A Danish open-set speech corpus for competing-speech studies

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1 A Danish open-set speech corpus for competing-speech studies Jens Bo Nielsen and Torsten Dau a) Centre for Applied Hearing Research, Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark Tobias Neher b) Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Rørtangvej 20, DK-3070 Snekkersten, Denmark (Received 11 December 2012; revised 24 October 2013; accepted 8 November 2013) Studies investigating speech-on-speech masking effects commonly use closed-set speech materials such as the coordinate response measure [Bolia et al. (2000). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, ]. However, these studies typically result in very low (i.e., negative) speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) when the competing speech signals are spatially separated. To achieve higher SRTs that correspond more closely to natural communication situations, an open-set, low-context, multi-talker speech corpus was developed. Three sets of 268 unique Danish sentences were created, and each set was recorded with one of three professional female talkers. The intelligibility of each sentence in the presence of speech-shaped noise was measured. For each talker, 200 approximately equally intelligible sentences were then selected and systematically distributed into 10 test lists. Test list homogeneity was assessed in a setup with a frontal target sentence and two concurrent masker sentences at 650 azimuth. For a group of 16 normal-hearing listeners and a group of 15 elderly (linearly aided) hearing-impaired listeners, overall SRTs of, respectively, þ1.3 db and þ6.3 db targetto-masker ratio were obtained. The new corpus was found to be very sensitive to inter-individual differences and produced consistent results across test lists. The corpus is publicly available. [http://dx.doi.org/ / ] PACS number(s): Es, Gv, Bp, Ky [CGC] Pages: I. INTRODUCTION In complex listening environments, both background noise and competing speech typically interfere with the speech signal of interest. Following a conversation in such an environment can be challenging, especially for hearingimpaired (HI) listeners. Difficulties with speech intelligibility due to one or more competing talkers are common in real-life situations (e.g., Agus et al.,2009). The similarity between the target signal and the interferer(s) often creates confusion and uncertainty that make it difficult for the listener to segregate the target signal, an effect that has been termed informational masking (e.g., Kidd et al., 1994). In contrast to energetic masking, where competing signals overlap in time and frequency in the auditory periphery in such a way that portions of the signals are rendered inaudible, informational masking may occur at higher levels of the auditory system (e.g., Arbogast et al., 2002). When both target and interferer are recognized by the auditory system as constituting speech, informational (rather than energetic) masking may dominate listening performance (Brungart, 2001). Speech-on-speech masking investigations are thus essential to gain insight into the mechanisms that govern speech intelligibility in real-life situations. For such experiments, special features, not found in most corpora, are required of the speech stimuli. a) Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail: b) Current address: Cluster of Excellence Hearing4all, Medical Physics Section, Dept. of Medical Physics and Acoustics, Carl-von-Ossietzky University, D Oldenburg, Germany. One corpus that has been used extensively in speech-onspeech research is the coordinate response measure (CRM) (Bolia et al., 2000). This American-English speech corpus (which is also available in a British-English version; Kitterick et al., 2010) was specifically designed for investigating speech intelligibility in competing-speech situations. It has been used in both psychoacoustic (e.g., Brungart, 2001; Kidd et al., 2005) and audiological (e.g., Marrone et al., 2008; Best et al., 2012) research. The CRM consists of phrases of the form Ready Baron, go to blue five now, where blue five is one of 32 color-digit combinations created from four colors and the digits 1 to 8. The color and digit are the keywords that the listener has to identify. The second word of the CRM phrase ( Baron in the above example) represents the call sign, which is an acoustic cue that enables the listener to identify the target sentence. The call sign is an indispensable feature of sentences that are intended to be used interchangeably as either target or masker signals in speech-on-speech masking experiments. The call sign allows cuing the identity of the target sentence; without it, the listener will not have a clear indication of which sentence to listen for. The CRM includes eight call signs and was recorded with four male and four female talkers. In real-life conditions, listeners use voice information to segregate competing speech signals (e.g., Brungart, 2001). The availability of stimuli spoken by different talkers is therefore another essential feature of a corpus for speech-onspeech masking research. The speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) commonly obtained with the CRM are often well below 0 db. Using the CRM, Brungart (2001) obtained SRTs of about 12 db for J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135 (1), January /2014/135(1)/407/14/$

2 normal-hearing (NH) listeners under diotic listening conditions with one masker spoken by a different talker of the same sex. Criterion performance at such a low signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) probably means that listeners used acoustic cues and listening strategies that might not be effective in real-life communication, which arguably takes place at much higher SNRs. According to Pearsons et al. (1977), talkers tend to maintain SNRs on the order of 5 10 db in domestic situations as well as department stores, while in transportation systems such as subways they drop to around 2 db. Plomp (1977) estimated the SNR at a cocktail party to be around 0 db. It is possible that methods that have been shown to be effective for increasing speech intelligibility (e.g., hearing aid algorithms) at much lower SNRs might be less effective at such realistic SNRs. Vice versa, methods that have been found to be ineffective at SNRs well below 0 db might in fact be able to provide some benefit at more realistic SNRs. Speech materials can be characterized as open-set or closed-set, depending on the size and nature of their vocabulary. In tests based on open-set materials, the response vocabulary is large and unpredictable. For the listener, the response options appear unlimited, although, in practice, the vocabulary will seldom include more than a few hundred items. In tests based on closed-set materials, the response options are limited and often known to the listener. For a given SNR, the speech intelligibility decreases as the size of the vocabulary under consideration is increased (Sumby and Pollack, 1954), and listeners obtain higher intelligibility scores in a closed-set test than in an open-set test under similar experimental conditions (Clopper et al., 2006). The closed-set and highly stylized nature of the CRM is presumably the main reason for the low SRTs that have been observed with this corpus. As an alternative to the CRM, Helfer and Freyman (2009) developed the TVM corpus. The TVM corpus is an open-set speech corpus intended for competing-speech investigations. The format of the TVM sentences is Name discussed the and the today, where Name is the call sign corresponding to the names Theo, Victor, and Michael (hence the name TVM). The blanks are pairs of 2160 unique nouns, thereby creating 1080 unique sentences. Compared to the CRM, the TVM corpus leads to considerably higher SRTs. In a free-field setup with a frontal target and one colocated speech masker spoken by a different talker of the same sex, SRTs of about 0 db were observed for NH listeners (Helfer and Freyman, 2009). These SRTs were thus much higher than the ones obtained by Brungart (2001) under comparable conditions (see above), thereby confirming the expected difference between open- and closed-set tests with respect to the resulting SRT. A Danish corpus for competing-speech studies was developed by Behrens et al. (2008). This corpus is based on the (closed-set) DANTALE II materials (Wagener et al., 2003), which consist of 160 sentences that all have the form name verb numeral adjective object. The sentences were created from a limited number of possible options per sentence word. For the speech-on-speech version of Behrens et al. (2008), 150 of the original sentences were re-recorded with five female talkers. The names at the beginning of the sentences were used as call signs. As for the CRM, the closed-set nature of this corpus leads to very low SRTs. For a frontal target sentence and two concurrent masker sentences at 645 azimuth, Neher et al. (2011) measured SRTs of 19.2 and 5.8 db for groups of NH and linearly aided HI listeners, respectively. Due to the fact that listeners are able to achieve such low SRTs, this corpus is not ideal for investigations that are meant to mimic real-life communication scenarios. Although some Danish open-set speech materials are available that would potentially lead to higher SRTs (e.g., CLUE; Nielsen and Dau, 2009), there is none with the call sign feature. Apart from resulting in higher SRTs, tests based on open-set materials may also be more sensitive to the influence of certain perceptual mechanisms on speech intelligibility than tests based on closed-set materials. Using vocoder processing to manipulate the acoustic characteristics of their speech stimuli, Lunner et al. (2012) demonstrated a speech intelligibility benefit from the availability of temporal fine structure (TFS) information when applying an open-set test [the Danish hearing in noise test (HINT); Nielsen and Dau, 2011], but not when applying the (original, closed-set) DANTALE II test. In a study on the effects of talker variability and lexical competition on speech recognition, Clopper et al. (2006) observed that performance differences were more pronounced in an open-set test than in a closedset test. They suggested that the perceptual processes used to recognize spoken words in open-set and closed-set tests are not equivalent. Similarly, Sommers et al. (1997) argued that closed-set tests may fail to adequately evaluate several of the cognitive processes that are necessary for recognizing spoken words. Several other characteristics of speech materials are known to influence the SRT and the sensitivity achievable in speech intelligibility experiments, including speech rate, context, and lexical neighborhood. The speech rate of DANTALE II is about 2.2 words/s, which is considerably slower than the rate of 3.3 words/s in the Danish HINT. Lunner et al. (2012) proposed that the slower speech rate might be an additional explanation for the reduced sensitivity of the DANTALE II test to the influence of TFS information on speech intelligibility. Context (or redundancy) effects of natural sentences are known to help listeners identify individual words. If context effects are reduced, sentence intelligibility decreases, resulting in a higher SRT. For example, Kalikow et al. (1977) observed that the intelligibility of key words in a set of sentences was 42% when context effects were low, but 79% when the predictability of the key words was high. Lexical neighborhood refers to the phonemic similarity of words. Two words are considered to be lexical neighbors if they deviate by only one phoneme, for example mouse and house. Words become increasingly difficult to identify as the number of lexical neighbors increases, especially if the predictability of the words is low (e.g., Clopper et al., 2006). In the present study, a Danish open-set, low-context, multi-talker speech corpus was developed with the aim of achieving positive SRTs with both NH and HI listeners for 408 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies

3 spatially separated competing-speech stimuli. High test list homogeneity and a small within-subject standard deviation (SD) were also required in order to make the corpus suitable for the evaluation of, for example, hearing aid algorithms. Since the performance variability across the test lists of some speech materials has been found to be considerably larger for HI than for NH listeners (e.g., McArdle and Wilson, 2006), the created corpus was thoroughly evaluated with both listener groups. The final corpus consists of 30 unique test lists and nine unique training lists of 20 sentences each, thereby making it suitable for studies that require comparison across several experimental treatments. II. GENERATION OF THE SPEECH MATERIALS A. Written materials 1. Sentence format The design of the new speech materials was chosen to be identical to that of the TVM corpus (Helfer and Freyman, 2009). That is, a fixed carrier sentence with two interchangeable target words was used. The original TVM carrier sentence was adapted into Danish to make it as flexible as possible with respect to the inserted target words. The chosen wording was Navn tænkte på og i går ( Name thought about and yesterday ), where Navn represents the call sign, and each blank represents a unique noun. The nouns were inserted in singular form with the indefinite article ( en or et ). Care was taken to avoid obvious context effects between each pair of nouns (e.g., as in knife and fork ) in order to achieve a low predictability of the target words. Furthermore, the durations of the chosen call signs and nouns were taken into consideration so all sentences had similar lengths. This ensured that a given target sentence would be adequately masked by a given interferer sentence. 2. Call signs Three female Danish names with a relatively low occurrence in the Danish population were selected as call signs: Dagmar, Asta, and Tine. They were judged to sound distinctly different while at the same time being equally identifiable when presented simultaneously. Relatively rare names were chosen to reduce the likelihood that listeners will hear their own names in a test situation. Audio recordings of the chosen call signs, made as part of a pilot investigation, showed that they had similar durations (approximately ms). Based on the first letters of these call signs, the new speech corpus was named the DAT corpus. 3. Nouns and noun pairs The target words were extracted from databases of Danish nouns according to the following requirements: (1) They should contain one or two syllables; three syllables were allowed for words containing maximally seven letters; (2) they should contain at least one of the following distinct consonants (a plosive or fricative): /b/, /d/, /g/, /p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, and /s/; (3) they should not be negative, emotional, technical, abstract, or slang-like; (4) they should be common, neutral, and concrete; and (5) they should not conflict with the carrier sentence (e.g., as in Dagmar thought about a soap and a piano yesterday, where soap is at odds with the indefinite article because it is not a countable noun). Suitable nouns were selected in an automated manner and then manually checked for inconsistencies with the requirements. Each noun was transcribed into standard Danish, and the word duration was estimated from the duration of each phoneme as measured for the Danish text corpus PAROLE (Henrichsen, 2007). The nouns were then combined into word pairs that were of approximately equal duration. Half of the pairs deviated by less than 10 ms from the grand average; only 16 pairs deviated by more than 50 ms. The number of lexical neighbors was also taken into account. Since more than half of the selected nouns had no neighbors, the most homogeneous distribution was achieved by allocating one neighbor-free noun to each noun pair. The generated noun pairs were inserted into the carrier sentence. The resulting sentences were evaluated by a professional linguist who assessed them for undesired context effects and conflicts between the noun pairs and the carrier sentence. Based on this evaluation, approximately 10% of the noun pairs were discarded. The remaining sentences were divided into three sets of 268 sentences, and each set was allocated to one of the three call signs. The final sentences were thus of the form Dagmar tænkte på en skjorte og en mus i går ( Dagmar thought about a shirt and a mouse yesterday ), Asta tænkte på en kanin og et træ i går ( Asta thought about a rabbit and a tree yesterday ), and Tine tænkte på et bjerg og en kro i går ( Tine thought about a mountain and an inn yesterday ). B. Talkers and recordings The corpus was recorded with the help of three professional female talkers. The voice characteristics of the three talkers were similar. Each talker was assigned one set of sentences. In the following, the talkers will be identified by the call sign of their sentences. The sentences were recorded in an acoustically dampened (but not anechoic) sound booth of a professional recording studio with a sampling rate of 48 khz and a resolution of 24 bits. The talkers were instructed to utter the sentences in a neutral voice without emphasis on any particular words and to maintain a constant level throughout. Care was taken that the talkers kept a speech rate similar to everyday conversation in Danish. The recorded sentences were evaluated manually for mispronounced words, unintended noises, etc. Unnaturally long pauses between some words and silent periods at the beginning and the end of the sentences were removed. Each sentence was stored as an individual.wav file. The duration of these files varied between 2070 and 2627 ms (mean: 2311, 2410, and 2305 ms for Dagmar, Asta, and Tine, respectively). The average speech rate was 5.6 syllables or 3.8 words per second. All files were adjusted to have a common root mean square level of 20 db re. maximum digital output. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies 409

4 C. Generation of test lists To allow for the creation of test lists with approximately equal intelligibility, a listening experiment was carried out to assess the intelligibility of the individual sentences. During the experiment, each sentence was presented in background noise at a number of fixed SNRs. The experiment was based on the assumption that sentences identified correctly at lower SNRs were more intelligible than those identified at higher SNRs. Sixteen Danish NH listeners (13 male, 3 female) between 18 and 25 yr of age participated. They were paid on an hourly basis for their participation. The experiment was conducted in a soundproof booth. The stimuli were presented diotically over headphones. The background noise was stationary speech-shaped noise, custom-made for each talker to match the long-term frequency spectrum. Speech-shaped noise, compared to other types of noise, maximizes the variation in sentence intelligibility between different SNRs (Prosser et al., 1991). The noise was presented at a constant sound pressure level (SPL) of 65 db. The level of the sentences was initially set to 57 db SPL. It was increased in steps of 2 db to maximally 65 db during the experiment. The test result for each sentence was the SNR at which both nouns were identified correctly. Sentences that were not identified at 0 db SNR were not tested further, but were assigned an SNR of 2 db instead. The 268 sentences of each talker were presented in random order. The mean SNR across the 16 listeners was calculated for each sentence. The results are shown in Fig. 1, sorted separately for each talker with respect to SNR. The shaded areas indicate 95% confidence intervals. Sentences with a mean SNR of 1 db or higher (approximately 50 sentences per talker) were removed from the set of test sentences. The sentences with the largest SDs were then removed until 200 sentences per talker remained. A large SD for a given sentence was assumed to indicate that at least one of the two target words had been particularly difficult to understand for some listeners. The removed sentences were used to create nine training lists (three per talker). In some speech materials, the intelligibility differences between sentences have been compensated through level adjustments (e.g., in the HINT; Nilsson et al., 1994). This approach requires a monotonic and invariable relationship between sentence intelligibility and SNR. For speech tests, where the sentences are always presented in stationary background noise, such a relationship can be assumed. However, in speech-on-speech experiments, where informational masking is involved, the relation between SNR and intelligibility depends on the experimental setup. When the target and masker(s) are co-located, the relationship may not be monotonic (e.g., Brungart, 2001). In the current study, the differences in sentence intelligibility were not compensated, but were taken into account when compiling the test lists. For each talker, the 200 chosen sentences were distributed into 10 test lists of 20 sentences each based on the following procedure. The sentences with the ten lowest mean SNRs were placed at the start of each list. The sentences with the ten highest mean SNRs were then placed at the second position of the test lists. The next ten sentences with the lowest mean SNRs were placed at the third position and so forth. In this manner, sentences with relatively high and low intelligibilities were counterbalanced at the beginning of the test lists while the sentences towards the end of each list were approximately equally intelligible. The average sentence intelligibility within each list was the same. The phonetic content of the target words was not taken into consideration when compiling the lists. It was assumed that minor, random deviations from a uniform phonetic distribution would have a negligible effect on the homogeneity of the test lists. The final training and test lists are provided in the Appendix. III. PERCEPTUAL VALIDATION OF THE SPEECH CORPUS A. Purpose The perceptual validation of the DAT corpus was conducted as a speech-on-speech masking experiment with one target sentence and two interfering sentences presented simultaneously from different directions. The main purpose of the validation was to determine the overall SRT and the variation of the SRT across test lists for both NH and HI listeners. An experimental setup similar to the one used by Neher et al. (2011) was chosen in order to investigate whether the objective of achieving a considerably higher (and ideally positive) SRT had been met. Furthermore, the psychometric functions for the different target talkers were determined, and practice effects were investigated. B. Method FIG. 1. Mean SNR at which both nouns were correctly identified. All sentences were unique and thus different for each talker. The sentences were sorted with respect to mean SNR. The shaded areas indicate 95% confidence intervals. 1. Listeners Sixteen NH (11 male, 5 female) and 15 HI (9 male, 6 female) listeners participated in the validation experiment. They were all native Danish speakers. The NH listeners were between 19 and 29 yr of age (mean: 23.3 yr), and were all students at the Technical University of Denmark. They 410 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies

5 had hearing thresholds of 20 db hearing level (HL) or better between to 8 khz. They were paid on an hourly basis for their participation. None of them had taken part in the sentence intelligibility experiment (see Sec. II C). The HI listeners were between 53 and 81 yr of age (mean: 71.1 yr). They all had symmetrical mild-to-moderate sloping hearing losses, caused mainly by presbycusis. The average audiogram is shown in Fig. 2. The HI listeners were all experienced hearing aid users, but did not wear hearing aids during the evaluation. They were not paid for their participation, but reimbursed for their travel expenses. There were two visits per listener, which were scheduled to take place within approximately one week of each other. Participation was approved by The National Committee on Health Research Ethics. 2. Stimuli All 30 test lists were used as target stimuli in the experiment. When the lists of a given talker were used as target signals, sentences from the other two talkers were used as maskers. The duration of each target sentence was determined before presentation, and time expansion or compression was applied to the maskers using the speech analysis program PRAAT (Boersma and Weenink, 2011), so their duration matched that of the target sentence. This guaranteed complete masking of each target sentence. In the vast majority of cases, the applied manipulations involved changing the duration of the masker sentences by less than 10%. The manipulations were judged to be barely detectable and not to have any effect on the intelligibility of the (non-manipulated) target sentences. The elevated hearing threshold levels (HTLs) of the HI listeners were compensated for by means of an individual filter function that was applied to the speech stimuli before presentation. In tests where listeners are fitted with hearing aids, amplification cannot be precisely controlled due to, for example, the influence of the acoustic coupling of the hearing aid to the outer ear of the listener (e.g., Dillon, 2001). Thus, using a well-defined filter function helped ensure the reproducibility of the experiment. The amplification provided by the filter was determined based on the listeners individual HTLs as recorded in a standard audiogram and the long-term spectrum of the speech materials (see Neher et al., 2011, for details). The audibility criterion was 15 db above hearing threshold for all one-third octave bands with the center frequencies from 100 Hz to 3 khz. In order to avoid distortion in the loudspeakers, this criterion had to be limited to 12, 8, and 0 db above hearing threshold for the one-third octave bands centered at 4, 6, and 8 khz, respectively. The gain was applied to both target and masker signals. The amplification raised the overall (free-field) presentation level by about 9 and 18 db SPL for the HI listeners with the smallest (31 db HL) and the largest (49 db HL) pure-tone average hearing losses (PTA, khz), respectively. 3. Apparatus and procedure The evaluation was conducted in a standardized listening room (IEC , 1998). The target sentences were presented from the loudspeaker in front of the listener. The two maskers were presented from the loudspeakers at 650 azimuth. For a given target talker, the interfering talkers were allocated to the right- or left-hand side in accordance with Table I. The distance between the listener and the loudspeakers was 1.6 m. The loudspeaker levels were calibrated to be within 60.2 db of each other using stationary speechshaped noise. For each listener, the chair was adjusted to ensure correct positioning in the horizontal and vertical planes. The experimenter was present in the listening room during the test to control playback of the stimuli and to score the listener s responses. A MATLAB script was used for controlling the test procedure and for collecting the test results. For the NH listeners, the ten test lists of one talker were evaluated at the first visit and the remaining two sets of test lists at the second visit. For the HI listeners, all ten test lists of one talker and five lists of the second talker were evaluated at the first visit. At the second visit, the remaining five test lists of the second talker and all ten test lists of the third talker were evaluated. The presentation order of the three target talkers and the ten test lists (within each talker set) were counterbalanced as far as possible for the given number of talkers and listeners. The listeners were given a short break after every fifth test list (i.e., after about 15 min). Each target sentence was presented only once. On each trial, two masker sentences were randomly selected from the two sets of 200 (masker) sentences. The listeners received written and oral instructions prior to the evaluation. They were encouraged to guess if they were in doubt about the presented target words. For the NH listeners, each set of test lists was preceded by one training TABLE I. Distribution of the three talkers across target and maskers. Each talker was only presented once at each position. Left masker Target Right masker FIG. 2. Average hearing loss for the HI listeners right (R) and left (L) ears. Error bars indicate 61 SD. Asta Dagmar Tine Dagmar Tine Asta Tine Asta Dagmar J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies 411

6 list from the same target talker. For the HI listeners, two training lists were completed before the evaluation of the first ten test lists at the first visit. One training list was completed before each of the following talkers and one at the beginning of the second visit. The SRT was determined by means of an adaptive procedure implemented in a MATLAB application that adjusted the SNR according to the listener s responses. The procedure was slightly different for the NH and HI listeners due to the elevated levels of the HI stimuli after spectral shaping. For the NH listeners, each masker was presented at a fixed level of 60 db SPL, measured at the listening position (the combined masker level was therefore approximately 63 db SPL). The first target sentence of each test list was presented at 64 db SPL, corresponding to a target-to-masker ratio (TMR) of 4 db. If the two nouns were correctly identified, the target level was decreased by 2 db. If only one or none of the nouns were identified, the target level was increased by 2 db. For the HI listeners, TMR changes were primarily achieved by adjusting the masker level in order to avoid excessively high target levels. The first target sentence and first masker sentences were presented at nominal (i.e., before spectral shaping) levels of 64 and 54 db SPL, respectively, corresponding to a TMR of 10 db. The masker level was decreased by 2 db if only one or none of the nouns were correctly identified. If both nouns were identified correctly, the masker level was increased by 2 db. The masker level was never raised above the initial target level of 64 db SPL. If negative TMRs had to be produced, the masker level was kept at 64 db SPL and the target level was lowered in 2-dB steps. The experimenter scored the target words without providing feedback to the listener. The scoring rules were: (1) Only exact word-matches were accepted as correct, for example, skovl ( shovel ) was not accepted if the word was skov ( forest ); (2) word additions were allowed, for example, hoveddør ( front door ) was accepted as a correct response to dør ( door ); (3) the listener was only requested to repeat the target words, but was allowed to repeat the carrier sentence and the articles ( en/et ); (4) incorrect articles were ignored. The SRT for each list was calculated as the average of the presentation levels of sentences 5 to 21, with the level of (the hypothetical) sentence 21 following from the listener s response to sentence 20. TABLE II. Overall SRTs (in db TMR) for the three target talkers and the NH (N ¼ 16) and HI (N ¼ 15) listeners. Between-subject (b. sbj.) and withinsubject (w. sbj.) SDs are also shown. Group Target Overall SRT b. sbj. SD w. sbj. SD NH Dagmar 2.1 db TMR 1.5 db 1.2 db Asta 1.3 db TMR 1.5 db 1.3 db Tine 1.0 db TMR 1.7 db 1.4 db HI Dagmar 6.2 db TMR 2.3 db 1.4 db Asta 6.0 db TMR 2.5 db 1.3 db Tine 6.6 db TMR 2.6 db 1.4 db SRTs for the NH listeners ranged from þ1.0 to þ2.1 db TMR. For the HI listeners, the SRTs were higher, ranging from þ6.0 to þ6.6 db TMR. Figure 3 shows the mean SRTs for the NH (lower data points) and HI (upper data points) listeners. SRTs were calculated separately for the target talkers Dagmar (gray squares), Asta (black circles), and Tine (white diamonds). For better clarity, the two listener groups were sorted with respect to the mean SRTs for target talker Asta. It is noteworthy that for each listener the results are relatively consistent across the three target talkers. The differences between listeners were larger for the HI group than for the NH group. However, as indicated by the error bars, the within-subject SDs were similar for the NH and HI listeners. The mean SRTs for the test lists are shown in Fig. 4 for Dagmar (upper panel), Asta (middle panel), and Tine (lower panel). The list means were calculated for the NH group (gray squares), the HI group (white diamonds), and the two groups combined (black circles). In order to obtain estimates of the list effects, the results were normalized by subtracting each listener s mean SRT from the individual measurements. Results for the NH and HI group are highly similar, which suggests that test list effects might be best estimated by averaging across all listeners (i.e., the black circles in Fig. 4). These effects were generally within 60.5 db of each other; only three lists (list 1 for Asta and lists 1 and 10 for Tine) fell outside of this range. For each talker, the ten test lists C. Results In the following sections, the results from the perceptual validation of the DAT corpus are presented. As is common practice in speech-on-speech masking research, all SRTs were expressed in terms of the ratio of the level of the target to the level of each masker individually (i.e., in terms of TMR). If the SRTs were to be expressed in terms of the ratio of the target level to the combined masker level (i.e., in terms of SNR) they would be approximately 3 db lower. 1. SRT measurements The estimated SRTs for the NH (N ¼ 16) and HI (N ¼ 15) listeners are presented in Table II. The overall FIG. 3. Mean SRTs for the HI (upper data points) and NH (lower data points) listeners. Each mean value is based on ten test lists. Listeners were sorted with respect to the SRTs for Asta. Error bars indicate 61 SD. 412 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies

7 FIG. 4. Estimated list effects for the 3 10 test lists. For each list, SRT means across the 16 NH listeners (gray squares), the 15 HI listeners (white diamonds), and all listeners (black circles) are shown. Data were normalized by subtracting the effect of listener. Test lists were sorted with respect to the estimate of the list effect based on the data from all listeners. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. were sorted and numbered in correspondence with the estimated test list effects. The resulting order is the order of the test lists as provided in the Appendix. The SRT measurements were analyzed for effects of listener, test list, and talker. Since the three sets of test lists are talker-specific, nine two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with listeners and test lists as independent factors were conducted for the data of either the NH listeners (N ¼ 16), the HI listeners (N ¼ 15), or the two groups combined (N ¼ 31). The effect of listener was strongly significant in all analyses (all p < 0.001). The effect of test list is summarized in Table III. For the NH listeners, only the test list effect for Tine was significant. For the HI listeners, only the test list effect for Asta was significant. For the two listener groups combined, a significant effect of test list was observed for both Asta and Tine. No significant test list effects were observed for Dagmar. A post hoc analysis with Tukey Kramer correction for multiple comparisons and a significance level of a ¼ 0.05 was conducted on the combined results. For Asta, only the effects of test lists 1 and 10 were found to be significantly different from each other. For Tine, test lists 1 and 2 were found to be significantly different from list 10. Differences in the overall SRTs achieved with the three target talkers can be observed in Table II. For the NH listeners, the deviations from the grand average (1.5 db) were 0.6 db for Dagmar, 0.2 db for Asta, and 0.5 db for Tine. For the HI listeners, the deviations from the grand average (6.3 db) were 0.1 db for Dagmar, 0.3 db for Asta, and 0.3 db for Tine. The deviations were larger for the NH than for the HI group and inconsistent across the two groups. While Tine was the most intelligible talker for the NH listeners, she was least intelligible for the HI listeners. A two-way ANOVA with listener and talker as factors (based on the mean SRT across lists for each talker) showed that the talker effect was significant for both the NH listeners [F(2, 30) ¼ 16.85, p< 0.001] and the HI listeners [F(2, 28) ¼ 3.79, p¼ 0.035]. The talker effect can be observed in Fig. 3; for the NH listeners, the SRT for Tine is generally below that for Dagmar. For the HI listeners, the opposite pattern can be observed. 2. Psychometric functions Figure 5 shows the psychometric functions estimated for the six combinations of listener group and talker. The data from sentences 5 to 20 in each list were included in the calculation. The data points of the functions were determined as the percentage of correctly repeated sentences at each TMR of the adaptive procedure. For each listener, the data points were normalized by shifting the corresponding psychometric function so its 50%-correct point was located at 0 db TMR. Cumulative normal distribution curves were then fitted to the data points. For the NH listeners, the steepest slopes were found to be 10.2%/dB for Dagmar, 10.4%/dB for Asta, and 9.7%/dB for Tine. For the HI listeners, the steepest slopes were 9.4%/dB for Dagmar, 9.7%/dB for Asta, and 9.0%/dB for Tine. TABLE III. F-ratios and associated p-values for the effects of test list for each of nine combinations of talker and listener group. Lists NH group HI group All listeners Dagmar F(9,135) ¼ 0.99 F(9,126) ¼ 1.49 F(9,270) ¼ 1.69 p ¼ 0.45 p ¼ 0.16 p ¼ 0.09 Asta F(9,135) ¼ 1.25 F(9,126) ¼ 3.29 F(9,270) ¼ 2.49 p ¼ 0.27 p ¼ a p ¼ 0.01 a Tine F(9,135) ¼ 2.42 F(9,126) ¼ 1.58 F(9,270) ¼ 2.97 p ¼ a p ¼ 0.13 p ¼ a a Significant p-values. FIG. 5. Psychometric functions for the three target talkers measured with the NH (left panel) and HI (right panel) listeners. For each listener, the data were normalized by shifting the corresponding psychometric function so its 50%-correct point occurred at 0 db TMR. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies 413

8 3. Practice effects Figure 6 shows the mean SRT as a function of chronological test list order, irrespective of the actual target talker and test list number. The vertical lines separate the measurements performed at the first and second visit. In order to get an indication of possible practice effects, best-fit linear regression lines were calculated for those test lists where, based on visual inspection of Fig. 6, SRT improvements seemed to occur. For the NH group, results indicated an improvement of about 1 db at the beginning of both the first visit (test lists 1 6; regression coefficient b ¼ 0.22 db/test list, p ¼ 0.01) and the second visit (test lists 11 17; regression coefficient b ¼ 0.14 db/test list, p ¼ 0.002). For the HI listeners, results indicated an improvement at the start of the first visit only (test lists 1 5; regression coefficient b ¼ 0.34 db/test list, p ¼ 0.007). It should be noted that the test lists included in these analyses were determined post hoc. As a consequence, the estimated effects are considered to indicate the upper limit for practice effects that may occur with the DAT corpus. IV. DISCUSSION Everyday speech communication typically takes place at SNRs above 0 db (cf., Pearsons et al., 1977; Plomp, 1977). Laboratory investigations concerned with speech understanding should therefore be conducted at similar SNRs to ensure their ecological validity. Furthermore, situations with several competing talkers are common in everyday speech communication (e.g., Agus et al., 2009), and are particularly problematic for HI listeners (Gatehouse and Noble, 2004). However, usage of available speech-on-speech materials, such as the CRM (Bolia et al., 2000) or the rerecorded version of DANTALE II (Behrens et al., 2008), typically results in SRTs well below 0 db (e.g., Neher et al., 2011). As demonstrated in the current study, the DAT corpus fulfills the requirement of ecologically valid (i.e., positive) FIG. 6. Mean SRTs across test lists and listeners for the NH (upper panel) and HI (lower panel) group as a function of chronological test list presentation order. Vertical lines indicate the start of the second visit. Bars indicate 61 standard error of the mean. SRTs. The overall SRTs were above þ1 db TMR for NH listeners and above þ6 db TMR for linearly aided HI listeners. The open-set nature of the corpus is likely to be the main reason for these high SRTs. Open-set tests have previously been shown to result in higher SRTs than closed-set tests under similar experimental conditions (e.g., Clopper et al., 2006). If a speech test is required to be sensitive at SNRs close to those observed in real-life communication, the open-set requirement seems like an effective approach to accomplish this. Unpredictability of the target stimuli has also been demonstrated to raise the SRT (e.g., Kalikow et al., 1977). Apart from the fact that they are all nouns, the target words of the DAT corpus are essentially unpredictable due to the very low redundancy of the sentences. The chosen carrier sentence ensures a very similar degree of naturalness across nouns and does not give the listener any hint in terms of which nouns to expect. Redundancy (or context) effects were also taken into account when creating the noun pairs; that is, nouns that were semantically closely related (e.g., knife and fork ) were not paired. The fact that the HI listeners obtained an overall SRT that was, on average, about 5 db higher than that achieved by the NH listeners is not assumed to be caused by reduced audibility, since the HI listeners were individually aided. Rather, other, supra-threshold deficits, often referred to as distortion (e.g., Plomp, 1978; Middelweerd et al., 1990), are probably the cause of this performance difference. The speech-on-speech measurements made with the DAT corpus as part of the current study thus seem more sensitive to such supra-threshold deficits than, for example, speech-in-noise measurements made with the Danish HINT (Nielsen and Dau, 2011). In the validation experiments of the Danish HINT, a corresponding SRT difference of about 2.6 db was found, despite the fact that the HI listeners were unaided. Large SRT differences were also apparent within each listener group (see Fig. 3). These differences were strongly significant, even for the NH listeners. Since the DAT validation measurements are assumed to resemble commonly experienced listening situations, these differences are expected to correspond to inter-individual differences in real-life speech recognition performance. A high homogeneity with respect to test list intelligibility was observed in the validation experiment. The mean SRT differences across test lists (i.e., the estimated list effects) were generally small (Fig. 4). This homogeneity is assumed to be largely due to three main corpus requirements: (1) the inclusion of a plosive or fricative in each target word; (2) an approximately equal duration of the word pairs and hence the sentences; and (3) a similar distribution of sentence intelligibilities in each test list. In the validation experiment, the equal duration requirement was further addressed by means of time expansion or compression that was applied to the masker sentences. This ensured that the target sentences were completely and uniformly masked throughout the experiment. The DAT sentences were distributed into test lists according to an assessment of their intelligibilities that was carried out with NH listeners only. Nevertheless, similar test 414 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies

9 list effects were found for the (individually aided) HI listeners (see Fig. 4). Within-subject SDs measured across the ten test lists for each talker were also similar for the two groups (NH group: db; HI group: db). Given an overall within-subject SD of 1.4 db, it would be sufficient to test 13 listeners for a statistically significant detection of a 1-dB SRT improvement due to, e.g., some hearing aid algorithm at the 5% significance level and with a power of 80% (one-tailed). It should be noted, that none of the NH listeners in the DAT validation had previously participated in a listening experiment, whereas all HI participants had some listening experience. Experienced NH listeners might obtain a smaller within-subject SD than observed in the current study. Furthermore, it is possible that the results obtained for the (primarily elderly) HI group of the present study may not generalize to other (e.g., young) HI populations. In speech-on-speech investigations where ten SRT measurements are required per listener, it seems prudent to use the Dagmar test lists as the target since no significant list effects were found for these. If fewer measurements are required, any of the three talkers can be applied as the target as long as test lists with similar list effects are used. As an additional measure, the estimated list effects can be taken into account in the experimental design. Since the ten test lists per talker are numbered in accordance with the estimated list effect (as indicated by the black circles in Fig. 4), the effects can be counterbalanced by using, e.g., lists 1, 3, 5, in one condition and lists 2, 4, 6, in the other of two conditions. The significant talker effect should also be taken into consideration when planning experiments by avoiding the use of different target talkers unless it serves a specific purpose. The psychometric function that relates speech intelligibility to TMR is known to be shallower when the listening task is dominated by informational rather than energetic masking effects (Brungart, 2001). In a survey of the factors that affect the slope of the psychometric function, MacPherson (2012) found that the psychometric function can become shallower due to the use of (1) speech maskers instead of noise maskers, (2) meaningful masker speech instead of non-meaningful masker speech, and (3) target sentences with low predictability instead of high predictability. Of these characteristics, the DAT corpus has those that all prompt a shallower slope. From this perspective, the maximum slopes of about 10%/dB observed for the psychometric functions (for NH listeners, Fig. 5) are relatively steep and only slightly below DANTALE II (13.2%/dB; Wagener et al., 2003), where speech was presented in a stationary, speech-shaped noise. Although developed for speech-onspeech investigations that evidently require speech maskers, the DAT sentences could also be presented in a stationary, speech-shaped noise for more traditional SRTmeasurements. A steeper psychometric function than in the present validation experiment would then be expected. However, it is unlikely that the slope will exceed the slope of, e.g., the Danish HINT (16.8%/dB; Nielsen and Dau, 2011). Tests of the HINT type are based on natural sentences with high predictability, which is one of the characteristics that lead to a steeper psychometric function. Learning effects that improve performance are typically observed over the course of a listening test. This learning can be subdivided into two separate effects. A practice effect associated with performance improvements that follow from gaining more experience with the test; and a memory effect associated with performance improvements due to recollection of specific sentences. In the DAT validation experiment, the learning effect was related only to practice and not to memory, since all target words were unique and never repeated to the same listener. For both NH and HI listeners, there were indications of significant practice effects of about 1 db across the first test list presentations despite the initial training (NH listeners: one training list per target talker; HI listeners: two training lists for the first target talker, one training list thereafter). This suggests that more training than applied here might be advantageous in future studies. How sensitive the DAT materials are to memory effects when test lists are reused remains to be investigated. The low predictability of the sentences suggests that the DAT corpus will be less susceptible to such effects than, for example, the Danish HINT. In the validation experiment of the Danish HINT, memory effects were sufficiently small to allow for reuse of the test lists after three weeks (Nielsen and Dau, 2011). This suggests that it may be possible to reuse the DAT sentences after three weeks (or even less) without compromising the open-set nature of the corpus. V. CONCLUSIONS In the present project, a Danish open-set, multi-talker speech corpus was developed. This corpus, the DAT corpus, consists of 30 unique test lists and nine unique training lists that are distributed equally across three female talkers. Using a frontal speech target and two concurrent speech interferers from 650 azimuth, the corpus was thoroughly validated using both NH and HI listeners. It was found to produce much higher SRTs than those achievable with other available Danish speech materials. Within-subject SDs were found to be relatively small and between-subject SDs relatively large. Furthermore, the resultant psychometric functions were found to be relatively steep. The new corpus is therefore expected to provide an effective tool for investigations of speech-on-speech masking, for example, for measurements of speech intelligibility differences due to different hearing aid algorithms in spatially complex, multi-talker listening conditions. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank Lise Bruun Hansen (Oticon A/S), Morten Løve Jepsen [Centre for Applied Hearing Research (CAHR), now Widex A/S] and Thomas Ulrich Christiansen (CAHR, now Oticon A/S) for their valuable contributions to this project. The present research was supported by the Oticon Foundation. The DAT corpus is available upon request to the corresponding author. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies 415

10 APPENDIX: DAT TEST AND TRAINING LISTS 1. Dagmar lists Carrier sentence: Dagmar tænkte på og i går. Dagmar test list 1 1. en smed, et vaskeri; 2. et råstof, en kylling; 3. en frisør, en klokke; 4. en vise, en kejser; 5. en kiks, en jungle; 6. en blåhval, en ildtang; 7. en sten, et vejrkort; 8. et dådyr, en perron; 9. en fryser, et slips; 10. en pille, en stråhat; 11. en troldmand, en kasse; 12. en bas, en ståltråd; 13. et soltag, en sauna; 14. en dialekt, en snegl; 15. en drue, en håndbold; 16. et lys, en tankvogn; 17. en is, en kronhjort; 18. et damptog, et tegn; 19. en pris, en husmor; 20. et skørt, en smutvej. Dagmar test list 2 1. en sprøjte, et job; 2. en blok, en omelet; 3. en station, en plan; 4. en brandmand, en flue; 5. en pisk, et frikort; 6. en pung, en klapstol; 7. en puma, et kloster; 8. en kraft, en indtægt; 9. et fad, et blinklys; 10. en glasskål, en sut; 11. en seddel, et ordsprog; 12. en baggård, en kringle; 13. et kammer, en citron; 14. en lampe, et skiløb; 15. en slægtning, et fjeld; 16. en bro, et fængsel; 17. et bryllup, en spade; 18. en park, en saltstang; 19. en greve, en årstid; 20. et etui, en banan. Dagmar test list 3 1. en si, et skibsværft; 2. et rygte, en vegetar; 3. et fristed, et bræt; 4. en gæst, en brødkniv; 5. et får, et vejkryds; 6. et udsalg, en dressing; 7. en glasur, en rektor; 8. en skål, en gangsti; 9. en succes, et sølvfad; 10. en klap, en matros; 11. en stol, en udflugt; 12. en gård, et græsstrå; 13. en søn, en sportsgren; 14. en kahyt, et isbjerg; 15. et center, et krater; 16. en trykfejl, en lytter; 17. en formand, en synål; 18. en strejke, en kegle; 19. et mirakel, en bølge; 20. en markmus, en sump. Dagmar test list 4 1. et rensdyr, et slot; 2. en bøjle, en debat; 3. en udsigt, en bopæl; 4. en vejkant, en mose; 5. en fjord, et stadion; 6. et dueslag, et tårn; 7. en fod, en franskmand; 8. et landkort, en svømmer; 9. en snor, et brændstof; 10. en bilkø, en vifte; 11. en koldskål, en dukke; 12. et gulv, en startknap; 13. en rute, et rugbrød; 14. en sæl, en jazzklub; 15. et rådhus, en vase; 16. en plads, et kapløb; 17. en svingdør, en søjle; 18. et parti, en turban; 19. en skrænt, en bokser; 20. en spejder, en dæmning. Dagmar test list 5 1. en skærm, et sugerør; 2. en madkurv, en kogle; 3. et jordbær, en sikring; 4. en gødning, et farvand; 5. et sted, en sandstrand; 6. en korkprop, et bånd; 7. en karamel, en baby; 8. et ugeblad, en gøgler; 9. en gråspurv, en seng; 10. en kamel, en hilsen; 11. et katalog, et frø; 12. et drama, en hals; 13. en splint, en dørmand; 14. en gårdsplads, en mønt; 15. en pejs, et snobrød; 16. en ankel, en rovfugl; 17. en pære, et kortspil; 18. en velkomst, en måtte; 19. en duel, en opskrift; 20. en adresse, et krus. Dagmar test list 6 1. en spand, en filosof; 2. en finale, et atlas; 3. et halmstrå, en sang; 4. en sæk, et sejlskib; 5. et hindbær, en mus; 6. et bål, en kænguru; 7. en traktor, en sigte; 8. et knaphul, en krog; 9. en sok, en sporhund; 10. et oplæg, en skole; 11. en kæmpe, en guldsmed; 12. en gyser, en fæstning; 13. en saddel, en frisure; 14. et værelse, en skakt; 15. et dampbad, en boks; 16. en fest, et bilhorn; 17. en økse, en rundkreds; 18. en knast, en sømand; 19. et tøjdyr, en skuffe; 20. en film, en knivspids. Dagmar test list 7 1. en stær, en bildør; 2. en gårdvagt, en habit; 3. en nabo, en maskine; 4. en bank, en brevvægt; 5. en kælder, et køretøj; 6. en pels, en kontakt; 7. en krølle, en strømpe; 8. en stok, et tilskud; 9. en mursten, en kappe; 10. en tragt, en husbåd; 11. en lås, en fladfisk; 12. en loppe, en flugtvej; 13. en kyst, en firkant; 14. en torsk, en bande; 15. en sko, en popsang; 16. en sokkel, en tåge; 17. en nisse, en trykknap; 18. en aften, en festdag; 19. et fyrrum, en svale; 20. et håndtag, en åbning. Dagmar test list 8 1. en teske, en næse; 2. et daggry, en mango; 3. en artist, et gardin; 4. en flod, en tankbil; 5. en sytråd, en strand; 6. en chef, en sølvfisk; 7. en skorpe, en rygsæk; 8. et landbrug, en palme; 9. en skat, et kæledyr; 10. en malkeko, et svar; 11. en licens, en opera; 12. en slæde, en øvelse; 13. en metro, en plante; 14. en spalte, et natbord; 15. et net, en kronprins; 16. en elastik, en gnist; 17. et stormvejr, et dryp; 18. en melodi, en lektor; 19. en ispind, en stribe; 20. en sponsor, en krimi. Dagmar test list 9 1. en tekst, en blomst; 2. et husdyr, en hank; 3. en istap, en folder; 4. en gorilla, en datter; 5. en liste, en hertug; 6. en klump, en vingård; 7. en bøn, et franskbrød; 8. en festsal, en rist; 9. en kvist, en madras; 10. et hjulspor, en brik; 11. en snabel, et skilt; 12. et håndværk, en stue; 13. en tabel, et spil; 14. en tryksag, en nakke; 15. en barstol, et skud; 16. en ridetur, en billet; 17. en forret, en kupe; 18. en grotte, et betræk; 19. en grundlov, en sol; 20. et marsvin, et lift. Dagmar test list et legehus, en rift; 2. en sangfugl, en væske; 3. et glas, en taburet; 4. en skråning, et fund; 5. en klovn, en høstak; 6. et dæksel, en barber; 7. en smørklat, en vest; 8. en trappe, et tilbud; 9. en triumf, en tango; 10. en båd, et springvand; 11. en lakrids, en doktor; 12. en sommer, en fedtplet; 13. en tryne, en blyant; 14. en krykke, et solbær; 15. en ventil, en bøffel; 16. et skaft, et teater; 17. en eskimo, en skovl; 18. en viser, en mørbrad; 19. en løsning, et metal; 20. et diplom, en diæt. 416 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies

11 Dagmar training list 1 1. en redning, en kuffert; 2. et vandrør, en altan; 3. en krans, et rovdyr; 4. en tå, et påskeæg; 5. en slagter, et medlem; 6. en skurk, en laksko; 7. en kæde, en bordkant; 8. en kage, en globus; 9. et boldspil, en messe; 10. en stråle, et skæg; 11. en skulder, en stjerne; 12. en basun, en flise; 13. en skovbund, et møde; 14. en gave, en damehat; 15. en kalkun, et punkt; 16. en fanfare, en kamp; 17. en vante, et dambrug; 18. en gravhund, et arkiv; 19. en bregne, et depot; 20. et minde, et tandkrus. Dagmar training list 2 1. en gravko, en rose; 2. en bøde, en kostald; 3. et loftsrum, en tang; 4. en købmand, et omkvæd; 5. en gudmor, en hankat; 6. et ben, en tagsten; 7. et brombær, en hobby; 8. en krukke, en officer; 9. en minibus, en avis; 10. en hofdame, en kro; 11. en drik, et lystspil; 12. en puls, et produkt; 13. en løbesko, en sal; 14. et armbind, en meteor; 15. en kortfilm, en dunk; 16. en løvskov, en skinne; 17. en gevinst, en budding; 18. en dal, et glasskår; 19. en parfume, en køje; 20. en urskov, et flygel. Dagmar training list 3 1. et lysglimt, en pil; 2. en vippe, et nattog; 3. en knage, en sneplov; 4. en skistav, en vugge; 5. en solo, en refleks; 6. en bænk, en støvsky; 7. en stålvask, et dyk; 8. en moster, en bolig; 9. en propel, et byråd; 10. en rabat, et sprøjt; 11. en kusk, en tøjsnor; 12. en koncert, en pude; 13. et spørgsmål, et bal; 14. et filmklip, en kilde; 15. en hofte, en knægt; 16. en pokal, en mislyd; 17. et point, et stengulv; 18. en bunke, et vejsving; 19. en træner, en kamin; 20. et skybrud, et vidne. 2. Asta lists Carrier sentence: Asta tænkte på og i går. Asta test list 1 1. en kaptajn, en saks; 2. en reklame, en kok; 3. en bjørn, en fodbold; 4. en recept, en bygning; 5. en cirkel, et hylster; 6. en scene, en karklud; 7. en ost, et postkort; 8. et lotteri, en lygte; 9. et trin, et forsøg; 10. en skovbrand, en kunde; 11. en baghave, et kast; 12. en rekord, en pedal; 13. et dyr, en kridtstreg; 14. en køber, en skræl; 15. et løfte, et bildæk; 16. et eventyr, en duks; 17. et regnsæt, en ordbog; 18. en opgave, et spark; 19. et knæ, et solstik; 20. et terræn, en robot. Asta test list 2 1. en træsko, et skjold; 2. et venskab, et gitter; 3. en motor, en student; 4. en enke, et paradis; 5. et show, et varehus; 6. en vagtmand, et idol; 7. en guldfisk, en kost; 8. en sporvogn, en bager; 9. en artikel, et armbånd; 10. en biograf, en fælde; 11. en soldat, et hæfte; 12. en perle, et kasino; 13. en tast, en pianist; 14. et notat, en rundtur; 15. en isbjørn, en kvinde; 16. et bad, et synspunkt; 17. et tapet, et spejl; 18. en boble, et græskar; 19. et bilag, en pædagog; 20. et smykke, en elefant. Asta test list 3 1. en skovtrold, en mark; 2. en skråvæg, en mink; 3. et fartøj, en butik; 4. et frølår, en bonde; 5. en svane, et søkort; 6. et budskab, en mast; 7. en kasket, en sæson; 8. en busk, en undulat; 9. en sovesal, en falk; 10. en skitse, en middag; 11. en grill, en sardin; 12. en bikube, en spætte; 13. en pelikan, en suppe; 14. en solsort, en potte; 15. en dragt, en sejlads; 16. en flamme, en dagdrøm; 17. et siv, en håndskrift; 18. en terning, en skøjte; 19. en styrmand, en rampe; 20. en bold, en bydel. Asta test list 4 1. en ko, et skibsvrag; 2. en pingvin, en streg; 3. et værtshus, et tag; 4. et tomrum, en talje; 5. et regnslag, en sejr; 6. en færge, en gulvklud; 7. et ordspil, en radio; 8. en fisk, en knæskal; 9. et signal, en ananas; 10. en opgang, et klaver; 11. et tidsskrift, en sav; 12. et spyd, en landsdel; 13. et forlag, en anorak; 14. en lærke, en profil; 15. en kjole, et blåbær; 16. et redskab, en by; 17. et skema, en bonus; 18. et foto, et byggeri; 19. en cafe, en hustru; 20. en form, et dørskilt. Asta test list 5 1. en ketsjer, en tånegl; 2. en bluse, en fordom; 3. en skovsø, en dåse; 4. en replik, en spion; 5. en weekend, en gaffel; 6. et regnskyl, et bæger; 7. en bustur, et besøg; 8. en slyngel, et ægtepar; 9. et stof, en forstand; 10. et vindstød, en fadøl; 11. en bamse, en sværm; 12. en sejlklub, en bakke; 13. en trøje, en bageovn; 14. et kompas, en mester; 15. en pige, en trompet; 16. en skala, et bjerg; 17. en genstand, en orkan; 18. et blad, et korthus; 19. en brevdue, en knold; 20. en hårtot, en støvle. Asta test list 6 1. en diamant, en cykel; 2. et problem, en kande; 3. en kerne, et legetøj; 4. en tank, en tepotte; 5. en stald, en fasan; 6. en stump, en lagkage; 7. et batteri, en klods; 8. en bøf, en spåkone; 9. en søløve, en gavl; 10. en kugle, en sutsko; 11. en pakke, en kantine; 12. en kuppel, et komfur; 13. en harpe, en voldgrav; 14. en plade, en byfest; 15. en due, et posthus; 16. en hytte, et papskilt; 17. en knap, et buskort; 18. en snemand, en rundsav; 19. et selskab, en vals; 20. en bogreol, en konge. Asta test list 7 1. en flok, en betjent; 2. en madskål, en rytter; 3. en svamp, en kagedej; 4. et spænde, en gangbro; 5. et anker, en advokat; 6. et styrtløb, en pind; 7. en fletning, en cigar; 8. et dagblad, en helt; 9. en samtale, et slør; 10. et møbel, en sangbog; 11. et paprør, en æske; 12. en rødvin, en salon; 13. et sejl, en lufthavn; 14. et klubhus, en stav; 15. en dykker, et mandskab; 16. en kedel, et symbol; 17. en planet, en slette; 18. en lighter, en glasdør; 19. en vinter, en storby; 20. en bilist, et opkald. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies 417

