The logging should be supplemented by frequent sampling of water and analysis for redox-active species. Area B - increased water flow An overview of the different dipwells, drillings and soil strata along the sheet piling are shown in Figure 7: FB1 PB1-3 MB8/ MB5 MB13 MB MB4 MB15 rab16 MB Modem fill, top Dipwells MB Distance from harbour (m) Cultural deposit, top Natural deposits, top -Waterievel, max Waterlevel, min Figure 7: Transect along the sheet piling, showing the different drillings and dipwells in area B, along with the soil surface, groundwater level and top/bottom of the cultural layers found in these drillings. The top of the cultural layers (green curve) looks very variable as the layer of modem fill is a couple of meters thick right next to the sheet piling (e.g. at PB1-3) whereas it is less than 1 m thick just a few meters from the sheet piling (e.g. MB5). State of preservation: The upper 2 m of the drilling for the new dipwell MB15 consisted of modern fill from the installation of the sheet piling (stone/large pebbles) and the next 1 m consisted of post-medieval fill of poor or indefmable state of preservation (Dunlop, 2010). The medieval deposits beneath were in 20

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