Linguistic Specifications for DanNet Version 2

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1 DanNet June 27, 2012 Linguistic Specifications for DanNet Version 2 Bolette S. Pedersen & Anna Braasch, Center for Sprogteknologi, Københavns Universitet, Sanni Nimb, Jørg Asmussen, Nicolai Sørensen, Henrik Lorentzen & Lars Trap-Jensen, Det Danske Sprogog Litteraturselskab * * * 1

2 Contents 1. Introduction Overview of editorial principles... 5 Word selection... 5 Organization of the lexical network... 5 Polysemy and sense distinctions... 7 Synonymy... 8 Connotation and gender Relations and features Domain Background: Sysfag in DDO Ontological type Actions, events, properties and abstract objects (2nd and 3rd Order Entities) Examples Examples of concrete (1 st Order Entities) Ontological type: NATURAL + SUBSTANCE Ontological type: PLANT + OBJECT Ontological type: PLANT + OBJECT+PART+COMESTIBLE Ontological type: HUMAN + OBJECT Ontological type: HUMAN + OBJECT + OCCUPATION Ontological type: HUMAN + OBJECT + GROUP Ontological type: ANIMAL + OBJECT Ontological type: ARTIFACT + OBJECT Ontological type: VEHICLE +ARTIFACT+OBJECT Ontological type: COMESTIBLE + ARTIFACT + OBJECT Ontological type: FURNITURE + ARTIFACT + OBJECT Ontological type: INSTRUMENT + ARTIFACT + OBJECT Examples of acts (2 nd Order Entities) Ontological type: BOUNDEDEVENT+AGENTIVE+CONDITION+PHYSICAL Ontological type: BOUNDEDEVENT+AGENTIVE+MENTAL+PURPOSE Examples of properties (2 nd Order Entities) Ontological type: PROPERTY+CONDITION+PHYSICAL Examples of abstract entities (3rd Order Entities) Ontological type: 3RDORDERENTITY+MENTAL+PURPOSE+MANNER Validation References

3 1. Introduction These specifications cover the Danish lexical-semantic wordnet DanNet Version 2, which has been developed by Centre for Language Technology, University of Copenhagen, and the Society for Danish Language and Literature. The specifications present the types of information present in DanNet, and how they are to be interpreted linguistically. For a more in depth treatment of the methodological and linguistic choices we have made, as well as information about the sources used for the project, we refer to Pedersen et al. 2009, EuroWordNet (Vossen (ed.) 1999), Princeton WordNet (Fellbaum (ed.) 1998), and the Generative Lexicon (Pustejovsky 1995). Additionally, see our list of publications on wordnet.dk. DanNet now contains 65,000 so-called synsets, or sets of synonyms. A synset is the set of words in a given language that refer to the same concept. It is thus possible to equate a synset with a concept. Synsets are the central building blocks or nodes in the wordnet, and they are related to one another by semantic relations. Furthermore, synsets and relations are further specified by semantic characteristics or features. All 65,000 synsets are provided with an ontological type and a link to the closest hypernym. Presently, more information is supplied about concrete substantives, these having on average four semantic relations to other synsets. 5,000 Danish synsets are linked to the equivalent English synset in Princeton WordNet (by the relation eq_has_synonym), also labelled Princeton Core. Approximately 30% of the material has been produced semi-automatically with no further annotations; this is especially true for actions, events, properties and abstract entities. Concrete objects have received the most attention and as such have more relations than other concepts (for more information on the description of artifacts in DanNet, see Nimb, 2009). Approximately 2% of the material has been validated by others than the DanNet editors, see section 6. Figure 1 shows a small excerpt of the wordnet from the area concerning musical instruments. The squares correspond to synsets and the lines to relations. The arrows illustrate the hyponymy relation, i.e. the closest hypernym. The relations are inherited such that trompet ( trumpet ) inherits all the relations that its hypernym has, meaning made_by fremstille ( manufacture ), used_for frembringe musik ( making music ) and blæse ( blow ), has_mero_part mundstykke ( mouth piece ), rør ( pipe ) and ventil ( valve ), as well as has_mero_made_of metal. 3

4 Figure 1: Graphical display of trompet and the relations it inherits from its hypernyms. Figure 2 and 3 show two other graphical representations of musikinstrument ( musical instrument ) from the webpage andreord.dk, where it is possible to browse DanNet online with Danish relation names (for a more thorough review of this browser, see Johannsen & Pedersen 2010). Figure 2 shows all relations given or inherited by musikinstrument, while figure 3 shows the largest groups of hyponyms for this concept. Figure 2: Musikinstrument shown with all its relations 4

5 Figure 3: Musikinstrument shown with the largest groups of hyponyms such as wind instruments, string instruments etc. 2. Overview of editorial principles Word selection The vocabulary in DanNet is a subset of Den Danske Ordbog (DDO), a corpus-based monolingual dictionary of modern Danish (online version: ordnet.dk/ddo). Two principles guided the selection: Frequency Focus on concrete objects This means that highly frequent terms are generally in DanNet if they are concrete objects, while some frequently used words from other semantic domains, such as actions and abstract entities, still may be missing. Organization of the lexical network DanNet is organized by closest hypernym. Hypernyms were automatically extracted from DDO but adjusted by the DanNet editors. In addition to closest hypernym, each synset has an ontological type from the EuroWordNet-ontology, cf. section 4. 5

