Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr. Miljøprojekt nr. 1449, 2012

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1 Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr Miljøprojekt nr. 1449, 2012

2 Titel: Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr Redaktion: Bjørn Bauer, PlanMiljø ApS Ida Bode, PlanMiljø ApS Kia Egebæk, PlanMiljø ApS Arne Remmen, Aalborg Universitet Kasper Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Aalborg Universitet. Søren Freil, Miljøstyrelsen Lis Vedel, Miljøstyrelsen Anne Harborg Larsen, Miljøstyrelsen Dorte Lerche, Miljøstyrelsen Udgiver: Miljøstyrelsen Strandgade København K År: 2012 ISBN nr Ansvarsfraskrivelse: Miljøstyrelsen vil, når lejligheden gives, offentliggøre rapporter og indlæg vedrørende forsknings- og udviklingsprojekter inden for miljøsektoren, finansieret af Miljøstyrelsens undersøgelsesbevilling. Det skal bemærkes, at en sådan offentliggørelse ikke nødvendigvis betyder, at det pågældende indlæg giver udtryk for Miljøstyrelsens synspunkter. Offentliggørelsen betyder imidlertid, at Miljøstyrelsen finder, at indholdet udgør et væsentligt indlæg i debatten omkring den danske miljøpolitik. Må citeres med kildeangivelse. 2 Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr

3 Indhold Forord Idea Catalogue Potential regulatory initiatives Differentiated fees in collective schemes Environmentally based allocation of handling and recycling costs Environmentally differentiated tax on EEE Individual producer responsibility Network for producers and recyclers Green and Innovative Public Procurement Sharing information RFID chip Product Service System Deposit and refund on small EEE Miljødifferentieret allokering - et middel til miljøoptimeret design Det nuværende danske system for genanvendelse af WEEE WEEE-system med incitament til miljørigtigt design Aktiviteter Konklusion og sammenfatning Summary and Conclusions Referencer Bilag 1: Liste over mulige initiativer til støtte for individuelt producentansvar Bilag 2: Workshops Bilag 3: Interviewramme Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr 3

4 4 Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr

5 Forord Elektrisk og elektronisk udstyr (EEE-udstyr) fremstilles og markedsføres i stadig stigende mængder. Da levetiden for produkterne bliver stedse kortere, og prisniveauet for en stor del af produkterne er faldende, stiger mængderne af udtjent EEE-udstyr kraftigt og dermed mængderne af elskrot (eller WEEE - Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment). Med det formål at forebygge og reducere mængden af WEEE, samt at fremme genbrug og genanvendelse for at mindske ressourceforbruget, blev WEEE-direktivet vedtaget i Direktivet er udformet efter producentansvarsmodellen, hvor producenter og importører skal tage ansvar for deres produkter også i bortskaffelsesfasen, og direktivet indeholder mål for tilbagetagning og nyttiggørelse af affaldet. Med producentansvaret accepterer producenten sit ansvar overfor miljøet i design af produkterne, så der tilstræbes mindst mulige miljøpåvirkning i produktets livscyklus. Producenten accepterer samtidig sit reguleringsmæssige, fysiske og økonomiske ansvar for de miljøpåvirkninger, som produkterne medfører. 80 % af miljøpåvirkningerne fra elektriske og elektroniske produkter kan defineres og dermed modvirkes i designfasen, hvilket forklarer WEEE-direktivets særlige opmærksomhed på designfasen 1. Imidlertid er forventningerne til forebyggelse via ændringer i design generelt ikke blevet indfriet med WEEE direktivet, hvorfor dette projekt har til sigte at vurdere mulighederne for at styrke denne del af de oprindelige ambitioner med direktivet. Det overordnede formål med projektet er at fremme miljørigtig design af elektronisk udstyr. Projektets bidrag er at katalysere en politisk beslutning om styrkelse af det individuelle producentansvar i Danmark, for eksempel via ændret lovgivning eller ved fremme af målrettede initiativer. Projektet er gennemført under ledelse af en styregruppe bestående af: Søren Freil, Miljøstyrelsen (Formand) Lis Vedel, Miljøstyrelsen Anne Harborg Larsen, Miljøstyrelsen Dorte Lerche, Miljøstyrelsen Projektet er gennemført af PlanMiljø ApS ved Bjørn Bauer (projektleder), Ida Bode og Kia Egebæk, i samarbejde med Arne Remmen og Kasper Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Aalborg Universitet. Læsevejledning Rapporten er opbygget med følgende struktur: Kapitel 1 indeholder et idékatalog (på engelsk for at muliggøre international dialog om temaet) med ni initiativer, som kan styrke WEEE direktivets betydning for miljørigtigt design af elektronik. Idékataloget er udarbejdet på baggrund af litteratur, interviews og workshops. Kapitel 2 indeholder et forslag til praktisk gennemførelse og implementering af forslag 2 i idékataloget Miljødifferentieret allokering af WEEE-behandlingsomkostninger. 1 European Environmental Bureau; Analysis of the EuP, ROHS, WEEE directive - Designing greener electronic products. Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr 5

