Utilizing the media of computer games as an informational tool

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1 Utilizing the media of computer games as an informational tool - Addressing the socio-cultural problem of Human Trafficking Aalborg University Copenhagen, Medialogy, 9 th semester, fall 2010 Tim Kofoed Technical Game Development Simon Lund Technical Visuals Development Supervisors: Henrik Schønau Fog Thomas Bjørner

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3 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 PREFACE... I 1.1 READER S GUIDE... II INTRODUCTION 2 TRAFFICKING EXPLAINED MOTIVATION... 1 PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS 3 DISSECTING TRAFFICKING EXPOSED COMPANY STARTUP TRAFFICKING EXPOSED THE COMBAT MODULE GAMEPLAY PROBLEM DELIMITATION FINAL PROBLEM STATEMENT: ANALYSIS 4 REASSEMBLING TRAFFICKING EXPOSED TARGET DEMOGRAPHICS AFFILIATIONS SCRUTINIZING THE DIALOGUE SOLUTION REQUIREMENTS FUTURE PERSPECTIVES BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX 7 APPENDIX: STEFAN MÅRD, SENIOR SUSTAINABILITY ADVISOR AT NOVOZYMES A/S CASPAR STRANDBYGAARD, LEAD PROGRAMMER AT NOGAP, FORMER CTO OF ZEITGUYS LARS BEER NIELSEN, INTERIM DIRECTOR AT INNOVATION CENTER DENMARK, SILICON VALLEY MORTEN DAHLGAARD ANDERSEN, SEA (SUPPORTING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AALBORG UNIVERSITY) CHRONOLOGICAL TIMETABLE OF EVENTS BOTH PROJECT AND COMPANY RELATED FOREDRAG OM FORSIKRINGER OG ADVOKATER FOREDRAG OM BUDGETTERING OG REGNSKAB FOREDRAG OM SALG OG MARKETING FOREDRAG OM A-KASSE OG FINANCIERING AKTIVITETSPLAN FOR IVÆRKSÆTTER MENTORGRUPPE BALLERUP-GLADSAXE... 60

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5 Preface 1 Preface This report was written for the 9 th semester at Medialogy at Aalborg University Copenhagen ending spring The report was authored by Tim Kofoed and Simon Lund. This report should be regarded as a second iteration of the 8 th semester project correlating to the Trafficking Exposed prototype. Trafficking Exposed was a computer game prototype intended as an informational tool for high school students regarding the subject of human trafficking (Kofoed, 2010) (Lund, 2010). Extending Trafficking Exposed was a result of the interest generated by non-governmental human rights organizations which saw potential in the early prototype. Prior to the initiation of a second iteration, the human rights organization Hope Now required the project group to simultaneously establish a company with whom HopeNow could interact. A large part therefore concerns entrepreneurial research. The project group has no prior knowledge of establishing a company and as such the practical implications involved, resulted in extensive documentation. The relevant documentation relating to the entrepreneurial establishment is chronologically reiterated in the analysis section. The chronological timetable was produced in the attempt to depict the close ties the company startup process had to the prototype redesign progression. The objective of the second iteration of Trafficking Exposed was to accentuate the factual- and informational possibilities presented by the first iteration prototype which originally was obscured by the combat module. By accentuating the factual- and informational value, the underlying demands of the human rights organization Hope Now would be met; thus the interaction design of the combat and dialogue modules had to be reevaluated. By reevaluating the interaction design of Trafficking Exposed it became apparent that the challenge of completing the aforementioned objective of accentuating the factual- and informational possibilities was not embedded in the redesign of the combat module, but in the redesign of the dialogue module. Based on a theoretical foundation of computer game design theories concerning discernability, integration, and rule contingencies, the dialogue module was theoretically possible to reevaluate for future redesign. The result was a set of solution requirements that enticed players to experience a fraction of the lies and deceit trafficked women live out every day. This report is based on knowledge gained on previous semesters. The reader is implored to be acquainted with the previous work of the authors as presuppositions regarding specific definitions of immersion, presence, engagement, flow, interactivity, rule/reward contingencies and audio/visual interaction and integration will be reviewed for further design purposes but the terminologies will not be elaborately explained. The complete report and prototype from the 8 th semester can be found on the appended CD. Simon Lund Tim Kofoed I