6 The hypernyms used in DDO's meaning definitions were not taken from an established ontological system, but chosen by the individual editor in concordance with the general editorial guidelines for the dictionary. This means that one DDO-editor has chosen lære as the hypernym for informatik ( informatics ) and bromatologi ( food science ), while another has chosen fag as the hypernym for samfundsfag ( social science ) and a third has chosen videnskab for datalogi ( computer science ). In these cases it has been the task of the DanNet editors to harmonize the wordnet, which often happens by collecting words such as fag, lære, and videnskab in one synset, as least in the cases where there are no good reasons for maintaining the division. As far as possible we have attempted to harmonize these cases. In the 'classical' taxonomy sisters are often disjunctive, i.e. they rule out one another (shirt vs. trousers) and cannot be hypernyms of one another. Often, the hyponymy relation denotes an attribute or function which runs contrary to this classical taxonomy, for instance in the case of a lemma which designates a specific function rather than a 'kind'. In this, the hyperonymy relation is stated as has_hypernym with the feature ortho (orthogonal) to show that it refers to a different dimension than the classical 'kind of'. An example is vejtræ which is any kind of tree lining a road, or fødselsdagskage, which is any kind of cake eaten at a birthday. Such sister concepts are not mutually exclusive; a vejtræ can also be a klatretræ ( tree for climbing ). Generally, one has to be aware how big a part of the ordinary vocabulary which has been described as non-taxonomic and that this affects the structure of the net to a large degree. It has not always been obvious which perspective to adopt when constructing the wordnet, and often it might be a good idea to adopt multiple perspectives at the same time. For DanNet we have adopted a layman's approach to the overall structure of the wordnet so that we do not develop a deeper hyponymy structure than is obvious to a non-specialist. The taxonomic hypernyms for stol ( chair ) that are described in DanNet are thus siddemøbel ( piece of furniture for sitting in ), møbel ( piece of furniture ), and genstand ( object ). This does not mean that other perspectives on furniture are not found in the wordnet. In insurance terminology, for instance, the terms bohave and indbo are often used for all the possessions found in a dwelling, and more specifically løsøre for all the movable objects in a dwelling. These concepts are in DanNet, but not necessarily in the taxonomical structure except that they have a hypernym; in this case samling ( collection ), in the sense of a number of objects. Likewise, the net will often appear somewhat heterogeneous, in that e.g. genstand has subordinate categories such as møbel ( furniture ), bygningsværk ( building ) and transportmiddel ( vehicle ), but also quite specific concepts like gulvtæppe ( carpet ) and dyne ( blanket ), which do not have any immediately obvious hypernym except for genstand (object/entity). If one wishes to use DanNet to extract groups of semantically related concepts, it is important to note that this can be done in two ways. One can try to identify the hypernym(s) best describing the group of concepts one is interested in, e.g. legemsdel ( body part ) or føde ( food ). As it not always easy to predict if the concepts one wishes to find have the same hypernym, it is possible to find a larger group of related terms by extracting concepts via the ontology. The ontology makes it possible to search for types such as COMESTIBLE or BODY_PART. In this way, muskler ( muscles ), knogler ( bones ), and organer ( organs ) are returned when searching for BODY_PART, but these do not have legemsdel as a common hypernym. 6

7 Polysemy and sense distinctions DDO is the starting point for the sense distinctions established in DanNet. We have, however, merged senses where we thought DDO too fine-grained for what we can express in DanNet by relations and features. This is especially true for the subsenses of verbs. Generally we have tried to give different hypernyms for polysemous terms, or otherwise to differentiate subsenses formally by relations or features. As example would be the two closely related senses of frokost ( lunch ) in DDO: 1) det kolde måltid der indtages midt på dagen ("The cold meal eaten in the middle of the day") 2) måltid der serveres (for gæster) midt på dagen ("Meal served (for guests) in the middle of the day") Both have måltid as genus proximum in DDO's definition, but sense 1 is given the hypernym måltid and the second sammenkomst. In such cases the definition of sense 2 is adjusted to sammenkomst midt på dagen hvor der serveres varm eller kold mad ("assembly in the middle of the day were hot or cold food is served"). A formal differentiation of polysemous words is alas not always possible. In the database different senses are separated by means of homograph numbers, main sense numbers, and subsense numbers which come from the printed version of DDO. An entry always has a main sense number which is added to the lemma following an underscore: bil_1 refers to the first (and coincidentally only) main sense of the lemma bil ( car ). Entries with the main sense number _0 are not yet included in DDO. Subsenses have both a main sense number and a subsense number, such that karet_1_2 refers to the second subsense of the first main sense of the lemma karet ( horse-drawn carriage ). From the name it can be seen that there are at least two other senses of karet: a main sense (karet_1) and a subsense (karet_1_1); there is, however, no guarantee that these are actually included in DanNet. Homograph numbers are separated from the lemma with a comma, such that slæde,1_3 signifies the third main sense of the first homograph of slæde ( sleigh ). Systematic polysemy is when groups of words exhibit the same variation in meaning. Terms referring to institutions, for instance, can often be used both in the sense of the building housing them and the people they represent. In these cases, each sense is coded as a separate synset, i.e. one for the institution, one for the building, and one for the group of people, which are each connection by the relation "reg_polysem", regular polysemy. This has also been attempted in the cases where these senses are not consistently listed in DDO. In DDO, most animals have an extra sense denoting the animal as food (e.g., lam, which can either mean lamb or mutton ), but not all words for edible animals have this subsense. Since systematic polysemy is rather comprehensive and requires new corpus research because many of the senses are missing from DDO, it must be noted that systematic polysemy is not fully covered for all relevant semantic groups in DanNet. 7