6 I bilag findes: Beskrivelse af 19 mulige indsatser til at styrke WEEE direktivets betydning for miljørigtigt design af elektronik Kort redegørelse for de afholdte workshops Interviewrammen for forundersøgelsen. 6 Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr

7 1. Idea Catalogue Potential regulatory initiatives The purpose of the project has been to identify and develop regulatory initiatives with a potential to strengthen the ecodesign effect of the WEEE Directive. The project has included the following activities: A review of literature (refer to the reference list) Interviews with key stakeholders in the European WEEE-context (refer to the reference list and Annex /Bilag 3) Three workshops with Danish and European WEEE-stakeholders (refer to Annex/Bilag 2) Preparation of a long list of potential regulatory initiatives (refer to Annex/Bilag 1). Selection of the nine most relevant regulatory options for detailed description (this section) Selection of the most promising regulatory option for analysis, in-depth description and discussion with stakeholders (section 2 of this report). Selection of the most relevant regulatory options has been based on an initial assessment of three parameters: a) The initiatives potential environmental effect; b) The initiatives potential product design effect; and c) The estimated administrative cost associated with the initiative. The Steering Committee has selected the following potential regulatory initiatives for further investigation: 1. Differentiated fees in collective schemes 2. Environmentally based allocation of handling and recycling costs 3. Environmentally differentiated tax on EEE 4. Individual producer responsibility 5. Network for producers and recyclers 6. Green and innovative public procurement 7. Sharing information RFID chip 8. Product Service System 9. Deposit and refund on small EEE. Initiative 1 has been tested in real life in France and initiative 4 in Japan, whereas the remaining seven initiatives are fictional at this stage. Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr 7