6 Preface Reader s Guide 1.1 Reader s Guide The report is divided into four parts of which the respective key points of each chapter are subsequently summarized for an accessible overview of the project progression. To become acquainted with the original prototype design of the 8 th semester; the first part called Trafficking Explained, concerns the basic information and motivation of the project group regarding the continuation of said prototype. The chapter subsequently explains the outside events taking place during the summer of 2010 which ultimately led to the continuation of the Trafficking Exposed project and gave rise to the investigation of how to establish a company. The second part Dissecting Trafficking Exposed investigated the initial aspects to consider, when establishing a company for the first time, while accounting for the theoretical basis of the Trafficking Exposed prototype by reviewing the theories involved e.g. immersion, presence, engagement, flow, rule and reward contingencies and gameplay. The theoretical review was based on the presumption that the combat module was a predominant non-factual factor of the playable experience, which resulted in the reported participant engagement. The participants preoccupation with the combat module led to the negation of the prototype s factual purpose. Subsequent research into the workings of the combat module theoretically suggested that more aspects contributed to the playable experience than the element of combat alone could account for. The gameplay of the entire playable experience was therefore scrutinized resulting in basic interaction design flaws being revealed in the dialogue module. The preliminary analysis concluded that the dialogue module, as a whole, was neither discernable nor integrated in the playable experience. The design flaws contained in the dialogue module thereby gave rise to the predominance of the combat module which prompted that the area of further focus was to reevaluate the dialogue module in order to maintain the factual value intended. The third part Reassembling Trafficking Exposed was divided into two main parts Affiliations and Scrutinizing the Dialogue. Affiliations focused on the process of starting a company by addressing issues that had affected the entire project process by providing a detailed overview of the development and relating practical challenges, in chronological order. Scrutinizing the Dialogue investigated how players could be enticed to learn about the topic of Human Trafficking through a dialogue module reevaluation that theoretically was both discernable and integrated by utilization of rule contingencies that governed player behavior. HopeNow was supposed to deliver the factual information to be utilized in the construction of the narrative, but never did. The lack of information prompted instant research into the lives and situation of the trafficked women necessary for the construction of a factual mission based narrative. The factual research resulted in a generalized list of common issues relating to trafficked women. Reassembling Trafficking Exposed is concluded with the suggestion that for the rule contingencies to work, an interactive element capable of guiding players by presenting problems to solve, instead of choices to make, was to be designed. The chapter Solution Requirements gathers all of the previous considerations discussed throughout the report which results in the establishment of a set of solution requirements for a future prototype redesign to be based upon. The fourth and final part of the report consists of the Future Perspectives chapter. Future perspectives of this report are, in general, that a prototype redesign can be developed based upon the solution requirements and tested in an ecologically valid setting.

7 2 - Trafficking Explained 2 Trafficking Explained This chapter describes the Trafficking Exposed project process in general terms. The entire Trafficking Exposed project can be found on the CD. Subsequent to the general review of Trafficking Exposed, the project group s motivation for continuing said project is explained. From the motivation, a discussion of Trafficking Exposed accentuates the assumption that; the combat module dominated the playable experience resulting in the prototype contradicting its factual purpose. Based on the motivation and the discussion of the combat module an initial problem statement is formulated. Human Trafficking is the import and export of human beings for financial gain. The problem has yet to be solved (TalkTrafficking). On the previous 8 th semester the project group designed and developed a computer game prototype intended for educational purposes (Kofoed, 2010) (Lund, 2010). The game, called Trafficking Exposed was designed to inform high school students of the intricacies and underlying stories of trafficked prostitutes in Denmark. The game did so by placing the user in the role of a trafficked female prostitute who wandered a virtual street in Copenhagen. The prototype was a very large production and was never finished. The core mechanics of the game along with graphics and a questionable combat system was implemented. Informational value in the form of a narrative along with the balancing of nonplayer character s (NPC) dialogue options and behavior was not implemented. The potential of the prototype was however noticed by two human rights organizations, Safe & Alive and Hope Now. During the summer of 2010 HopeNow s interest in the prototype concept grew to an outspoken desire in developing a finished educational game prototype which possessed the traits promised in the early prototype design of Trafficking Exposed. Through meetings and conversations with a spokesperson from HopeNow, the project group agreed to further develop the game concept to reevaluate the combat module in the original context of Trafficking Exposed. However before any actual collaboration could commence, HopeNow required the project group to form a company with which they could professionally interact. 2.1 Motivation A further iterative development cycle of Trafficking Exposed appealed to the project group on multiple accounts. For one Trafficking Exposed was an unfinished prototype not fulfilling the design requirements which, to the project group, regardless of NGO interest and prizes won, left the whole process as an incomplete experience. Secondly the organizations required, as a prerequisite for collaboration, the establishment of a company with whom they could interact professionally, and seek funds for. The entrepreneurial aspect had a special appeal to the project group as knowledge and experience gained in this particular area could prove invaluable at a later stage i.e. experience with the computer games industry on a professional level, and establishing a company, holds the possibility of leading to future selfemployment where the educational specializations of the project group could be utilized to their full potential. In regards to the Trafficking Exposed prototype, it was observed during the system testing rounds that; even though the virtual game world lacked the narrative content intended and the world took approximately a minute to traverse, some test subject reportedly were engaged for over thirty minutes. Hypothetically speaking; if the prototype possessed game elements that, at the current stage of development, engaged users to the extent of thirty minutes a second iteration could presumably motivate the target demographics even more to play the game and thereby learn from the experience. The problem was that the prototype possessed only two interaction modules; dialogue and combat. Test participants [n=45] were observed to disregard the dialogue option in favor of combat which was supported by the test Page 1 of 60