8 Synonymy Synonyms are as a rule given in the same synset corresponding to one concept, e.g. hustru, viv and kone ( spouse, wife ) are seen as the same concept. This is true even if they belong to different registers. There are also examples where two concepts are listed as near-synonyms of one another by way of a relation; this is done in cases where the semantic distance is seen as too big to merge them. Connotation and gender DanNet contains certain features, such as connotation (negative/positive) and gender (male/female). For illustration, words like rappenskralde (glossed in DDO as loud-mouthed woman ) and knag (glossed a person one likes ) are coded with negative and positive connotation respectively, and rappenskralde furthermore given the feature 'female', where knag is gender-neutral and therefore underspecified for this feature. For most features given a connotation it is also stated which aspect this connotation applies to, i.e. appearance, behaviour, intelligence, etc.; see figure 4 which shows how negative terms for men and women are distributed over different areas. For more information, see Pedersen & Braasch, Figure 4: Negative and positive terms for men and women distributed on different aspects of the denotation such as appearance, sex appeal, personality, conduct, status, age etc. 3. Relations and features Version 2 contains the relations given in the figure below. Relations in bold face are specific to DanNet (and thus neither in Princeton WordNet nor EuroWordNet). concerns used_for used_for_object made_by fodboldmål concerns sport hammer used_for hamre clipse used_for_object clips bagværk made_by bage 8

9 has_holo_madeof has_holo_member has_holo_location has_holo_part has_hyperonym has_hyperonym ortho has_mero_madeof has_mero_member has_mero_part has_mero_location role_agent role_patient involved_agent involved_instrument near_synonym Reg_polysem xpos_near_synonym eq_has_synonym mel has_holo_madeof brød partimedlem has_holo_member parti oase has_holo_location ørken øje has_holo_part ansigt birketræ has_hyperonym træ vejtræ has_hyperonym træ brød has_mero_madeof mel parti has_mero_member partimedlem hånd has_mero_part finger ørken has_mero_location oase passager role_agent rejse modtager role_patient modtage violin involved_agent violinist violinist involved_instrument violin si near_synonym dørslag kanin (dyr) reg_polysem kanin (kød) behandle xpos_near_synonym behandling bil eq_has_synonym car (link to Princeton WordNet) Additionally, relations and synsets have semantic features: Feature on synset BC = ID for a synset (The synset constitutes a base concept in Princeton WordNet) Connotation = positive; negative (The synset has a positive or negative Feature on relation Disjunct = ID for a synset (The relation is disjunct with another relations, such as skål has_mero_made_of glas OR porcelæn OR plastic) NEG (The relation is to be interpreted negatively, i.e. 9

10 connotation, i.e. fjols connotation = negative) Sex = male; female (The synset refers to a male or a female) Domain= (see below) ungkarl role_agent gifte_sig) Ortho (The relation is orthoginal, i.e. nontaxonomical; only related to has_hyperonym as in vejtræ is_a træ, ortho) Restrict (The relation is specified in relation to an inhreited relation as in maleri: involved_agent maler; restriction of the inherited involved_agent kunstner) 4. Domain Information about domain in DDO called 'sysfag' has been automatically inserted in DanNet, in part by the relation 'domain', in part by the feature 'domain' (Domain from DDO). The attribute value consists of the same abbreviations for the individual domains as are used in DDO, which are explicated below. Background: Sysfag in DDO The element Sysfag ( theme ) had two purposes when DDO was edited: 1. It was possible to check have a given subject was being covered by entries while work was ongoing on the first edition. 2. It was desired to make possible at a later date the extraction of a given subject's vocabulary for a subject-specific dictionary. The guiding principle was that Sysfag should be marked as soon as possible, including for words or senses which are mostly or wholly part of everyday language. For instance, words like penge ("money") and værktøj ("tool") were given Sysfag. The editors added sysfag based on their first intuition and without systematically examining how similar words were marked, and because it was only possible to add one sysfag-element to each word, words from similar semantic areas - even synonyms - might have different sysfag values (e.g. tallerken ("(dinner) plate") has "mad" ("food"), but kop has bolig ("dwelling")). Later this has been partly revised for greater consistency, but certainly there still exists some undesirable inconsistency. While making the digital edition of DDO is was decided to allow as many sysfag for a sense as is thought relevant, and in the future DDO will contain more information on sysfag which can be transferred to DanNet. Some senses were not marked with information on sysfag due to oversight from the DDO-editor. In other cases the information may be missing because the DDO-editor decided not to mark a concept which belongs to several domains, because adding multiple sysfag was not allowed, and choosing one over another would skew the distribution. Finally, the information may be faulty because the field was not visible on the print that was checked during the second round of editing. In the long term DDO will be expanded with information about sysfag for words that are currently lacking it, both existing articles and the undefined b-words. 10

11 DDO distinguishes between the sysfag element and another domain-element, fag ("subject" or "profession"). Fag was specified in the printed dictionary and used to mark that something was a technical term. Fag was only given for polysemous lemmas in that it s most important function was to make the article easier to read. Therefore the element fag cannot be used to extract domains from DDO, as all the monosemous technical lemmas lack this information. Some sysfags turned out to be used so little they were not carried over into DanNet: fis (hunting and fishing), bød (cooperage), mus (music and dancing; separated into msk and dan instead), euf (relating to European politics), træ (woodworking industry). Below is given a list of the different sysfag categories and the DanNet relations they have been converted to. Some domains include a brief description of the kind of words the domain contains. Domains Total Approx. number of lemmas in DDO with this domain aku akustik_2 The synset in DanNet to which the domain is linked akæ arkæologi_1 ana anatomi_1 apo farmakologi_1 ark arkitektur_1 asl astrologi_1 ast astronomi_1 aut motorkøretøj_1 bag bage_3_1 bal ballet_1 ban bankvæsen_1 ber beredskab_2_1 Comments (in Danish) akustik: lyd, akustik, klang, forskellige ord der betegner 'at lyde på en bestemt måde' arkæologi: fund, grav, oldtidsgenstande, økser anatomi: legemsdele; adjektiver der betegner fysisk udseende (fx arrret, askeblond etc.). Jf. 'fyo' apotek, piller, salve arkitektur: dele af huse, by-ord, bygninger, udsmykning på huse, designord, arkitekt-ord, parker, verber der betegner at tegne etc. astrologi: astrologi-ord astronomi: planeter, stjerne, himmel, verdensrum, årtusinde, århundrede automobil: dele af biler, biler, bilulykke (overlap med 'ber'), jf. 'tra' bagerhåndværk: bageord, kager, brød jf. 'mad' ballet: balletord, jf. 'dan' (dans) bankvæsen: bank, konto, veksle, lån, valuta, afdrag beredskabskorps: redningstjeneste, alarm, ambulance, redning, ulykke, brand 11

