The Online Library E17 and Adult Dyslexics - Investigating issues and values from a user perspective

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1 p æ y M i h Å S A G T u B E n W q The Online Library E17 and Adult Dyslexics - Investigating issues and values from a user perspective Bachelor Project IT-University of Copenhagen Digital Media & Design, Spring 2015 Character count: (59 standard pages) Supervisor: Jörn Messeter Sarah Fabricius > Esther Krogh Lundberg > Terese Brandstrup Thomsen > Kathrine Marie Schledermann >

2 Abstract Denne opgave omhandler hvordan online biblioteket E17 kan skabe værdi og hjælpe en ordblind i dennes hverdag. Dette bliver undersøgt ved et samarbejde med Nota, som tilbyder online biblioteket, E17, til ordblinde og svagtseende. Målgruppen for denne undersøgelse er ordblinde i alderen år. Der blev benyttet kvalitative metoder til indsamling af data i form af ti interviews og en workshop. Indsamlet data fra interviewene resulterede i fund vedrørende den aktuelle aldersgruppes positive -og negative oplevelser samt brug og værdi tilegnet gennem E17. Ydermere fungerede interview dataen som fundament til udførelse af workshoppen og to personas, som præsenterer en typisk E17 bruger i henholdsvis beskrivelser og scenarier. Dertil bliver resultater, både fra interviews og workshop, analyseret i forhold til relaterede studier om ordblinde og deres mulighed for at være tilgængelige online. Analysen viste at E17 har behov for en del forbedringer for at kunne optimere de ordblindes brug af siden. Dertil giver det online bibliotek også dens brugere værdsatte positive værdier. Endvidere diskuteres og reflekteres over brugte metoder, samt hvorvidt projektets problemstilling vil kunne videre undersøges og analyseres. Afslutningsvis vil fund blive præsenteret som anbefalinger til Nota og det konkluderes, at online biblioteker er en hjælp der tilføjer værdi til ordblinde i deres aktuelle situation. Keywords Dyslexia, online library, E17, information literacy. 2

3 Table of Contents Structure of Chapters and Reading guide Introduction Scope and Research Question What is Dyslexia? Dyslexia and adulthood IT-support to Dyslexics The IT-backpack Applications (Apps) The Dictaphone Read Aloud Programs Nota and E Screenshots of E Collaboration with Nota Theory and Literature review Online and Dyslexic Web accessibility and Dyslexia Online Libraries Information Literacy Our Perspective Method The Interviews Recruitment of Respondents The Pilot Interview Execution of Interviews Coding and Analysis The Workshop Recruiting of Participants Planning and Execution of Workshop Personas Interview Findings Negative Findings E17 and Service Books Help and Instruction Positive Findings

4 4.2.1 Service Books Website Value E17 Brings the Respondents Personas and Scenarios Creation Process and Why Personas to Nota? Workshop Findings Activity The Largest Issue (Red Post-it) The Second Largest Issue (Yellow Post-its) The Third Largest Issue (Green Post-it) Activity Instruction Video Search Read Aloud Function Customize my page Overall Observation Analysis Negative Findings Search Function Design and Icons Customization Technicalities in relation to the Book Summary Instructional Videos Positive Findings Which Values E17 gives the Dyslexic Users? Our Recommendations to Nota s E Discussion Method Reflection Front and Back-stage Conclusion References Appendix

5 Structure of Chapters and Reading guide This section gives a reading guide to the bachelor project. It also gives a clarification of the used terms. Chapter 1 contains an introduction to dyslexia, Nota, E17 and the research question of this paper. Chapter 2 contains research and theory related to dyslexia. Additionally, theories regarding online libraries, online design guidelines to help dyslexics and Information Literacy are introduced. Chapter 3 presents and explains used methods for conducted interviews, workshop, personas and analysis. Chapter 4 presents relevant findings from conducted interviews. They are categorized in two themes: E17 and the experience of being dyslexic. These two themes are approached from a negative and positive point of view. Chapter 5 presents two personas created from collected data gathered through the interviews. Additionally, a couple of scenarios for these personas are presented to exemplify their use of E17. Chapter 6 presents the workshop findings. Chapter 7 contains the analysis of both the interviews and workshop findings. Additionally our recommendations for Nota, in regards of E17, are presented. Chapter 8 contains our discussion. Here we discuss used methods, further research, and front stage/backstage by Goffman (1959, 2005). Chapter 9 presents the conclusion of this paper. Please see Model 1 for further visualization of above chapter outline. Model 1. Overview of project. 5