8 2 - Trafficking Explained Initial Problem Statement results that can be found on the CD in the folder (\M8 TEST\Big test [n=45]). The test results showed that 9/45 completed the prototype game and 36/45 died in-game as a result of combat. The test results clearly indicated that combat played a large part of the Trafficking Exposed experience but the results were vague as to pinpoint exactly how large the part was i.e. test participants could have played through the entire game by solely using the dialogue option and only activated the combat module once and lost. From a discussion concerning the interrelations of the two interaction modules it became evident that neither one could at the present time be determined as the sole contributor to the reported participant engagement. The discussion also revealed a crucial point to reflect upon; the existence of a dominant combat module could presumably lower the informational and factional value of the prototype. Lowering the informational- and factional value is to be avoided as the prototype would thereby contradict its own purpose. But which game element(s) present in the Trafficking Exposed game prototype engaged participants to the point where they spent approximately half an hour playing? This question along with the appeal of finishing the prototype for professional purposes inspired the following initial problem formulation Initial problem statement: -"Can a second iteration of the Trafficking Exposed game prototype be orchestrated to pinpoint and utilize game element(s) that are dissociative to the element of combat while simultaneously fulfilling the factual informational requirements necessary for the prototype to be utilized as an informational tool in classrooms as well as meeting the demands of the human rights organizations? It is therefore with much anticipation the project group once more takes on the global problem of human trafficking and gives the Trafficking Exposed prototype a second attempt although in a slightly different context. Page 2 of 60

9 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed The chapter Dissecting Trafficking Exposed focuses on the specific areas of the initial problem statement and initially refers to theoretical knowledge obtained during the course of other semester projects that was developed by the project group. The references have been included to assist in delimiting the initial problem statement to a specific area of interest from which the final problem statement can be formulated. The following sections provide an overview of the topics of related interest that are investigated throughout the preliminary analysis. The first part introduces the demands of the human rights organizations regarding the creation of a company and the practical issues concerning an entrepreneurial start-up. The objective of this chapter is to establish an initial knowledge basis on the subject of preparing an entrepreneurial enterprise from the bottom up. From the initial research, several entrepreneurial websites, networking and government sponsored courses promised potential as a starting point for establishing a company. As will become apparent during the course of this project; starting a company was a very long process and as a result, the description of said start-up weighs heavily on the project and will be explained in chronological detail in the analysis section (Affiliations, p.18). The second part of the preliminary analysis revisits important theoretical aspects from Trafficking Exposed to become acquainted with the original concept design and known issues regarding functional modules that could have led to the reported participant engagement. The review consists of the identification and redefinition of terms relating to engagement i.e. immersion, presence and interactivity as sought further utilized within the scope of the current project. In conclusion the review suggests that the combat module of Trafficking Exposed lead to the reported engagement thus prompting an investigation into the theoretical workings of the combat module itself. The third part investigates the theoretical workings of the combat module and concerns knowledge gathered from the project group s 7 th semester project prototype Skeleton Crawler (Kofoed & Lund, 2009). The review of Skeleton Crawler is necessary to ascertain the extent to which the combat module affected participant s engagement in Trafficking Exposed. The research of Skeleton Crawler focuses on the interaction and integration that occurs between graphics and audio and concludes that the combat module alone was not the sole contributor of participants reported engagement. The fourth part incorporates a larger perspective on the Trafficking Exposed prototype by investigating the term gameplay. The larger perspective is incorporated to gain an understanding of the effect the combatand dialogue module had on participants engagement. The investigation revealed factors that substantiated participants predisposition towards utilizing the combat module as opposed to the dialogue module, in terms of discernability and integration. On a basis of the investigation, the chapter concludes that; the interactivity design of the dialogue module, in relation to the discernability of the tasks, and integration of the outcomes, in combination with the rule contingencies utilized in Trafficking Exposed, must be reevaluated. To further the factual value of the prototype the combat module should be entirely avoided. The fifth and final chapter of the preliminary analysis delimits the initial problem statement based upon the theoretical knowledge analyzed and discussed throughout the preliminary analysis. The conclusion of the delimitation results in the final problem statement. Page 3 of 60