12 bik biokemi_1 bio biologi_1 bog bog_1 bol bolig_1 bot botanik_1 byg byggeri_ byggeri_2 byt byggeri_1 cyk cykel_1 dan dans_1 dip diplomati_1 dri driftsøkonomi_1 drk drik_1; drikkevare_1 dyr dyrlæge_1 edb (edb_1; informationsteknologi_1 ) ele elektronik_1_1 elt elektronik_1_1 ene energi_2_1 erh erhvervsliv_1 etn etnologi_ antropologi_1 fam familie_2_ familieliv_1 biokemi: bl.a. vitaminer, dna, protein, gær-ord biologi:væv, gen, økologi, ord der betegner alder (fyrrer og tresser fx) (jf. 'ana' anatomi, 'zoo' zoologi og 'bot' botanik) Bogvæsen bilblioteks-ord, redaktører, bøger, dele af bog Bolig: boliger, boformer, ting der hører til i en bolig. Overlap med køkkenting med sysfag 'mad' Drikkevarer, alkohol (jf nyd (nydelsesmiddel)) Jf zoo (zoologi) 12

13 fil filosofi_1 fje fjernsyn_1, tv_1 flm film_1 fly fly_1_1; flyvemaskine_1 fob forbruger_1 fol folkloristik_1 for forsikring_1 fot foto_1 fri hobby_1 frm frimærke_1 frs frisør_1 fsk fiskeri_1 fyo fysiologi_1 fys fysik_1 gas gastronomi 1975 madlavning geg geografi_1 gel geologi_1 gla glarmester_1 gra layout_1 han handel_1 hav havebrug_1 hel helse_1_1; sundhed_1 forbrugerstof fysiologi, fysiske (kropslige) lidelser (fx 'andengradsforbrænding', kropslige egenskaber, fx 'ansigtskulør' og kropslige handlinger bredt forstået (fx også 'armsved' og 'afslappethed' (jf. 'ana', 'sun' og 'hel') gastronomi, madlavning. Jf 'mad'. glarmesterhåndværk Grafisk industri sundhedsord undtagen fysiske/fysiologiske ting (der har sysfag 'fyo'). Domain-relation 'Helse' og 'sundhed' i DanNet. 13

14 her heraldik_1 his historie_3_2 hvn havnevæsen_1 hyg hygiejne_1 håa håndarbejde_1 hån håndværk_1 ind industri_1_1; industriområde_2 jag jagt_1_1 jer jernbane_1_1 jur jura,1_1 kem kemi_1 kin kemi_1 kom kommunikation_1 kon adel_ kongehus_1_1 kri kriminalitet_1 kul kultur_1 kun kunst_1 lam landmåling_1 lan landbrug_1 leg leg_1 lgg leg_1 lit litteratur_2 log Våbenskjold, ordener Ældre folkeslag Meget bred gruppe Personligt toilette, cremer etc. Jernbanevæsen, jf. tra (transportmidler) ytringsverber og ytringsverbalsubstantiver kongehus, adel, fyrste, hof Jf pot (politi) 14

15 logik_2 mad (fødevare_1;madvare_1) føde mad æde ædelse mal maling,1_ malerarbejde_1 mas teknik_2_2 mat matematik_1 med lægevidenskab_1; medicin_2 met meteorologi_1 mia mineralogi_1 mij miljø_1 mil militær_1 min minedrift_1 mot motorcykel_1 msk musik_ musikvidenskab_1 mtl metallurgi_1 mur murerhåndværk_1 myt mytologi_2 møn mønt_1 mål måleenhed_1 nat naturvidenskab_1 nyd nydelsesmiddel_1 nøk mad, madlavning Farver, maleord Maskiner, motorer Vejr Mineraler, diamant mv. Affald, miljø, forurening, genbrug Metallurgi læren om metaller mønter Ord der betegner størrelser, måleenheder Ret intetsigende gruppe med mange naturord og ord for naturlige fænomener i bred forstand. Fx også ord der betegner noget med tid. Alkohol-ord, rygning mv. Sammenfald med drk 15

16 nationaløkonomi_1 oad administration_2_1 okk okkultisme_1 opt optik_1 pap papirindustri_1 per personalhistorie_1 pol politik_1 pom keramik_1_2 pos postvæsen_1 pot politi_1 pre presse,1_ medie_1 psy psykologi_1 Offentlig administration Pottemageri pæd pædagogik_1_2 rad radio_1 red redningstjeneste_1 rej rejse,1_1_1 rek reklame_1_1 rel religionsvidenskab_1 rum rumfart_1 sad saddelmageri_2 sam samfundsvidenskab_1 san sanitet_1 hotel (dog flest under 'erh'), turist, charter-, rejse, ferie. Sammenfald med 'fly' og 'trf'/'tra'. reklame, annonce, tilbud, religionsord rumfart, astronaut, raket lille gruppe: tømme, saddel, saddelmager (jf. skr (skrædderi) samfund: stor gruppe, meget forskellige ord: arbejder, bolig, bonde, civil, samfund, valg, vismand, statsformer sanitet, afløb, wc, kloak (jf. 'hyg' (hygiejne)) 16