12 Asta test list 8 1. et stativ, en snaps; 2. et sæde, en indkomst; 3. en tyr, en kantsten; 4. en voksdug, en kano; 5. en fætter, et program; 6. et kvarter, en digter; 7. en zebra, en børste; 8. en granskov, en borg; 9. en gris, en skytte; 10. en bekendt, et budget; 11. et stød, en pilot; 12. en gedebuk, et fort; 13. en port, en paraply; 14. en garage, en tærte; 15. en profet, et stik; 16. et motto, et snefnug; 17. en vask, en flodhest; 18. et krat, et galleri; 19. et fly, et vildsvin; 20. en protest, en kurv. Asta test list 9 1. et kamera, en stork; 2. en makker, en snestorm; 3. en tavle, en vaffel; 4. en turist, et spjæt; 5. en gås, et herskab; 6. en forhal, et våben; 7. et hjerte, en prins; 8. en gren, en bankbog; 9. et jordskred, en bil; 10. et fløjt, en oase; 11. en småkage, en rejse; 12. en klub, et bolsje; 13. en stilk, et bordben; 14. et sangkor, en faster; 15. en kirke, et stillads; 16. en dato, et savværk; 17. en brise, en farfar; 18. en massør, en medalje; 19. et optrin, en guitar; 20. et stempel, et smil. Asta test list en brand, et værksted; 2. en barndom, en dukkert; 3. et arbejde, en paryk; 4. et varsel, en sveske; 5. en konto, et tivoli; 6. en østers, en højtid; 7. en trold, en planke; 8. en krebs, en skrædder; 9. et karbad, et rådyr; 10. en fægter, et årstal; 11. et vindue, en jagthund; 12. en hushjælp, en slange; 13. et oprør, en bambus; 14. en eksamen, en tigger; 15. en vikar, en sandal; 16. en salat, en skramme; 17. et tebrev, et telt; 18. en frugtsaft, en bi; 19. et marked, et mønster; 20. en vandpyt, en tønde. Asta training list 1 1. en hat, en skibskok; 2. et stel, en telefon; 3. en lyskurv, en prop; 4. et cirkus, et pulver; 5. en dam, et tankskib; 6. en titel, et forslag; 7. en sejlbåd,ensalme;8.et læskur, en struds; 9. en sultan, en skygge; 10. et skoleår, et spor; 11. et opslag, en jordnød; 12. en festsang, en saft; 13. en jordvold, et fodbad; 14. et lejrbål, en ridder; 15. et skind, en lynlås; 16. en gågade, et kryds; 17. et udhus, et genfærd; 18. et bifald, et indkøb; 19. et trick, en raket; 20. et ophæng, en tablet. Asta training list 2 1. en hvalros, en skive; 2. et vitamin, en latter; 3. en snebold, en onkel; 4. en test, en husstand; 5. et blikskur, en lugt; 6. en gruppe, et landsted; 7. en krone, en afstand; 8. en kronik, en tomat; 9. et hængsel, en komet; 10. en musling, et blik; 11. en slurk, en skranke; 12. en kniv, en skribent; 13. en person, et brøl; 14. en bladlus, et digt; 15. et udklip, et billede; 16. en portvin, en plov; 17. et bump, et pelsdyr; 18. et tændrør, en klode; 19. en dråbe, en bremse; 20. en bymur, en håndbog. Asta training list 3 1. en steppe, et portræt; 2. et stævne, et skelet; 3. en bådfart, en banjo; 4. en jurist, en hugorm; 5. en prik, en radise; 6. et dørtrin, en tone; 7. et næb, en guldklump; 8. en boldklub, et hop; 9. en kanal, en pensel; 10. en bruser, en knude; 11. en kollega, en stat; 12. en fersken, et guldur; 13. en gryde, et tempel; 14. en kane, en tændstik; 15. en brosten, en node; 16. et klik, en plakat; 17. en istid, et husråd; 18. en klemme, en godsvogn; 19. en kæreste, en pulje; 20. en kladde, en safari. 3. Tine lists Carrier sentence: Tine tænkte på og i går. Tine test list 1 1. en flaske, en rosin; 2. en svoger, en frøken; 3. en stamme, en slagsang; 4. et buskads, en hyrde; 5. en sø, en skrækfilm; 6. et hus, et vinglas; 7. en bjælke, en balsam; 8. et vejskilt, en tiger; 9. en fregne, et afløb; 10. en kittel, en landsmand; 11. et sværd, en tulipan; 12. en tekop, et fnis; 13. en hjælper, et fornavn; 14. en ide, et vindpust; 15. en forsker, en kløft; 16. en bund, et kunstværk; 17. en lup, et dampskib; 18. et pindsvin, et flag; 19. et design, en brønd; 20. en byge, et nåletræ. Tine test list 2 1. en sportsvogn, en sild; 2. et suk, en krostue; 3. et apotek, et sving; 4. et fnug, en regnbue; 5. en gulerod, et skab; 6. en snude, et citat; 7. en briks, en opvask; 8. en købstad, et skur; 9. en hamster, en prøve; 10. et drivhus, en fugl; 11. en travhest, en jakke; 12. en fabrik, en figur; 13. en bås, en frokost; 14. en salami, en sofa; 15. et kødben, en stemme; 16. en okse, et busstop; 17. et håndtryk, en ørken; 18. en domstol, et reb; 19. et palæ, en pastil; 20. en fordør, en grænse. Tine test list 3 1. en kaj, et regnskab; 2. et hit, en saxofon; 3. et gasblus, et drys; 4. en tube, et solbad; 5. et juletræ, en tand; 6. en pedel, en fordel; 7. et dyrskue, en sheik; 8. et postbud, en kant; 9. en ballon, et stopur; 10. en pukkel, en sølvsmed; 11. en musiker, et mærke; 12. et løb, en stenbuk; 13. en fjer, en kornmark; 14. en vanddunk, en agent; 15. en drøm, en sløjfe; 16. et apparat, en dyne; 17. et skjul, en torden; 18. en slutning, et køkken; 19. et spejlæg, et kar; 20. en tante, en sørøver. Tine test list 4 1. et træhus, en sovs; 2. en pistol, en udgang; 3. et kostume, et sjal; 4. en røgsky, et køb; 5. et kursus, et strå; 6. et forår, et punktum; 7. en plæne, en besked; 8. et kaos, et stakit; 9. et tæppe, en provins; 10. en sportsmand, et bord; 11. en montør, en taxa; 12. en sprække, en kupon; 13. et forbund, en tobak; 14. en flagstang, en hvalp; 15. en parasol, en stige; 16. en taske, et samfund; 17. en tidsfrist, en bar; 18. en dans, en lastbil; 19. et sprog, en fagbog; 20. en påstand, et skrig. Tine test list 5 1. en sål, et grantræ; 2. en fangst, en farve; 3. et landskab, et brød; 4. et rutefly, et ekko; 5. en ballet, en dørkarm; 6. et kor, et fodspor; 7. et stråtag, en pæl; 8. en kogebog, en 418 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies

13 tale; 9. en række, en tunfisk; 10. en tur, en limstift; 11. en ble, en bjergtop; 12. en grøft, en vulkan; 13. en samling, en jaguar; 14. et guldkorn, en linse; 15. et tandhjul, en indgang; 16. en kran, en delfin; 17. en kommode, en frugt; 18. en dreng, et kabel; 19. en pibe, et blink; 20. en pony, et årskort. Tine test list 6 1. en finger, en skovtur; 2. et topmøde, en tunge; 3. et spring, en fortand; 4. en grund, en bandit; 5. en luftart, en taler; 6. en bæk, en kostplan; 7. et tog, et spædbarn; 8. et album, en pose; 9. en skorsten, et føl; 10. et bevis, en rubin; 11. en lasso, et bakspejl; 12. en pligt, et måltid; 13. en dronning, en antenne; 14. en roklub, en sele; 15. en agurk, et vandløb; 16. en sportshal, et dæk; 17. en tolk, et rækværk; 18. en laks, et magasin; 19. et pasfoto, en gift; 20. et fortov, en frakke. Tine test list 7 1. en fane, et system; 2. en træstok, en kalv; 3. et halsbånd, en spids; 4. en klud, en statue; 5. en hjort, et firben; 6. et brag, en køretur; 7. en skjorte, et skib; 8. et panel, en kajak; 9. en dessert, en fløjte; 10. et halvtag, en polka; 11. et skriftsprog, en dør; 12. en havneby, et spir; 13. et palads, en dyrlæge; 14. et bær, en kontrakt; 15. en krage, en dadel; 16. en skammel, en dagbog; 17. en silo, en kunstner; 18. en ølkasse, en giraf; 19. en skov, en tegning; 20. en sabel, et beløb. Tine test list 8 1. en gåtur, en drage; 2. en mappe, en strimmel; 3. et træ, en krystal; 4. et æble, en krabbe; 5. et ryglæn, en flugt; 6. en landsby, en balje; 7. en søster, et bestik; 8. en dommer, en muskel; 9. en hveps, en fyrste; 10. en barak, et kontor; 11. en abrikos, en sti; 12. en præmie, en klasse; 13. en scooter, en pjece; 14. en påfugl, en buket; 15. et motiv, en kaktus; 16. en tvilling, en overbo; 17. en tråd, et skumbad; 18. en robåd, en skinke; 19. en skosål, en afgang; 20. en partner, et ringbind. Tine test list 9 1. et styr, en grøntsag; 2. et gensyn, en strid; 3. et søm, en fragtmand; 4. et målspark, en kæp; 5. en tepose, en hest; 6. en uniform, et bælte; 7. et filter, et plaster; 8. en gravhøj, en dolk; 9. et kort, en trætop; 10. en kanon, en stolpe; 11. en rapport, en kiosk; 12. et krybdyr, en pande; 13. en snog, et græsfrø; 14. et facit, en handske; 15. en symfoni, et brev; 16. en jagt, en møntvask; 17. en isflage, et hotel; 18. en skovsnegl, en bus; 19. et krydstogt, et tal; 20. en bagdør, en fridag. Tine test list en hæk, en frostboks; 2. en kopi, en aftale; 3. en fe, en jordklump; 4. en gartner, en udgift; 5. en gang, et fjernsyn; 6. en knogle, en natbus; 7. et æsel, en tromme; 8. en hornfisk, en bugt; 9. et skakspil, en abe; 10. en skurvogn, en hætte; 11. et projekt, en duft; 12. en gulvspand, en model; 13. en sætning, en knallert; 14. en kålorm, en ferie; 15. et ønske, et lyntog; 16. en blomme, en frømand; 17. en spådom, en kikkert; 18. en havfrue, et vink; 19. en regnskov, en heks; 20. en ske, et stålrør. Tine training list 1 1. et barn, en danskvand; 2. en salve, en serviet; 3. en gynge, et frostvejr; 4. et bogstav, en leder; 5. en tuba, en magnet; 6. et bidrag, en trone; 7. en grillbar, en storm; 8. en kanin, en tandem; 9. et pakhus, et loft; 10. en steg, en snedker; 11. et ansigt, en last; 12. et jordskælv, en kam; 13. en kåbe, et vandværk; 14. en livsstil, en kind; 15. en håndvask, en gåde; 16. en atlet, et ribben; 17. en tjener, en fynbo; 18. en læbe, en regntid; 19. en maske, et mærkat; 20. en krop, et vandtårn. Tine training list 2 1. en stil, en cyklist; 2. en kloak, et badekar; 3. et klapbord, en dame; 4. et grundstof, en bille; 5. et maraton, et folk; 6. en rytme, et højhus; 7. en pen, en grusgrav; 8. et gebyr, en kusine; 9. en gletsjer, en høvding; 10. en hårlok, et forhæng; 11. en kabale, en køler; 12. en styrthjelm, et tip; 13. en sidevej, en bror; 14. en fakkel, en vagthund; 15. et hofbal, en pumpe; 16. en plombe, et påfund; 17. en snorkel, en spurv; 18. en koloni, en klippe; 19. en idyl, et renseri; 20. et skaldyr, en hvidtøl. Tine training list 3 1. en krovært, en kølle; 2. en brandbil, et bur; 3. en grannål, en tunnel; 4. en duet, en skulptur; 5. et træsnit, en gade; 6. en klat, en friplads; 7. en landskamp, en vægt; 8. et plask, en kapsel; 9. en kone, et stambord; 10. en tikrone, en plet; 11. et bloklys, en ski; 12. en bog, en frugtgrød; 13. en kæbe, et pendul; 14. et firma, en livret; 15. et klask, en afgift; 16. en tophue, en pote; 17. en svindler, et udløb; 18. en elmast, en vimpel; 19. et vejtræ, en kode; 20. et lokale, en krumme. Agus, T. R., Akeroyd, M. A., Gatehouse, S., and Warden, D. (2009). Informational masking in young and elderly listeners for speech masked by simultaneous speech and noise, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, Arbogast, T. L., Mason, C. R., and Kidd, G., Jr. (2002). The effect of spatial separation on informational and energetic masking of speech, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, Behrens, T., Neher, T., and Johannesson, R. B. (2008). Evaluation of a Danish speech corpus for assessment of spatial unmasking, in Auditory Signal Processing in Hearing-Impaired Listeners, edited by T. Dau, J. M. Buchholz, J. M. Harte, and T. U. Christiansen (Centertryk A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark), pp Best, V., Marrone, N., Mason, C. R., and Kidd, G., Jr. (2012). The influence of non-spatial factors on measures of spatial release from masking, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, Boersma, P., and Weenink, D. (2011). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (version ) [computer program], (Last viewed June 20, 2011). Bolia, R. S., Nelson, W. T., Ericson, M. A., and Simpson, B. D. (2000). A speech corpus for multitalker communications research, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, Brungart, D. S. (2001). Informational and energetic masking effects in the perception of two simultaneous talkers, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, Clopper, C. G., Pisoni, D. B., and Tierney, A. T. (2006). Effects of openset and closed-set task demands on spoken word recognition, J. Am. Acad. Audiol. 17, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies 419

14 Dillon, H. (2001). Hearing Aids, 1st ed. (Boomerang Press, Turramurra, Australia). Gatehouse, S., and Noble, W. (2004). The speech, spatial and qualities of hearing scale (SSQ), Int. J. Audiol. 43, Helfer, K. S., and Freyman, R. L. (2009). Lexical and indexical cues in masking by competing speech, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, Henrichsen, P. J. (2007). The Danish PAROLE corpus A merge of speech and writing, in Current Trends in Research on Spoken Language in the Nordic Countries, edited by J. Toivanen and P. J. Henrichsen (Oulu University Press, Oulu), Vol. II, pp IEC (1998) , Sound System Equipment Part 13: Listening Tests on Loudspeakers (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva). Kalikow, D. N., Stevens, K. N., and Elliot, L. L. (1977). Development of a test of speech intelligibility in noise using sentence materials with controlled word predictability, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 61, Kidd, G., Jr., Arbogast, T. L., Mason, C. R., and Gallun, F. J. (2005). The advantage of knowing where to listen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, Kidd, G., Jr., Mason, C. R., Deliwala, P. S., Woods, W. S., and Colburn, H. S. (1994). Reducing informational masking by sound segregation, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, Kitterick, P. T., Bailey, P. J., and Summerfield, A. Q. (2010). Benefits of knowing who, where, and when in multi-talker listening, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, Lunner, T., Hietkamp, R. K., Andersen, M. R., Hopkins, K., and Moore, B. C. J. (2012). Effect of speech material on the benefit of temporal fine structure information in speech for young normal-hearing and older hearing-impaired participants, Ear Hear. 33, MacPherson, A. (2012). The factors affecting the psychometric function for speech intelligibility, doctoral dissertation, University of Strathclyde & MRC Institute of Hearing Research, Glasgow, UK. Marrone, N., Mason, C. R., and Kidd, G., Jr. (2008). The effects of hearing loss and age on the benefit of spatial separation between multiple talkers in reverberant rooms, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, McArdle, R. A., and Wilson, R. H. (2006). Homogeneity of the 18 QuickSIN TM lists, J. Am. Acad. Audiol. 17, Middelweerd, M. J., Festen, J. M., and Plomp, R. (1990). Difficulties with speech intelligibility in noise in spite of a normal pure-tone audiogram, Audiology 29, 1 7. Neher, T., Laugesen, S., Jensen, N. S., and Kragelund, L. (2011). Can basic auditory and cognitive measures predict hearing-impaired listeners localization and spatial speech recognition abilities?, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, Nielsen, J. B., and Dau, T. (2009). Development of a Danish speech intelligibility test, Int. J. Audiol. 48, Nielsen, J. B., and Dau, T. (2011). The Danish hearing in noise test, Int. J. Audiol. 50, Nilsson, M., Soli, S. D., and Sullivan, J. A. (1994). Development of the Hearing In Noise Test for the measurement of speech reception thresholds in quiet and in noise, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, Pearsons, K. S., Bennett, R. L., and Fidell, S. (1977). Speech levels in various noise environments, EPA 600/ , Office of Health and Ecological Effects, Washington, D.C., cited in Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (1988). Speech understanding and aging, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, Plomp, R. (1977). Acoustical aspects of cocktail parties, Acustica 38, Plomp, R. (1978). Auditory handicap of hearing impairment and the limited benefit of hearing aids, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, Prosser, S., Turrini, M., and Arslan, E. (1991). Effects of different noises on speech discrimination by the elderly, Acta Oto-Laryngol., Suppl. 476, Sommers, M. S., Kirk, K. I., and Pisoni, D. B. (1997). Some considerations in evaluating spoken word recognition by normal-hearing, noise-masked normal-hearing, and cochlear implant listeners. I: The effects of response format, Ear Hear. 18, Sumby, W. H., and Pollack, I. (1954). Visual contribution to speech intelligibility in noise, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 26, Wagener, K., Josvassen, J. L., and Ardenkjaer, R. (2003). Design, optimization and evaluation of a Danish sentence test in noise, Int. J. Audiol. 42, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Nielsen et al.: Danish corpus for competing-speech studies

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