10 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed Company Startup 3.1 Company Startup As mentioned in the introduction (p.1) two human rights organizations, both specializing in human trafficking, expressed an interest in the development of an educational prototype intended for informational purposes. However before any collaboration could commence, the organizations required the project group to form a company in the interest of fundraising and professional interaction. The project group possessed no prior knowledge of how to establish a company and as such the following chapter describes the process of the initial research that was connected to such a startup. The description is divided into two sections Networking and Entrepreneurial Research. The chapter Networking accentuates the necessity for a personal network within the computer games industry. Entrepreneurial Research encompasses the practical aspects of entrepreneurship. For the future application and development of the Trafficking Exposed game, HopeNow propounded that funding can only be sought for a company. As such, the implicit requirement was that a company must be established. From initial research it quickly became apparent that establishing a company would inevitably run parallel to the prototype development. Conducting the project development simultaneously to the company start-up was a result of the number of unknown business aspects that had to be considered and evaluated as preparatory steps in establishing the company. The following section provides an overview of the research conducted when establishing a company in Denmark with the purpose of developing a computer game and subsequently seeking funds for the development process Networking Prior to this project s entrepreneurial endeavor, events held in 2009 by Prosa at Aalborg University Copenhagen propagated the entrepreneurial benefits of networking (Prosa). The events featured Caspar Strandbygaard (Strandbygaard, 2009), former founder of Zeitguys, on the 16 th of September 2009, and Jeppe Nygaard Christensen from Ghost VFX (Christensen, 2009) at the 19 th of November Both Caspar and Jeppe expressed the importance of establishing and maintaining a personal network which one would professionally benefit from. Subsequent to the events at Aalborg University Copenhagen, the project group had a meeting with Jeppe which was held at Ghost VFX at the 16 th of February Once more Jeppe accentuated the importance of a strong entrepreneurial network. Personal contact and advice from peers are advocated by professional as being highly advantageous. Contact to professional game developers will therefore be established. Either an interview or correspondence, in regards to answering questions, would be requested. The networks of the authors currently encompass NDS Denmark which employs several former computer games developers. By attending events held by the Danish chapter of (IGDA), (Prosa) and (Unge Spiludviklere) the project groups network is sought expanded. In relation to networking an opportunity presented itself at the project initiation. An offer was presented by a staff member at Aalborg University Copenhagen [appendix 7.3] to introduce the project group to Lars Beer Nielsen who is Interim Director at Innovation Center Denmark in Silicon Valley i.e. the liaison of Aalborg University in Silicon Valley. A trip to Silicon Valley could potentially create new networks to several game developers and venture capital investors. As such, a trip to visit Silicon Valley, USA, was therefore being planned Entrepreneurial Research The internet provided the first tidbits of tangible information on entrepreneurship. A preliminary search of the internet revealed several websites specializing in entrepreneurship. The most interesting and promising of the discovered sites were (Væksthus) and (Væksthus Midtjylland) as they are detailed and comprehensive. Other websites such as (DIF) and (iværk & vækst) also appeared interesting in regards to entrepreneurial events and establishment of helpful contacts. For entrepreneurial tips and tricks the online entrepreneurial magazine found at (Iværksætteren) showed promise. Through the internet, courses Page 4 of 60

11 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed Company Startup advertising lectures of; taxation, legal requirements, marketing, funding and insurance policies were discovered to be established in the municipalities of Ballerup and Gladsaxe. In an attempt to gain early recognition and create awareness towards the prototype, Trafficking Exposed was entered into a competition hosted by the human rights organization Safe & Alive (Safe and Alive), as briefly mentioned in Trafficking Explained on p.1. At the competition the Trafficking Exposed prototype was awarded the third place which generated interest from several possible investors. The website Talk Trafficking (TalkTrafficking) which was developed on the 8 th semester, should therefore continue to exist and remain a potential means to further public- as well as investor awareness of the Trafficking Exposed prototype development. From the research of entrepreneurial options, the theoretical foundation of creating a professional network, both of national and international character exists. Web resources must be further researched to determine which sites are the most beneficial. Page 5 of 60

12 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed in Detail 3.2 Trafficking Exposed As the purpose of informing high school students of the intricacies and underlying stories of trafficked women forced into prostitution in Denmark remains the same, a second iteration of Trafficking Exposed entailed a revisit of the underlying research constituted in the original first iteration prototype. Similarities between the first iteration and the second iteration will inevitably exist as the concept design remains unaltered. Even if similar, some vital areas are required to be readdressed to provide a complete overview of the decisions involved which led to changes in the second iteration. As an approach to exemplifying vital aspects of the Trafficking Exposed project, a revision and a redefinition of the pivotal terminology utilized herein, will be implemented. The revision provided a knowledge basis of the previous work and established areas of further interest in relation to the delimitation of the initial problem statement in order for a final problem statement to be reached Trafficking Explained in Detail In order to pinpoint areas of interest in the process of delimiting the initial problem statement, this chapter serves as a superficial- description and subsequent theoretical analysis of the 8 th semester project Trafficking Exposed by (Kofoed, 2010) and (Lund, 2010). The theoretical analysis concerns the exemplification and reevaluation of pivotal theories and terminologies utilized throughout the Trafficking Exposed project. The goal of Trafficking Exposed was ultimately to construct a framework of how the terms immersion and interaction could practically be utilized in a virtual experience granting the capability to captivate users to a degree where the factual information concerning the intricacies of human trafficking could be presented in a fashion that they would be remembered by the user (Lund, 2010 p. 8). Theoretically this was achieved by placing the player in the role of a trafficked woman by investigating the immersive properties of in-game viewpoints in (Sheffield, 2009), (Claypool, et al.), (Bystom, Woodrow, & Hendrix, 1999). The investigation resulted in the creation of a first-person viewed virtual environment (VE) with an attached avatar e.g. looking down would reveal the avatar s torso and feet. The goal of the game was to pay off an initial debt to the backers of 1500 DKK. Test observations and interview responses (Lund, 2010 p. 24) combined with internal group discussions indicated that the interactivity design and reward schedules (Hopson, 2001), combined with participants expectations of how to utilize a first-person viewport presumably resulted in few subjects ever noticing the avatar outside of combat. The reward contingencies of Trafficking Exposed were based on a variable ratio schedule i.e. participants received varying amounts of in-game money for tasks completed; DKK for successful combat and DKK for successful dialogue. Theoretically the reward schedule should have diverted participants from engaging in combat as the reward was substantially larger for successful dialogue. Nonetheless test participants focused solely on the combat aspect and completely disregarded the dialogue option. This contradicted the factual purpose of the prototype and as such the Trafficking Exposed prototype did not fulfill the design requirements regarding the implementation of in-game objectives and a factual narrative which resulted in the combat system being the only functional module. Another mentionable note was that issues in the program coding led to audio/visual feedback inconsistencies (Kofoed, 2010) which contradicted the most basic design principles i.e. immediate feedback as discussed by (Allmer, 2009) and (Norman, 1988). As a consequence of not meeting the design requirements any final conclusions on applied theories on immersion, presence, engagement, flow, rules and interactivity by (Slater, 2008) (Brown, et al., 2004)(Banos, et al., 2004) (McMahan, 2003) (Lombard, et al., 1997) (Jennet, et al., 2008) (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2005) (Bolter, et al., 2003) (Adams & Rollings, 2006) and (Crawford, 2003) could not be reached. To uncover whether the previously applied terminology and theories utilized in Trafficking Page 6 of 60