6 This paper s empirical data was based on qualitative data collected through 10 interviews with dyslexic users of Nota s online library E17. The interviews functioned as basis for two personas and a workshop. The Interview and workshop findings were the basis for the analysis which resulted in our suggestions to Nota s further development of E17 and the conclusion of this paper (see Model 2). Model 2. Overview of process, method and collecting of data. Used terms This section clarifies particularly prominent terms used throughout the paper. Dyslexia and Dyslexic Dyslexia is used to reference the disorder that involves difficulty in learning to read and write words, despite normal intelligence. Dyslexic is used in relation to the individual diagnosed with dyslexia. Users, Respondents and Participants A user is a person who uses a service or product. Often the user is attached to an account and is identified through a username. A user in the sense of this paper will be a reference to members of Nota using the online library E17. Respondents are the users of E17 which were recruited to be interviewed as part of collecting the qualitative data. Participant encloses the respondents who participated in the subsequent workshop. E17 and E17 Direct E17 is used in reference to Nota s online library. The term E17 will also be used in relation to web pages, functions etc. accessible on the website E17 Direkte (eng.: E17 Direct) is the name given to the online audio function of E17. If the user presses Afspil (eng.: play) the audiobook will be streamed directly to the user s mobile, tablet or PC in the browser. For some books, E17 Direct is synchronized with text so the user can follow it, while it is read aloud. On E17 Direct it is possible to pause, fast forward and rewind, skip chapters, add bookmarks, change the font size and adjust the reading speed. Throughout the paper we will mention E17 Direct in English rather than Danish. 6

7 The Bachelor Project s Stakeholders We see the possibility of several stakeholders as it could be anyone with an interest for adult dyslexia, online libraries or uses of E17. The main external stakeholder would be Nota, since it is in their interest to understand their users of E17 and generally their dyslexic members. Nota could further benefit from this project by gaining insights in the values and issues of E17 through the eyes of the selected target group. Additionally, the paper provides an understanding of how an online library supports and gives value to the dyslexic members. 1.0 Introduction It can be compared to being presented with an Arabic text and you have only seen the Arabic alphabet ( ). Then you see a text where all the letters are put together. That is basically the same as when I look at the written language. Even though I know all the letters and I can tell them apart, it just becomes (...) like it is merged into something gibberish. I really have to concentrate when I read. (Appx. 2G, 07:14) This was stated by Marcus, a user of E17, and describes the experience of being dyslexic. Quite recently the new dyslexic test was up for discussion in the media (Aftenshowet, 2015). The test has been renewed and developed, so it would be possible to discover dyslexia at an earlier age. However, a suspicion of dyslexia must be present before one can take the test. This might create a problem, as most often the child s teacher recommends the test. The child s parents might not agree with this decision and this can lead to some children slipping through the cracks of the system, believing themselves to be stupid and lazy. This might compel them to stop studying or start making trouble in school, to earn respect from their peers. Therefore, some dyslexics are unable to take the test until they are in their adult years. When an adult is suddenly defined as a dyslexic, it can both have positive and negative effects on one s self-image. Positive effects could be an explanation of their past and current difficulties and the future possibility of getting the needed help. This could be something like getting to be a member of Nota, and thereby gain access to their online library for dyslexics and visually impaired. Negative effects might be that they feel abnormal, disabled or stigmatized by society. Additionally, children or students are most often the focus of research regarding dyslexia. This is because one wishes to detect the reading difficulties as early as possible, and thereby provide the student with the necessary resources. Therefore, research on adults with dyslexia is not as common. Today more attention seems to be drawn towards people with dyslexia, but what is actually done to help this group of people? Furthermore, it can be questioned why there is no more research on online libraries, since they seem to be great tools for the dyslexics. 1.1 Scope and Research Question Nota is a meeting point for dyslexics, making it an ideal choice for our scope. Nota s most popular service is E17, an online library designed specifically for people with print disabilities. Therefore, the members of E17 are a combination of both visually impaired and dyslexics. These two segments each contain a wide range of different ages and through a meeting with Nota each segments pros and cons were discussed. Here we reached an age group of year old dyslexic E17 users. Additionally, the most active user on E17 is on average 44 years old, making it 7