17 scl sociologi_1 sex sexliv_ samliv_1 ska skattevæsen_1 skb skib_1 ski skibsbygning_1 skm skomageri_1 sko skovbrug_1 skr sy_1_2 sla slagter_1 sme smede_1 sne snedkerfag soc forsorg_1_1; socialforsorg_1 spi spil,1_1 spo (idræt_1;sport_1) spr sprogvidenskab_1 sta statistik_1 sun sundhedssektor_1; sundhedsvæsen_1 søf søfart_1 tan odontologi_1 tea teater_1 sociologi ord der omhandler relationer mellem mennesker, ord der betegner grupperinger i samfundet og bestemte typer af mennesker overlap med 'sam' (samfund) skatter, afgifter (men mange *afgift-ord er ikke med her), fradrag. Sammenfald med øko, nøk og med de områder skatten dækker (mij fx). forskellige slags skibe og både men overlap med fx 'mil' (miltær) (skibe der bruges i militæret), 'tra' transportmidler (skibe der bruges til transport). skibsbygning: dele af skibe, ting der bruges i forb. med sejlads og skibsbygning skomager, forskellige slags sko sḱ ovbrug, nogle enkelte træsorter (meget sammenfald m. tøm (tømmerhåndværk) og sne (snedkerhåndværk)) nogle træbetydninger 'ved fra dette træ' mangler sysfag el. har botanik som fag skrædder : skrædder- og sy-ord, meget sammenfald med håa (håndarbejde) slagterhåndværk smedehåndværk snedkerhåndværk socialforsorg, bistandshjælp, institutioner, invalid-, misbrug (overlap med bl.a. pol, oad, sam) spil, sammenfald med leg, lgg (leg og spil) og edb (computerspil kan have edb som sysfag) sportsord sprogtermer; forskellige sprog; grammatiske termer; ord med betydning måde at tale på, fx pibe, pruste, stønne... (jf. 'kom'). Desuden mange pronominer. statistik sundhedsord undtagen fysiske/fysiologiske ting (=fyo). Overlap med 'hel' helse og 'med' (medicin). Ord vedr. søfart, sejlads. Overlap med ski (skibsbyggeri) og skb (skibe) Tandlægevidenskab tandlæger, fyldninger, rodbehandling etc. Teaterord (overlap med ballet (bal) og dans (dan)) 17

18 tek teknik_2 tel telekommunikation_1 tin tekstilindustri_1 tol toldvæsen_1 tra transportmiddel_1 trf trafik_1 typ typografi_1 tøj tøj_1 tøm tømrerhåndværk_1 und uddannelse_1 vid videnskab_1 vær håndværk_ værksted_1 våb våben_1 zoo zoologi_1 øko økonomi_1 Teknik i bred forstand Telekommunikation. Telefoni, mobiltelefoner, telegram etc. Forskellige tekstiler, tekstilfabrik etc. Overlap med 'skr' skrædderi og 'håa' håndarbejde Toldvæsen, toldkontrol Transportmidler, dele af transportmidler. Overlap med 'trf'. Offentlig trafik, trafikanter, vejforhold, vejarbejde, skiltning mm. Ord i forb. med redigering, typografi, korrektur etc. Tøj, beklædningsgenstande, dele af beklædningsgenstande. Sko har sysfag 'sko' tømrerhåndværk Undervisning og uddannelse: klasser, karakterskala, skoler, fag etc. Videnskab forskning, forskellige videnskaber (men sammenfald med andre sysfag der betegner de forskellige videnskaber) Værktøj mm. våben Dyr og alt vedr. dyr jf. 'lan' (landbrug) afgift, beløb, lån, pris, penge, markeds-, etc. Higher level of domain information If coarser domain information is desired, the domains can be grouped as follows: Religion and philosophy fil (filosofi) log (logik) jf. mat (matematik) rel (religion) okk (okkultisme) asl (astrologi) Jf. astronomi Social condistions 18

19 vid (videnskab) Jf. und (undervisning og uddannelse) und (undervisning (og uddannelse)) Jf. pæd (pædagogik), vid (videnskab) sam (samfund i bred forstand, dvs.begreber der ikke hører under kun ét af delområderne herunder) oad (offentlig administration) scl (sociologi) pot (politi) kon (kongehus) jur (jura) kri (kriminalitet) soc (socialforsorg) for (forsikring) fob (forbrugerstof) trf (trafik) red (redningstjeneste) ber (beredskabskorps) jer (jernbanevæsen) hvn (søfart) Politics pol (politik i bred forstand politiske begreber der ikke hører under diplomati eller militær) dip (diplomati) mil (militær) jf. ber (beredskabskorps) Economy and industry Group 1: economy øko (økonomi i bred forstand økonomiske begreber der ikke hører under kun ét af delområderne herunder) dri (driftsøkonomi) nøk (nationaløkonomi) ban (bankvæsen) ska (skattevæsen) Group 2 Business erh (erhvervsliv i bred forstand begreber der ikke hører under kun ét af delområderne herunder) lan (landbrug) hav (havebrug) sko (skovbrug) fis (fiskeri og jagt) fsk (fiskeri) jag (jagt) han (handel) 19

20 tol (toldvæsen) rek (reklame) Group 3 Industry ind (industri i bred forstand begreber der ikke hører under kun ét af delområderne herunder) pap (papirindustri) kin (kemisk industri) pla (plastindustri) Group 4 Trade and craft hån (håndværk i bred forstand dvs. begreber der hører under kun ét af delområderne herunder) bag (bagerhåndværk) gla (glarmesterhåndværk) mal (malerhåndværk) mur (murerhåndværk) pom (pottemagerhåndværk) sad (sadelmageri) skm (skomageri) skr (skrædderi) sla (slagterhåndværk) sme (smedehåndværk) sne (snedkerhåndværk) tøm (tømrerhåndværk) frs (frisørhåndværk) san (sanitet, VVS) typ (typografi) jf pre (presse), bog (bogvæsen) Group 5: Building activities byg (byggeri i bred forstand - dvs. byggebegreber der ikke hører under byggeteknik eller skibsbygning) byt (byggeteknik) ski (skibsbygning) Science edb (it) mij (miljø) ene (energi) Group 1 Traditional science nat (almen naturvidenskab; naturvidenskab der ikke hører under kun ét af delområderne herunder) aku (akustik) 20