13 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed in Detail Exposed infers an impact on the current project span, vital excerpts of the theories and terminology as utilized during Trafficking Exposed (Lund, 2010) was briefly recollected Immersion, presence and engagement in Trafficking Exposed To gain an understanding of engagement and the entailing implications on immersion and presence a small investigation of the term was instigated for further use. Reviewing and redefining the entire terminology of immersion, presence and engagement as utilized throughout Trafficking Exposed (Lund, 2010) was neither necessary nor viable given the limited project scope but can be found on the CD respectively under (Kofoed, 2010), (Kofoed & Lund, 2009) and (Lund, 2010). This small chapter is included to review and redefine a vital synthesized theory of immersion encompassing engagement and presence from (Lund, 2010). Trafficking Exposed adopted a perspective on immersion, presence and engagement as perceived by Slater in (Slater, 2008). The adaptation was based on Slater s opinion of presence being the outcome of the form of a given system similar to the theory of perceptual immersion by (McMahan, 2003) and (Banos & al., 2004). The form of a system is in this case the physical manner in which the system is presented i.e. display technology and sensory fidelity (Bystom, Woodrow, & Hendrix, 1999). Presence is in this paradigm a human response to the systems immersive capabilities (Slater, 2008). With form dictating the immersive capabilities of a system, engagement is according to Slater dictated by the content of a system (Slater, 2008). Content in this sense consists of many individual variables e.g. visuals, audio, narrative and game mechanics, all of which contains more sub variables e.g. visuals 2D/3D objects, animations, texture maps and particle systems. As proposed in Trafficking Exposed the separation of form and content is not viewed as viable as interactivity presumably spans the gap between form and content as proposed in (Lund, 2010, p. 7) e.g. controlling virtual content through the physical form of an interface relates to an entirely different theoretical foundation; transparency of the medium by (Bolter & Gromala, 2003), affordance and mapping of the physical interface by (Norman, 1988) and interaction design by (Crawford, 1982). With the theoretical shortcoming of bridging the gap between form and content the two terms are viewed from the perspective of Slater. An important question remains; does interactivity bridge the gap between form and content and can engagement be classified as being solely a constituent of content? The generalization of engagement as being solely a constituent of content was investigated further by reviewing the actual form and content of Trafficking Exposed by reviewing an earlier project Skeleton Crawler (Kofoed & Lund, 2009). Specifically the interaction design was reexamined for any relevance that can be utilized in the current project scope in an attempt to avoid the non-factual combat module pitfall, which was emphasized by the following chapter. Page 7 of 60