8 ideal to have a mature target group. The age group has completed an education and is expected to be available on the occupational market (or currently unemployed). Furthermore, this is often an overlooked age group of Nota s users, since they primarily focus on the needs for students and children. Hence, research on the older user would provide with new and otherwise missed information for Nota. However, we are at no point doing research regarding the visually impaired users of E17. This paper investigates the following research question: How does E17, an online library, support the dyslexic users of this study (aged 30-60)? To answer the question following questions may be answered: How well does the functionality of E17 serve dyslexics needs? How can the use of E17 be presented in everyday situations? How does E17 create value for dyslexics? 1.2 What is Dyslexia? Dyslexia is a neurological form of reading and writing disability associated with genetic inheritance. The word dyslexia is the words dys and lexia combined, and can be roughly translated to trouble with words (Høien & Lundberg, 1993). There are no simple symptoms of dyslexia. A person with suspected dyslexia will have to go through several tests in order to be diagnosed. Dyslexia is characterized by the subjects trouble with the processing of phonetics. Dyslexics have trouble spelling and reading as it is a process of letters to phonetics (Høien & Lundberg, 1993). Because many dyslexics have a limited vocabulary and are inexperienced with words, they have difficulties understanding print. However, this does not make them any less intelligent, and most dyslexics have many other great abilities (Clausen & Haven, 2005). Dyslexia is often compared to riding a bike in headwind. You are getting there, but it takes a lot of resources and you are tempted to get off. (Clausen & Haven, 2005, p. 13). Some dyslexics may experience difficulties learning new languages as well. If one has trouble learning their own language, it is obvious that a new language would be difficult to read and write, as it is the same techniques that are used (Clausen & Haven, 2005). The way most dyslexics compensate for their reading and writing limitations is by visual abilities (Gustavsson, 2012). The term dyslexia may also pose a risk. The term may cause the diagnosed to feel excluded and branded for life. However, for some it can also be a comfort to be able to call themselves dyslexics. The term reassure them and tell society that they have a condition instead of a general lack of intelligence (Høien & Lundberg, 1993). Furthermore (...) studies have shown that dyslexia has social and emotional repercussions. Especially further education and future jobs seem to be affected. (Clausen & Haven, 2005, p. 17). When a person's self-image is formed, certain people are able to influence it more than others. These people will usually be your parents but some scientists also argue that teachers and peers are of great importance for a self-image (Swalander, 2012). This might explain why some children with dyslexia can feel less intelligent than their peers. Moreover, many were also called lazy or told 8