8 1.1 Differentiated fees in collective schemes Firms are increasingly competing on the environmental quality of their products in response to consumers willingness to pay a price premium for green, environmentally friendly goods. A differentiated fee on EEE products can strengthen the financial incentives for individual producers to improve the design of their products for reduced environmental impact at the end-of-life. Manufacturing enterprises in general differentiate their products in quality to mitigate competition and increase profits, and a differentiated fee scheme will support this process in the direction of more environmentally friendly products. This has to be developed by all stakeholders in the life cycle of EEE, including individual producers, EEE trade associations, NGOs, treatment and recycling operators, and the national environmental authority in order to agree on an environmentally based differentiated fee structure. In the new WEEE2-Directive (recital 23) there is a support for differentiated fees: ( ) Collective schemes could provide for differentiated fees based on how easily products and the valuable secondary raw materials that they contain could be recycled.( ) Previous experience A Danish model for a differentiated fee scheme can find inspiration in the scheme in France with differentiated fees for the take-back and management of WEEE from private households implemented in The differentiation, which all collective schemes have agreed to, is based on product compliance with specific environmental criteria. In order to reduce the amount and environmental harmfulness of WEEE, the French Ministry of the Environment in 2006 formalized a list of requirements for the approval of collective schemes. Among the requirements was a differentiated compliance fee charged to producers (and passed on to consumers through mandatory visible fees) with the purpose of improving product design. The French collective schemes did not include the differentiated fee in their first operational period , but the Ministry of the Environment stressed that for the permitting period collective schemes would be required to develop and initiate differentiated compliance fees as originally required in the approval agreement. The group developing the differentiated fee system consisted of the French Producer Responsibility System (OCAD3E); the four collective schemes (ERP, Eco-logic, Eco-Systèmes and Récyclum); EEE trade associations; individual producers; charity reuse and repair organisations; NGOs; treatment and recycling operators; and the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) with observer status only. A review of existing multi-criteria schemes for eco-labelling of EEE led to a simplified and pragmatic approach with a focus on EEE Categories 1-5 (Large Household Appliances, Small Household Appliances, IT and Telecommunications Equipment, Consumer Equipment, and Lighting Equipment), targeting one product type in each category and with only a single criterion for each (Van Rossem, 2010). The criteria are focused on the end-of-life of the products for example repairability, reuse, and recyclability of household electrical and electronic equipment. The criteria and fee modulation amplitudes are shown in the following table, indicating especially an extra charge in case of unwanted substances: 8 Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr

9 Equipment Modulation of criteria of the contribution Amplitude modulation of the contribution Cat 1: Equipment producing cold and refrigerant circuit Presence of refrigerant fluid whose GWP > % Cat. 2: Hoovers Cat. 3: Cell phones Cat. 3: Laptop computers Cat. 4: Screens Presence of plastic parts > 25 grams containing brominated flame retardant Lack of universal charger (criterion applicable since publication of the international standard) Presence of lamps containing mercury and presence of plastic parts > 25 grams containing brominated flame retardant Presence of lamps containing mercury and presence of plastic parts > 25 grams containing brominated flame retardant + 20 % % + 20 % + 20 % Cat. 5: Lamps Exclusively LED source - 20 % French modulation criteria for five EEE categories and the corresponding differentiated fees. ADEME plans to evaluate the initiative in 2012 and to expand the system to other product types (Fangeat, 2011) A Danish model for differentiated fee A Danish model for a differentiated fee scheme could learn from the French experience: keep it simple, involve stakeholders in system development, and begin slowly. Following an introductory period with single criteria for a few product groups, an evaluation will enable optimisation and expansion of the scheme. The scheme can be initiated by the Danish EPA with reference to the WEEE Directive and the EU Road Map for Resource Efficiency. The scheme is developed as a voluntary agreement between the involved parties, and for this reason regulatory changes are not required. By making visible the fee and the environmental performance of the affected products it is the ambition that conscious consumers will further extend the environmental impact of the system through deliberate selection of the most environmentally friendly products. Experience shows that the magnitude of this impact depends on price differences, awareness, information efforts, design issues, and several other conditions. The existing collective collection and treatment of WEEE will continue without changes. Environmental effect With background in the WEEE Directive the requirements to the EEE s environmental performance should relate to reuse, recycling, and recovery of materials. The magnitude of the environmental effects depends on a number of factors, including the environmental criteria applied, the amplitude of the fee modulation and the actual fee amount, the information provided to the consumers, and the competition conditions. It should be noted that a focus on environmental characteristics already regulated through other initiatives (for example contents of mercury) could relatively reduce the effect of this initiative. Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr 9