14 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed The Combat Module 3.3 The Combat Module This subchapter concerns theories of audio-visual interaction and integration utilized in the prototype Skeleton Crawler (Kofoed & Lund, 2009) which was fundamental to understanding the impact the combat module had on the test participants engagement. Engagement was in turn investigated as solely being a constituent of content in relation to Skeleton Crawler. Through an understanding of theories regarding engagement and audio/visual interaction and integration obtained in Skeleton Crawler, the chapter was concluded with the suggestion that the combat module in Trafficking Exposed did not alone substantiate the test participants reported engagement Visual and Auditory Integration in Skeleton Crawler This chapter served as a superficial- description and subsequent theoretical analysis of the 7 th semester prototype Skeleton Crawler. The theoretical analysis concerned the term engagement and the exemplification and reevaluation of synthesized theories utilized in Skeleton Crawler by which the engaging factor of the combat system utilized in Trafficking Exposed could be investigated. Skeleton Crawler directly revolved around combat. The project examined where participant s focus was placed during combat situations by lowering the level of detail on specific 3D models. The project concerned model and texture optimization by determining the area of player focus thus establishing where to direct attention when constructing models and textures. Skeleton Crawler showed that the imposed visual discrepancies of the NPC s would not be noticed if the head of the NPC s were smooth-shaded thus implying that the head of the NPC s was the center of focus (Kofoed & Lund, 2009). In Skeleton Crawler, participants spent approximately 6.30 minutes in-game which was estimated as a too short temporal span to notice the visual discrepancies. In relation to combat as an engaging factor it can be deducted from the research of Skeleton Crawler that combat on its own can be viewed as a distracting factor demanding a high level of attention from the participant which in turn can be categorized in constituents of engagement i.e. either sensory-, emotional-, physical-, intellectual-, social- or dramatic engagement (Schønau, et al., [Unpublished - Submitted for Publication, 8. Feb, 2010]). The combat module of Skeleton Crawler was based on physical engagement, with fluctuations in sensory, emotional and intellectual engagement. By defining engagement as a quantity encompassing a larger array of aspects to consider, the notion of physical engagement alone spans the gap between form and content i.e. by being physically engaged it is the users physical motion that, in accordance with the limitations regarding the form of the system, interacts with some or all of the other engaging aspects to maintain the engagement of the user i.e. interaction. Therefore engagement cannot be viewed as solely being a constituent of content as Slater proposes in (Slater, 2008). In Skeleton Crawler the participants were required to physically move the mouse in the desired direction of an executable attack while controlling the movement of the avatar with the keyboard in an attempt to predict the next attack from the NPC s and avoid being hit themselves. The NPC s had a very rudimentary Artificial Intelligence (AI) (Kofoed, 2010) and the player could not die ingame, although being hit triggered a 2D blood overlay prompting players to avoid damage. The interactive and engaging factors present in the combat module of Skeleton Crawler are also present in Trafficking Exposed whereas the same engaging constituents can be further investigated as decisive elements of participant engagement. In relation to estimating levels of focus and attention, which are prerequisites of any engagement in any task (Kofoed & Lund, 2009, p. 1), the participants ability to discover audio-visual discrepancies reveals clues as to how engaged the participants were. During the Trafficking Exposed prototype testing, participants spent on average minutes in-game and generally reported auditory discrepancies in NPC walk-cycles and combat (Lund, 2010 p. 39). Visual Page 8 of 60

15 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed The Combat Module discrepancies present in the prototype e.g. double face normals brightening the NPC s faces and eyes uncontrollably (Lund, 2010 p. 22) were not noticed. This fact was not expected as it is a known fact that participants ability to discover discrepancies in the visual quality of an audio-visual product will be lowered when accompanied by high quality audio as can be seen from the research by (Rihs, 1995) and (A. Kohlraush, 1999) and exemplified by the Skeleton Crawler prototype. Trafficking Exposed did in this sense not possess high quality audio by possessing discrepancies. By possessing auditory discrepancies the visual discrepancies in Trafficking Exposed should, theoretically, have been noticeable. By participants not noticing and commenting on the visual discrepancies of the prototype, they were presumably engaged in the experience. As some aspects of engagement, in an interactive virtual system, presumably span the gap between form and content, the question of which factors contributed to the engaging experience of Trafficking Exposed remained. An investigation of a broader view on the entire playable experience of Trafficking Exposed was instigated in order to discover these factors. The following chapter investigates a general term utilized by computer game developers and players alike as a common denominator of a computer games overall capabilities as a game, termed gameplay. Page 9 of 60

16 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed Gameplay 3.4 Gameplay As the combat module of Trafficking Exposed could not be theoretically validated as the sole contributor to participants level of engagement an investigation into gameplay was instigated. The investigation of gameplay is described in Terminology of Gameplay, and was conducted to reveal any factors that could substantiate the participants reported predisposition towards using the combat module as opposed to using the dialogue module. The objective of the investigation was to theoretically determine the shortcomings of the combat- and dialogue modules so they could be improved. By theoretically analyzing gameplay in relation to the combat- and dialogue module, a theoretical understanding of why participants focused on the combat module was established in the chapter Meaningful Dialogue. Through the understanding of gameplay, a knowledge basis was established and utilized to argue for the reevaluation of the interactivity design by making the dialogue module both discernable and integrated. The following two chapters describe this process Terminology of Gameplay To summarize the terminology of gameplay for further utilization, the following section accentuates vital aspects of the terminology in relation to the combat- and dialogue modules. Gameplay can be defined somewhat differently although in the same context as can be deducted from the gameplay theories by (Adams & Rollings, 2006) and (Crawford, 1982). Adams and Rollings define gameplay as a combination of challenge and action (Adams & Rollings, 2006, p. 12). Challenge in this sense relates to task management requiring mental- and physical effort of the player; action is the tools the player is permitted to solve the tasks with. Chris Crawford defines gameplay as being - derived from the combination of pace and cognitive effort required by the game in (Crawford, 1982 p. 18). Pace and cognitive effort translates to the difficulty of the challenge and the amount of attention resources players must allocate to solve the challenge successfully. In contrast to Adams and Rollings, Crawford divides gameplay into the elements of challenge and cognitive effort. Challenge encompasses both the task and the tools for solving the task. Cognitive effort is the mental effort required in using the tools to solve the task successfully. The gameplay theories put forth by Crawford and Adams and Rollings are in the opinion of the author similar, as they contain the same elements; a task to complete with system defined tools and the amount of attention a player must allocate to the activity of utilizing the tools. In Trafficking Exposed the dialogue- and combat modules each possessed tasks and tools of different difficulty and application and thus the modules required varying degrees of cognitive effort. The dialogue module presented a puzzle of selecting correct dialogue options corresponding to specific NPC types. The combat module on the other hand presented tasks of speed and precision when combating and evading enemies. The balance of task difficulty in the two modules was thereby implicitly different and the question of why the combat module was more appealing, in terms of producing good gameplay, formed itself. According to Crawford, if pace and cognitive effort is balanced, then good gameplay has been achieved (Crawford, 1982). If difficulty and cognitive effort is denominated to challenge of the game and skill of the user, the theory of gameplay by Adams, Rollings and Crawford is similar to the theory of flow by Csikszentmihalyi e.g. flow theory states that; if the difficulty of the game is balanced with the skill of the user, the user could experience a state of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991). In flow theory, skill is a measure of both the cognitive effort required to mentally solve the task and the physical effort of conveying the solution to the user interface (UI). For additional information on flow, relating to Trafficking Exposed, see (Lund, 2010) and (Kofoed, 2010). By having compared the theories of gameplay and flow, the combat- and Page 10 of 60