21 mat (matematik) sta (statistik) lam (landmåling) ast (astronomi) Jf. asl (astrologi) fys (fysik) ele (elektronik) opt (optik) kem (kemi) gel (geologi) mia (mineralogi) bio (biologi) bik (biokemi) bot (botanik/planter) zoo (zoologi/dyr) ana (anatomi) Jf. fyo (fysologi), sun (sundhed), med (medicin) hel (helbred) fyo (fysologi) Jf. ana (anatomi), sun (sundhed), med (medicin) hel (helbred) Group 2 Technical sciences tek (teknik i bred forstand, dvs. tekniske begreber der ikke kun hører under ét af delområderne herunder) mas (maskinteknik) vær (værkstedsteknik) mtl (metallurgi) våb (våbenteknik) min (minedrift) rum (rumfart) elt (elektroteknik) Geography fol (folkloristik) geg (geografi) rej (rejser) etn (etnologi/etnografi/antropologi) Health psy (psykologi) fam (famile) sex (sex- og samliv) pæd (pædagogik) Group 1 Health 21

22 hel (helbred) Jf. sun (sundhedsvæsen), fyo (fysiologi), ana (anatomi) dyr (dyrlægevidenskab) apo (poteksvæsen) hyg (hygiejne) med (medicin) sun (sundhedsvæsen) jf fyo (fysiologi) ana (anatomi) hel (helbred) tan (tandlægevidenskab) Culture Group 1 books, press bog (bogvæsen) gra (grafisk presse) Jf. typ (typografi) pre (presse) Group 2 Culture kul (kultur i bred forstand, begreber som ikke kun tilhører ét af underbegreberne nedenfor) kun (kunst) ark (arkitektur) Jf. byg (byggeri) fot (foto, fotografi) tea (teater) flm (film) rad (radio) jf. fje (fjernsyn) Group 3 music and dance msk (musik) dan (dans) bal (ballet) Leisure bol (bolig) jf. mad (mad) tøj (tøj) jf. skr (skrædderi) tin (tekstilindustri) Jf. ind (industri) håa (håndarbejde) jf. skr (skrædderi) fje (fjernsyn) Jf. rad (radio) spo (sport) Group 1 Transport tra (transportmidler i bred forstand, dvs. begreber som ikke hører under et af de specifikke delområder herunder). Jf. rej (rejser) aut (automobilteknik) 22

23 cyk (cykelteknik) mot (motorcykelteknik) fly (fly) skb (skb) Jf. ski (skibsbygning) Group 2 Comestibles mad (mad i bred forstand, dvs. begreber som ikke hører under et af de specifikke delområder herunder) gas (gastronomi) OBS skelnen mellem mad og gas er ikke foretaget i DDO bør slås sammen drk (drikke) nyd (nydelsesmidler) Group 3 Games leg (leg og spil i bred forstand, dvs. begreber som ikke hører under et af de specifikke delområder herunder lgg (leg) spi (spil) Group 4 Hobbies fri (fritid og hobby i bred forstand, dvs. begreber som ikke hører under et af de specifikke delområder herunder) Jf. spo (sport), lgg (leg og spil) frm (frimærker) møn (mønter) Literature and language lit (litteraturvidenskab) spr (sprog og sprogvidenskab) (jf. kom (kommunikation) Group 1 Communication kom (kommunikation i bred forstand, dvs. begreber som ikke hører under et af de specifikke delområder herunder) Jf. spr (sprog og sprogvidenskab) pos (postvæsen) tel (telekommunikation) History per (personalhistorie) Group 1 history his (historie) akæ (arkæologi) her (heraldik) 23

24 5. Ontological type Every synset in DanNet has an ontological type. Most of the ontological types in DanNet are from the EuroWordNet ontology. Ontological types added to DanNet are set in bold in the tables below. For more information about the ontology, see Vossen Concrete objects (1st Order Entities) Origin Natural Artifact Living Plant Human Creature Animal Form Substance Solid Liquid Gas Object Composition Part BodyPart Group Function Vehicle Representation MoneyRepresentation LanguageRepresentation ImageRepresentation Software Place Occupation Instrument Garment Furniture Covering Container Comestible Building Artwork Actions, events, properties and abstract objects (2nd and 3rd Order Entities) SituationType Dynamic BoundedEvent UnboundedEvent Static 24

25 Property Relation SituationComponent Cause Agentive Phenomenal Stimulating Communication Condition Existence Experience Location Manner Mental Modal Physical Possession Purpose Quantity Social Time Usage 6. Examples DanNet was created with so-called coding templates which were available in the coding tool. The templates follow the ontological types and work as guidelines for which relations are relevant to which ontological types. For instance it is relevant for the ontological type Part to state what something is a part of, whilst for an Artifact it is relevant to state what it is used for. To illustrate the principles used in creating DanNet some of the prototypical templates representing different areas of the ontology are presented below. It must be noted that the templates are for compound ontological types consisting of several of the types listed in the ontology above. A foodstuff will always have the Comestible, but depending on its nature it may also be Natural or Artifact, Object, Liquid, Part or Group and so on. It can also be seen that the different relations are grouped after Pustejovsky s so-called qualia roles (Formal, Constitutive, Agentive and Telic), which roughly correspond to hypernym, part-whole, origin and purpose (cf. Pustejovsky 1995). The ontology has generally been clearly applicable for concrete objects, while it has been more difficult to consistently use for abstract concept and for actions, events, and porepties. While coding we have attempted to distinguish clearly between intentional and non-intentional actions (+/- Agentive), where the distinction between Bounded and Unbounded is less clear in Danish at the lexical level. The ontological type Mental is used for concepts referring to mental activity; Social when other people or communities are involved; Physical for physical actions like movement; and Location for actions taking place at a specific place or in a specific direction. It will be noted that semantic relations are most prevalent for concrete objects, unlike, say, actions and abstract entities. In the current version of DanNet these for most cases have only a hypernym relation specified. 25