10 Effect on design The French model has not yet been evaluated but it has been deliberately constructed to support the ecodesign of EEE. The combination of visible rating of the products environmental performance and (modestly) reduced costs for the environmentally superior products should lead to design improvements. Administrative costs The system requires manufacturers to assess their products against one criterion for each product group. Experience from France indicates that for some producers and importers this has caused some trouble, especially in relation to the products contents of flame retardants. Based on the assessment, the required labelling is a relatively simple procedure. Administrative costs can be kept low by using the existing structures for payment of fees for instance connected to the producers reporting (and derived payment) to the collective scheme regarding amounts placed on the market. The existing collective collection and treatment of WEEE will continue without change. Perspectives The system appears to be relatively easy to design and implement, although some producers may face challenges in terms of achieving information from their suppliers on specific substances. It has yet to be proven to which extent the initiative will lead to the desired outcome - more green design of EEE. In the long term, increased differentiation in fee levels for example reflecting the real costs of recycling of the specific product types (refer to section 2) may lead to increased manufacturer interest for ecodesign. If additional environmental requirements are decided, the differentiated fee system could be combined with a RFID chip system providing ensuring an effective information flow and easy payment routines. Broadening the scope of the initiative, the criteria for the differentiated fee could become part of the minimum performance requirements to the specific product groups in the Eco-design Directive. This will gradually allow authorities to sharpen the criteria for the differentiated fee so the incentives to cleaner product and improved end-of-life continuously maintained and expanded. 1.2 Environmentally based allocation of handling and recycling costs This option is described in more detail (in Danish) in section 2 of this report. Recycling of WEEE in Denmark is arranged with collective recycling schemes and division of costs according to market share no matter the actual environmental characteristics of the specific product. But some products have a higher recycling value than other products; some contain hazardous parts or materials that are difficult or even dangerous to handle in the recycling system; and some products are just impractical or impossible to separate and therefore connected with considerable handling costs. The key in this initiative is to charge the costs of recycling of the individual products to the respective producers, hereby providing an incentive for green design. Presently, the waste management and recycling costs for historical WEEE delivered to the collective schemes are paid for according to each manufacturer s present market share with no regard to the amount or environmental performance of previously marketed products or the costs of recycling of the products. By introducing easily controllable and simple environmental criteria for the different product groups, each manufacturer s/importer s share of the total recycling costs for the WEEE category could then be calculated based on a combination of amounts placed on the market and the products environmental profile, expressed in a ranking. 10 Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr

11 1.2.1 Previous experience There is no experience in Denmark or any other country with diversified allocation. The system may be inspired by the following reflections made by Kieren Mayers, an English researcher. Illustrating this problem and approach, the following table showing the costs of recycling of specific types of WEEE in the UK in demonstrates the variability in actual recycling costs depending on the products environmental profile. The figure indicates the substantial difference between recycling costs for relatively similar products, for example laptops with mercury backlight or mercury-free backlight (marked with italics). Recycling costs for selected EEE in the UK Compliance category Product UK Actual recycling costs per product type Actual PRO recycling compliance costs * Small appliances Household appliances with batteries 0/ton 9.00/ton PCs & games consoles 0/ton Laptop (with mercury-free backlight) ( 250) /ton Laptop (with mercury backlight) 180/ton Servers ( 150) /ton Mobile phones ( 700) /ton Refrigerators CFC refrigerant 53/ton 57.00/ton Propane refrigerant ( 100) /ton Displays LCD with mercury backlight 180/ton 94.00/ton LCD with mercury-free backlight 0/ton CRT screen 100/ton Large domestic e.g. microwave, dishwasher, washing machine ( 100) /ton ( 45.00)/ton appliances Source: Mayers Recycling activities in the UK, excluding collection. Figures in () are income. * The price actually paid to the collective recycling system. Note that these figures represent the cost of the present recycling system. If additional materials are to be extracted from the WEEE, the cost picture will be different. Danish treatment facilities express interest in receiving more homogeneous e-waste fractions. Designed with the right blend of environmental criteria and financial diversification, the model can result in increased producer responsibility and motivation for green design. The joint environmental organisation for IT enterprises in Denmark, IT Branchens Miljøråd, has expressed initial support to a model as described in this section (Bergrahm, 2011) A Danish model for diversified allocation of WEEE handling and recycling costs A Danish system with allocation of the total recycling costs between manufacturers according to the environmental profile of the marketed products will logistically continue as presently, but manufacturers placing environmentally harmful products on the market (e.g. causing high recycling costs) will pay a larger part of the total recycling costs than hitherto. In addition, green labelling of products will increase consumer interest in the best performing product. 2 Mayers, Kieren: Implementing individual producer responsibility for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in the EU through improved cost allocation; Presentation in Copenhagen, 12 th November 2011 (PDF). Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr 11