17 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed Gameplay dialogue modules can be examined in relation to the theory synthesis of good gameplay and flow as being the difficulty of the task vs. the cognitive effort required to solve the task. Theoretically, the difficulty of the task presented by the combat module and the amount of attention the task required from the participants was apparently better balanced than the dialogue module. Good gameplay and experiencing flow can in this sense be said to be a product of engagement e.g. prior to experiencing a state of flow both an allocation of attention from the real world to the virtual world and the acquisition of skills in the form of knowledge and knowhow to solve the tasks presented by the system are required. A theoretical presumption as to why the combat module was predominant compared to the dialogue module could pertain to the fact that the first-person perspective paradigm is inevitably tied to combat as briefly mentioned in the chapter Trafficking Explained on page 6. To ascertain why the design of the tasks-, and the mental process of utilizing the tools correlating to the tasks, in respect to the combatand dialogue modules, apparently differed so much in simplicity and difficulty, a theoretical step backwards to the core foundation of the terminology of gameplay was initiated Meaningful Dialogue To evaluate the design of the combat- and dialogue module in respect to the tasks, tools and mental effort required, Salen and Zimmerman offered a method of theoretically dissecting the basic gameplay presented by each module in their definition of meaningful play from (Salen & Zimmerman, 2004). In the descriptive phase of meaningful play the definition states that Meaningful play in a game emerges from the relationship between player action and system outcome... (Salen & Zimmerman, 2004). The descriptive definition of meaningful play can be used only to describe the gameplay featured by the modules as simply what happens in terms of cause and effect. Describing the gameplay of the modules in terms of cause and effect would provide an overview of the interactive possibilities and responses presented by the modules. The description however provides no clue as to whether the gameplay of the specific module was good or bad. To evaluate the gameplay of the modules as either good or bad, Salen and Zimmerman s evaluative definition of meaningful play states that - Meaningful play occurs when the relationships between actions and outcomes... are both discernable and integrated... (Salen & Zimmerman, 2004). The evaluative definition of meaningful play could be utilized to discern the supposed gameplay of both modules. Discernable in relation to computer game design means a perceivable communication between system and user, correlating to tasks and utilization of tools. The theory of discernability was in its essence similar to the theory of immediate feedback by (Norman, 1988) and was utilized as such. Norman s theories on immediate feedback are not recollected here but can be found in (Norman, 1988) and are utilized in both (Kofoed & Lund, 2009, p. 7) and (Lund, 2010). The second term introduced in the evaluative definition of meaningful play was integrated. Integrated, in relation to computer games design, means that; besides the immediate feedback provided by an action, the action is also integrated into the game as a whole by producing subsequent consequences of that action (Salen & Zimmerman, 2004). Correlating the terminology of discernability and integration to Trafficking Exposed, the immediate feedback of the combat module provided discernable play i.e. if the buttons were pressed the avatar performed an attack with corresponding audio attached, and the combat module was integrated as successful attacks directed at NPC s resulted in hit animations of a staggered NPC, being played. If the NPC had been successfully hit enough they subsequently fell down and ran away. Once an NPC had been successfully defeated a reward of x amount of points were displayed on the GUI. The reward was based on a variable ratio schedule with a low disbursement. Utilization of rule contingencies and ratio schedules are further elaborated upon in (Hopson, 2001), (Lund, 2010, p. 7) and (Kofoed, 2010, pp. 8-9). The combat module thereby presented both discernable- and integrated elements, which made the play of the combat Page 11 of 60