26 Examples of concrete (1 st Order Entities) Ontological type: NATURAL + SUBSTANCE Test/explanation Examples: Comments: En ikke-tællelig masse af naturlig oprindelse klor, antistof, fedt Template Natural +Substance has_ hyperonym used_for //optional// near_synonym //optional// Example Natural+ Substance fedt, fedtstof fast, halvfast el. flydende stof som især består af triglycerider, er uopløseligt i vand og findes i planter, dyr og mennesker has_ hyperonym stof Ontological type: PLANT + OBJECT Test/explanation Examples: Comments: Planter træ, busk, urt Template Plant+ Object has_ hyperonym has_mero_part //optional// used_for //optional// near_synonym //optional// 26

27 Example Plant+Object Buksbom stedsegrøn busk med små læderagtige blade has_ hyperonym busk Ontological type: PLANT + OBJECT+PART+COMESTIBLE Test/explanation Examples: Comments: hun spiste en X. Dele af planter som typisk spises af mennesker frugt, nød, blad Template Plant+Object+Part+Comestible has_ hyperonym has_holo_part when not described in definition and holonym not in DDO use holonym plante has_mero_part //optional// used_for near_synonym //optional// Example Plant+Object+Part+Comestble appelsin rund citrusfrugt fra appelsintræet has_ hyperonym citrusfrugt has_holo_part appelsintræ used_for spise Ontological type: HUMAN + OBJECT Test/explanation Examples: Comments: personer mand, alkoholiker, passager 27

28 Template Human+Object has_ hyperonym sex (male, female) //optional// connotation (positive, negative) //optional// role_agent //optional// role_patient //optional// near_synonym //optional// Example Human+Object mand voksen person af hankøn has_ hyperonym person sex=male Example Human+Object passager person der rejser med et privat el. offentligt transportmiddel uden at være fører, besætningsmedlem e.l. has_ hyperonym person role_agent rejse Example Human+Object knoldesparker person som man synes er dum, underlegen e.l., ofte en person fra landet has_ hyperonym person connotation negative 28

29 Example Human+Object modtager person, organisation, stat e.l. som modtager noget, fx en genstand el. en ydelse has_ hyperonym person role_patient modtage Ontological type: HUMAN + OBJECT + OCCUPATION Test/explanation Examples: Comments: X har jobfunktionen at Y en skolelærer har jobfunktionen at undervise i en folkeskole Template Human+Object+Occupation has_ hyperonym sex (male/female) //optional// role_agent near_synonym //optional// Example Human+Object+Occupation skolelærer (seminarieuddannet) lærer der underviser på grundskoleniveau, typisk i folkeskolen has_ hyperonym lærer role_agent undervise near_synonym //optional// Ontological type: HUMAN + OBJECT + GROUP Test/explanation Examples: X består af en gruppe mennesker børneflok, hær, befolkningsgruppe, borgerskab 29

30 Comments: Template Human+Object+Group has_ hyperonym has_meropart role_agent //optional// role_patient //optional// near_synonym //optional// Example Human+Object+Group børneflok række af børn som et forældrepar har has_ hyperonym gruppe has_meropart barn Ontological type: ANIMAL + OBJECT Test/explanation Examples: Comments: Levende organisme som kan bevæge sig hjort, hund, snegl, sommerfugl Template Animal+Object has_ hyperonym near_synonym //optional// Example 30

31 Animal+Object hjort stor drøvtygger der lever i skovområder og der for hannens vedkommende har gevir has_ hyperonym drøvtygger near_synonym //optional// Ontological type: ARTIFACT + OBJECT Test/explanation Examples: Comments: Kunstigt frembragte genstande anordning, maskine, konstruktion Template Artifact + Object has_ hyperonym has_mero_part //optional// made_by used_for used_for_object //optional// near_synonym //optional// Example Artifact+Object affaldskværn maskine til findeling (el. sammenpresning) af affald has_ hyperonym maskine made_by fremstille used_for kværne used_for_object affald Ontological type: VEHICLE +ARTIFACT+OBJECT Test/explanation Examples: Comments: John tog til Roskilde i en varevogn bil, vogn, fly, slæde, varevogn 31

32 Template Vehicle+Artifact+Object has_ hyperonym has_holo_part //optional// has_mero_madeof //optional// has_mero_part //optional// made_by //optional// used_for near_synonym //optional// Example Vehicle+Artifact+Object trillebør lille vogn med et enkelt hjul foran og to støtteben samt to håndtag bagved, brugt til at transportere mindre læs på fx en byggeplads el. ved havearbejde has_ hyperonym vogn has_mero_part hjul has_mero_part støtteben made_by fremstille used_for transportere Ontological type: COMESTIBLE + ARTIFACT + OBJECT Test/explanation Examples: Comments: jeg har lavet en kage til dessert kage, krebinet, laksemousse tællelig, frembragt fødevare Template Comestible + Artifact + Object has_ hyperonym has_holo_part //optional// (only when described in definition) has_mero_part //optional// made_by used_for spise near_synonym //optional// Example 32