9 that they did not try hard enough in school. This might lead to feelings of inability, as intelligence and hard work are tied together in society. Anxiety and fear makes people avoid certain chores and for dyslexics this can mean avoidance of writing or reading whenever the opportunity arises. Therefore, some children give up on their schoolwork and focuses on creating trouble instead. This is a way for them to earn respect from their peers and regain their sense of self-worth (Swalander, 2012) Dyslexics generally rate their own ability for education low, which results in them picking schools with fever demands (Gustavsson, 2012). This is also a part of their negative self-image which does not only limit their school and job choices, but also limits their personal life. They have to depend on relatives to help with e.g. taxes or to read stories for their kids. This all keeps reminding them of their writing difficulties, it strengthens their insecurities and it diminishes their belief in their own skills (Gustavsson, 2012). Adult dyslexics who have succeeded in creating strategies for their difficulties, have also accepted their troubles and are capable of asking for help should the need arise. They are often more relaxed and open towards telling others about their difficulties (Gustavsson, 2012). The insecurities and fear of being exposed as a poor reader have been diminished and they feel safe in the work assignments they can execute without help from their surroundings. (Gustavsson, 2012) Dyslexia and adulthood Most of the current research in dyslexia is concentrated on children and it is rare for researchers to look at adults dyslexics. Clausen & Haven (2005) suggest that a reason for this is that adult dyslexics are very diverse and the only thing they actually have in common seems to be their disability. Adult dyslexics have lived their entire life with their difficulties, and it has marked them. It is visible in the ways they compensate for their shortcomings and how they approach reading and writing. Some have given up on learning and others have worked hard to achieve a dream education. The group of adult dyslexics is therefore very diverse and hard to give general guidance. Thus, all of the adult dyslexics life circumstances must be taken into consideration (Clausen & Haven, 2005). 1.3 IT-support to Dyslexics There are opportunities to get help and support as a dyslexic. The help come in form of IT-support products such as an IT-backpack, apps, a dictaphone, read aloud programs etc. In the following four sections, support to dyslexics will be outlined and presented The IT-backpack The IT-backpack is a service, which can be applied for through the municipality. The backpack is available for those in profession, students and for private use. However, it is primarily given and used to dyslexic students. The IT-backpack contains a laptop with the incorporated reading program CD-ORD that reads up to you and gives you the prediction of high quality when writing texts (MV-Nordic, n.d.a). The reading program co-operates with an included scanner called 9

10 SkanRead, which converts scanned text to be read out loud - it can even be edited in Microsoft Word. A hand scanner is also to be found as a part of the IT-backpack. The hand scanner enables the user to photograph a text page, which is being saved as a JPG-image. The image can be transferred to the computer using a USB connection. When the files are transferred, it can be opened with SkanRead that will convert the files to a format that can be read out loud by CD-ORD (MV-Nordic, n.d.b). Another scanner is the C-Pen. The C-pen is a tool used as a highlighter to scan difficult words and short phrases from printed materials. When text has been scanned, it needs to be transferred to the computer and is likewise read out loud by CD-ORD (MV-Nordic, n.d.c). Additional accessories such as a headset, mouse and a USB-key is included in the ITbackpack. Another program similar to CD-ORD is ViTal, developed by ScanDis A/S. This program is not part of the IT-backpack, but is used as an alternative to CD-ORD. ViTal can read text out loud while it is written (ScanDis, n.d.b). The tool is flexible which enables text on the web to be read out loud too. The program provides customizable functions, such as editing the read speed. The program is accessible in several languages, such as Danish, English and French, which makes it a widespread program worldwide. In addition to ViTal is the program ViseOrd, which suggests words in e.g. Microsoft Word to support misspellings (ScanDis, n.d.a) Applications (Apps) If the dyslexic is not qualified to the IT-backpack, several alternatives exist. Many apps are able to read aloud either by text photography or by voice recognition. However, many of these apps need purchase. An example is AppWriter, a complete package of innovative tools, which together provide reading and writing support. The application is designed specifically for dyslexics and allows the user to get context-based word suggestions, read aloud functions, PDF-reader, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Thesaurus, and even offers a special dyslexic font (itunes Preview, 2015). The AppWriter s keyboard is available in other apps too with the purpose of suggesting words while writing. However, it costs 235 DKK in Apple Store (itunes Preview, 2015) which for many is a lot of money. However, as a dyslexic it can be a worthwhile investment The Dictaphone If the dyslexic wants an analog alternative, a dictaphone is the best way. It is a little hand-held device, which records everything. It is often used to record a lecture if the dyslexic is a student or it can be used to take notes for you e.g. remember to buy potatoes. There is no limit to what the dictaphone can be used for. However, one of the cons is that the dictaphone requires batteries and when a recording is stopped, it is saved as one file. This means that one can have ten recordings of e.g. 5 to 60 seconds, which cannot be distinguished from each other. Additionally, the recordings cannot be given a title. 10