18 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed Gameplay module meaningful. The dialogue module interaction design was however different from its intended use. In retrospect the dialogue module possessed several flaws concerning discernability and integration. For one the test participants of Trafficking Exposed expressed in (Lund, 2010, p. 23) that the dialogue- font size and border containing the written text were too small thus making it difficult to read the content of the dialogue (Kofoed, 2010, p. 23). Additionally the variables governing the NPC dialogue options and dialogue success criterion was not adequately balanced, as one participant elicited - the dialogue options seem random (Lund, 2010, p. 23). The randomness of the outcome of the participants choices resulted in the inscrutable 1 appearance of the dialogue module i.e. success when interacting with the dialogue module was very rare. The dialogue disbursement rate was, as the combat module, based on a variable ratio schedule but with a high disbursement rate. The variation of disbursement rates should, theoretically, have produced a predisposition in participants to utilize the dialogue module as the payoff was higher, but as became known, this was not the case. The extent to which the dialogue modules variable ratio schedules had on the participants predisposition to use the combat module was not known. The rule contingencies governing Trafficking Exposed must be further examined in relation to the dialogue module to determine the deficiencies. From the above short analysis of the combat- and dialogue module, it could be stated that the dialogue module was neither discernable nor integrated thus resulting in the participants placement of focus on the, easily understood, combat module. In conclusion of the gameplay analysis concerning the combat- and dialogue module, it was stated that; the shortcomings of the dialogue module, in terms of discernability and integration, resulted in the predominance of the combat module. To produce good gameplay the dialogue module must first and foremost be discernable and integrated in the Trafficking Exposed experience. Discernable- and integrated play correlates to the rule contingencies and ratio schedules which should be further researched in relation to reevaluating the dialogue module to maintain a factual concept design that was dissociative to combat. 1 Inscrutable i.e. opaque translated to Danish means uigennemskuelig Page 12 of 60

19 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed Problem Delimitation 3.5 Problem Delimitation The preliminary analysis of the combat- and dialogue modules established that the participants predisposition to utilize the combat module as opposed to utilizing the dialogue module, resulted from deficiencies in the dialogue module in terms of discernability and integration. The consequence of the aforementioned theoretical discovery led to a slight shift of project focus, i.e. from combat to dialogue. The following chapter accentuates the pivotal discoveries made from the theoretical analysis of the previous chapters. The accentuated findings serve to summarize the preliminary analysis in the production of an overview, upon which, the problem delimitation can be based. The problem delimitation is presented in Delimitation which concludes the chapter with the presentation of the final problem statement. Throughout the first chapter of the preliminary analysis, Company Startup, the process of obtaining knowledge concerning entrepreneurship was described. First and foremost the importance of networking and entrepreneurial research was accentuated and as such the project group planned meetings with HopeNow and a research and networking trip to Silicon Valley. The chapter was closed with the annotation of the Trafficking Exposed prototype had been entered in a human-rights competition hosted by Safe and Alive. The chapter Trafficking Exposed initially summarized the original prototype in Trafficking Explained. The summary resulted in an investigation of the different roles the combat- and dialogue modules played in relation to participant engagement. The investigation resulted in an analysis of the theoretical constituents of engagement in correlation to form and content in Immersion, presence and engagement in Trafficking Exposed. The chapter was closed by concluding that continual research concerning the workings of the combat module was necessary to understand the full effect on participant engagement. As an approach to understanding the workings of the combat module, a theoretical analysis of audio- visual interaction and integration was commenced in the chapter; The Combat Module. The analysis of audiovisual interaction and integration was based on previous research derived from the Skeleton Crawler prototype which correlated to the combat module of Trafficking Exposed. By understanding the theories regarding audio- visual interaction and integration the chapter concluded that the combat module in Trafficking Exposed was a major contributor to the participants reported engagement. It was, however not possible to estimate the extent to which the combat module contributed to participants engagement. The chapter Gameplay featured a theoretical investigation of the interactive design of Trafficking Exposed. From the terminology of gameplay, basic game design flaws originating from the dialogue module were noticed, which were explained in Terminology of Gameplay. The following chapter Meaningful Dialogue builds on the previous research of gameplay and discovers that the shortcomings of the dialogue module indirectly lead to the predominance of the combat module. The chapter concluded that for the dialogue module to work, as initially intended, it must be reevaluated down to the core design mechanics of immediate feedback and rule contingencies Delimitation The final chapter of the preliminary analysis delimits the initial problem formulation based on the research presented so far. In relation to the initial problem formulation it can be stated that; knowledge of how to establish a computer game company, capable of avoiding the difficulties of the practical challenges of early entrepreneurship can be acquired through networking with professionals in the industry. To establish a foothold in the industry a theoretical framework of a possible prototype design concept presenting factual information, dissociative to combat, must be produced. To accomplish this, the objectives of the prototype Page 13 of 60

20 3 Dissecting Trafficking Exposed Final Problem Statement must be to focus on the dialogue which was essentially dissociative to combat. The dialogue modules game mechanics, theoretically proven not to be functional, must therefore be reevaluated as to be operational within a classroom. To achieve a functional interaction design of the dialogue module, the following bullet points accentuate the current objectives which also form the foundation of the final problem statement. Establish network of entrepreneur- and game development professionals. Procure a factual and informative interaction concept, illustrating life as a trafficked woman. Reevaluate the dialogue module to be discernable and integrated. Reevaluated rule contingencies and ratio schedules to be discernable and integrated. 3.6 Final Problem Statement: How can players be enticed to discover the facts of trafficked women, and thus learn about the topic of human trafficking first hand, by utilization of discernable and integrated rule contingencies integrated in the dialogue module while establishing a company that avoids the early pitfalls of entrepreneurship by means of networking? Page 14 of 60

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