12 Environmental effect The magnitude of the achievable environmental effects depends on a number of factors, including the environmental criteria applied, the amplitude of the allocation differentiation, the information provided to the consumers, and the competitive conditions. Effect on design The combination of visible rating of the products environmental performance and (modestly) increased costs for environmentally poor products should lead to design improvements but it is not possible to estimate the real impact of the initiative. Administrative costs The system requires manufacturers to label their product according to the set of criteria, but as simple and easily understandable criteria are used, labelling is a relative simple procedure that does not require thorough life cycle assessments. Administrative costs will be held low as the system fully works within the existing structures for payment of recycling costs. As the existing collective collection and treatment of WEEE will continue without changes, the environmentally based allocation does not imply practical burdens for the stakeholders. Perspectives The challenge of assessing the real handling and recycling costs is a serious one that implies considerable administrative problems as most actors in the value chain consider budgets and accounts as confidential material. Further, a precise assessment of the costs can only be carried out retrospectively, so the manufacturers may be required to deposit a guarantee that can cover the recycling costs when they occur. In the long term, increased differentiation in the allocation of recycling costs for example reflecting the real costs of recycling of the specific product types 3 will lead to increased interest in ecodesign by manufacturers. If additional environmental requirements are decided, the system could be combined with a RFID chip system providing the necessary information throughout the complete value chain. 1.3 Environmentally differentiated tax on EEE The use of environmental fiscal instruments has become quite common, in particular in OECD Member Countries. In recent years, several governmental tax commissions and research institutes all over Europe have proposed the implementation of further economic instruments. Since 1980, total environmental tax revenues in the European Union (EU-15) have more than quadrupled in nominal terms and increased as a share of GDP. Energy taxes are by far the most significant, representing more than three-quarters of environmental taxes in Transport taxes account for 21% of total tax revenues (Eurostat, 2003a). Most European countries have a goal of fiscal neutrality in the tax system as a whole and green taxes have been introduced without increasing the total tax burden. Introduction of green taxes is done in combination with reduction of other taxes, e.g. on personal income. With an environmentally differentiated tax on EEE the state imposes a tax on environmentally harmful products. The system to a wide extent corresponds to the diversified VAT on luxury products existing in some Member States. 3 Mayers, Kieren: Implementing individual producer responsibility for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in the EU through improved cost allocation; Presentation in Copenhagen, 12 th November 2011 (PDF). 12 Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr

13 1.3.1 Previous experience In the Danish context, the scheme has similarities to the existing tax on portable batteries: producers and importers report the amount of batteries placed on the market (divided into five categories) to the Danish Tax and Customs Administration and are charged a fee per kilogram. All producers and importers are registered in the Danish Producer Responsibility System (DPA) and the reporting is controlled by the Danish Tax and Customs Administration, DPA-System, and the Danish EPA in cooperation. In 1996 Denmark introduced a tax for the marketing of nickel-cadmium batteries, as an incentive to reduce the use of these batteries. This tax is one of the explanations for the significant reduction of the sale of nickel-cadmium batteries in Denmark, which has been seen in recent years Danish model for differentiated tax on EE The system requires development of environmental criteria for each product group and assessment of each product against these criteria. As in the French system only one criterion for each product group could be pursued to simplify the system refinements can be introduced at a later stage, if found necessary. Depending on the magnitude of the tax difference - and all other things being equal - consumers will tend to buy the product imposed with the lowest tax, a trend that can be supported by information campaigns and labelling. If the effect on the market is measurable, producers will seek to design products complying with the environmental requirements. All producers and importers are already registered in the Danish Producer Responsibility System (DPA) and the reporting on the new, environmentally differentiated categories can be established relatively easily. The enterprises will pay the tax directly to the Danish Tax and Customs Administration as other excise duties, and reports will be shared between DPA-System and the Danish Tax and Customs Administration (single registration). Taxes have to be passed in the Danish Parliament, a more troublesome procedure than the administrative setting of differentiated fees in the producer responsibility system. The existing collective collection and treatment of WEEE will continue without changes. Environmental effect and effect on design With background in the WEEE Directive the requirements to the EEE s environmental performance should relate to reuse, recycling, and recovery of materials. Producers will be given an incentive to improve the design of their products in order to achieve competitive advantages: Reduced tax (for green products) and a green label (if labelling is also included in the system). The magnitude of the environmental effects depends on a number of factors, including the environmental criteria applied, the actual tax amount, the information provided to the consumers, and the competitive conditions. Administrative costs A key challenge for this option will be the always existing political opposition to new taxes. Lengthy discussions on the relevance and fairness (etc.) of the tax can be expected. On top of this, decisions on taxes have to be endorsed by the parliament and this may be a time consuming and resource demanding process for the EPA. Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr 13

14 The system requires manufacturers to assess and label their product according to the set criteria, but as it is suggested to apply only one, easily understandable, criterion for each product group, labelling is a relatively simple procedure. The business sector s administrative costs can be held low by using the existing structures for registration and tax payment. As the existing collective collection and treatment of WEEE will continue without changes, the tax implies limited practical burdens for the stakeholders. Perspectives The system with an environmentally differentiated tax on EEE appears to be relatively easy to design when it is decided. However, it should be considered if an environmental tax model provides enough flexibility for complex products such as electrical and electronic equipment - many products with a short time on the market and many products for which the environmental profile changes quickly. 1.4 Individual producer responsibility The individual producer responsibility, IPR, in its complete version is a system in which products are returned from the consumer to the producers own recycling facilities. The producers will pay for handling of their own products according to environmental requirements specified by national authorities. The Japanese Specified Home Appliances Recycling Law (SHARL) comes close to such a model and can serve as inspiration for a Danish scheme Previous experience The Japanese Specified Home Appliances Recycling Law (SHARL) requires producers of certain EEE products televisions, air-conditioning, refrigerators, and washing machines - to take back their own discarded products, dismantle them and meet reuse, recycling and recovery targets between %. A major goal of law is the promotion of product design that facilitates waste reduction, recycling, and reuse. Retailers are required to deliver collected WEEE to regional aggregation facilities set up by producers and are permitted to charge consumers a collection fee to cover these costs. SHARL was enacted in 1998 and fully enforced in 2001 as the second Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) programme in the country that legally assigns part of the responsibility for the end-oflife management of products to manufacturers. The main driving forces behind the law were the scarcity of final disposal sites, a significant increase of WEEE in the waste stream, and the inadequacy of existing treatment plants for handling of WEEE. In order to develop the physical infrastructure effectively, dominant manufacturers grouped themselves in two clusters and cooperated on the establishment of take-back sites, take-back networks, and recovery and treatment facilities. Each manufacturer possesses at least one treatment plant enabling them to compile and communicate information from the downstream to the upstream, accumulate knowledge, test and develop recycling technology, and collect knowledge on the actual cost of recovery and environmentally sound treatment. Exchange of information between different manufacturers recycling plants and product design departments has taken place by way of periodical meetings among the personnel involved, seminars, via intranet, and through designers visits to recovery plants. The costs of take-back, recovery, and treatment are reported to have been of an equal size for the prominent manufacturers. SHARL is currently under review by the Japanese authorities; it appears that two additional product groups will be added to the scope in the revised law, namely tumble dryers and TV sets with LCD or plasma display. 14 Miljørigtigt design af elektronisk udstyr

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