33 Comestible+Artifact-Obejct kage has_ hyperonym bagværk has_mero_part sukker made_by bage used_for spise Ontological type: FURNITURE + ARTIFACT + OBJECT Test/explanation Examples: Comments: jeg har møbleret min stue med en lampe lampe, stol, reol objects which are furniture Template Furniture + Artifact + Object has_ hyperonym has_mero_part //optional// has_mero_madeof //optional// concerns //optional// made_by //optional// used_for near_synonym //optional// Example Furniture + Artifact +Object stol siddemøbel med plads til én person, ofte med fire ben, ryglæn og evt. armlæn has_ hyperonym siddemøbel has_mero_part ben has_mero_part ryglæn used_for sidde Ontological type: INSTRUMENT + ARTIFACT + OBJECT 33

34 Test/explanation Examples: Comments: Han brugte X til at Y med Redskaber og mindre maskiner der typisk betjenes med hånden; inkluderer også musikinstrumenter guitar, åre, gaffel, pincet, blyant, bor Template Instrument+Artifact+Object has_ hyperonym Concerns //optional// has_mero_part //optional// has_holo_part used_for fpo_object //optional// made_by near_synonym //optional// Example Instrument+Artifact+Object bor redskab til at bore huller med has_ hyperonym redskab used_for bore used_for_object hul made_by fremstille Examples of acts (2 nd Order Entities) Ontological type: BOUNDEDEVENT+AGENTIVE+CONDITION+PHYSICAL Test/explanation Examples: Comments: afsluttede handlinger hvor noget bevidst ændres fysisk bøje, brække, bryde, flytte Template BoundedEvent+Agentive+Condition+Physical has_ hyperonym 34

35 near_synonym //optional// Example BoundedEvent+Agentive+Condition+Physical ombygge ændre på en bygning el. en genstand så den kan bruges til et nyt formål has_ hyperonym ændre Ontological type: BOUNDEDEVENT+AGENTIVE+MENTAL+PURPOSE Test/explanation Examples: bevidst og afsluttet tankevirksomhed med et bestemt formål afvejning, analyse, censur, beregning, skøn, plan, planlægning Comments: Template BoundedEvent+Agentive+Mental+Purpose has_ hyperonym Concerns for_purpose_of Example BoundedEvent+Agentive+Mental+Purpose Bedømmelse det at bedømme noget has_ hyperonym tankevirksomhed Concerns for_purpose_of Ontological type: UNBOUNDEDEVENT+PHYSICAL+LOCATION 35

36 Test/explanation Examples: Comments: bevæge sig et sted hen, retningsbevægelsesverber Levin-klasser: (Verbs of Inherently directed motion, e.g.: arrive, fall); (Leave verbs, e.g.: abandon, leave) Bemærk at unbounded bevægelsesverber bliver bounded når der tiolføjes retningsadverbial Template ArgStr: UnboundedEvent+Physical+Location has_ hyperonym ARG2ADJNON_NON near_synonym //optional// Example ArgStr: Unbounded+Physical+Location falde hurtigt bevæge sig uhindret gennem luften modjorden pga. tyngdekraften has_ hyperonym bevæge_sig near_synonym dratte ned xpos_near_synonym fald Examples of properties (2 nd Order Entities) Ontological type: PROPERTY+CONDITION+PHYSICAL Test/explanation Examples: Comments: Fysiske egenskaber der vedrører fysik og helbredstilstand mavepine, ledsmerter, kræft, diabetes, kondition Template ArgStr: Property+Condition+Physical has_ hyperonym near_synonym //optional// Example Property+Condition+Physical kræft, kræftsygdom 36

37 ArgStr: sygdom der skyldes unormal vækst af celler has_ hyperonym sygdom Examples of abstract entities (3rd Order Entities) Ontological type: 3RDORDERENTITY+MENTAL+PURPOSE+MANNER Test/explanation Examples: Comments: Abstrakte entititer der har et formål og en mådesangivelse kur, metode, måde Template 3rdOrderEntity+Mental+Purpose+Manner has_ hyperonym near_synonym //optional// Example 3rdOrderEntity+Mental+Purpose+Manner kur foranstaltning eller metode til behandling af sygdom eller andre problemer der vedrører kroppen has_ hyperonym metode 7. Validation 2% of the material in DanNet has been validated. The focus of the validation has been the same as the editorial focus. Validation has shown that there are some inconsistencies in the semantic description. Where the hyperonomy relation is mostly consistent throughout the material, the other relations vary as to the amount of detail in which they are specified. This is unsurprising and is 37

38 largely due to the fact that some parts of the material have been examined more closely than others. It is our goal to level these differences in later versions of the resource. References Fellbaum, C. (ed) (1998). WordNet An Electronic Lexical Database pp , The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England. Johannsen, A. & B.S. Pedersen (2011). Andre ord" a wordnet browser for the Danish wordnet, DanNet. In: 18th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics, NODALIDA 2011, Riga, Latvia. Nothern Association for Language Technology, Vol. 11 pp , University of Tartu. Nimb, S. (2009). The Semantic Relations of Artifacts in DanNet. In B.S. Pedersen, A.Braasch, S.Nimb, R. Vatvedt Fjeld (eds.): Proceedings of the NODALIDA 2009 workshop "WordNets and other Lexical Semantic Resources - between Lexical Semantics, Lexicography, Terminology and Formal Ontologies" NEALT Proceedings Series, Vol. 7 Published by Northern European Association for Language Technology (NEALT) Pedersen, B.S, S. Nimb, J. Asmussen, N. Sørensen, L. Trap-Jensen, H. Lorentzen (2009). DanNet the challenge of compiling a WordNet for Danish by reusing a monolingual dictionary. In: Language Resources and Evaluation, Computational Linguistics Series. Volume 43, Issue 3 (2009), pp Pedersen, B.S. & Braasch, A. (2009). What do we need to know about humans? A view into the DanNet Database. In: Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics NODALIDA NEALT Proceedings Series, no. 4, Tartu University Library. Pustejovsky, J. (1995). The Generative Lexicon. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Vossen, P. (ed). (1999). EuroWordNet, A Multilingual Database with Lexical Semantic Networks. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. 38

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