11 1.3.4 Read Aloud Programs Read aloud programs are often referred to as Text-to-Speech technology (TTS). Such program is for example IVONA Voice, which converts the text to natural sounding speech. It is available to computers for the visually impaired. However, IVONA Voice is only available through their partners, which can be found at their webpage. If the dyslexic wishes to hear text read aloud from documents, web pages, e-books or any text on the computer, IVONA Voice can provide such a possibility. The opposite solution to TTS is called speech-to-text (STT). One of the most popular STT s is the voice recognition program called Dictus, which translates the spoken language into text to be used in Microsoft Word or Outlook. The program is not only for restricted use to people with disabilities, since it is available for office workers as well. In addition to speech recognition for PC, Dictus is available on mobile devices as an application. 1.4 Nota and E17 Nota is a government funded organization and library in Denmark. It belongs to the ministry of culture, producing audiobooks, e-books, and braille (Nota, 2009b). Memberships are free. However, to gain access to Nota the member must provide the necessary documentation of a reading disability. Nota has three different user types: dyslexics, who are typically enrolled by their teacher, visually impaired enrolled by their ophthalmologist and other users with reading disabilities are typically enrolled by their practitioner (Nota, 2013). Nota has existed in over 80 years and is the oldest library, servicing people with reading difficulties, in Denmark (Nota, 2009b). Nota lend books to users and convert books into audiobooks or braille. New materials are constantly produced and as of 2012 Nota had a collection of over titles with various genres for children, young adults and adults (Nota, 2009c). Once a book is sent or downloaded, they belong to the user. The user does not need to return the books; they are free (Nota, 2009e). Since Nota is an organization and library focusing on people with print disabilities it creates a way for members to read books, they would normally think out of their reach. Nota s jobservice provides material for the employed user. This service has librarians to help find information and is able to convert text into preferred formats, depending on the user s needs. E17 is the name of Nota s online library service available at Here members of Nota have the opportunity to download and stream audio and e-books. Besides books, E17 has magazines and newspapers too. E17 was created in collaboration between Nota and the Danish public libraries. The intention was to create one common online library for everyone with print disabilities. On E17, it should be easy for everyone to find, get and enjoy literature (Nota, 2009e). Previously, users were able to decide if they wanted CDs sent to their home address or if they wanted to download the books. From July 2012, the dyslexic users can only access the services online. The reasoning behind this change is Nota s substantial growth in users. Recently, Nota has developed a mobile web version of E17, called E17 mobile. Here members can listen to books on their smartphones and tablets using the browser (Wikipedia, 2013). It is essential to note that this is not an application, which is separated from the online version. 11

12 1.4.1 Screenshots of E17 In this section, we will provide a look of the online library E17. Screenshots will be assisting the descriptions of the selected E17 web pages. Picture 1. Front page of E17. When a member of Nota wants to read a book or listen to an audiobook, the user visits The front page of E17 is seen on Picture 1. It consists of a number of boxes containing e.g. the newest novels or the newest children's books in the library. Next to this, is a bar containing options for newspapers or information about E17 or Nota. On the top of the page, there is a search bar and underneath, the user has the option to download or listen to the book of current interest. A main menu, placed on the left side, allows the user free navigation. 12

13 Picture 2. The book page when clicking on a book. When the user clicks on a book e.g. presented at the front page or by a search result, the user comes to the book page as shown in Picture 2. The page contains a picture of the book cover and a short synopsis. There is given detailed information about the book and which type of the book is available e.g. audiobook, e-book or a braille. The user then has the option to download the book, to play or save it to their own page, called My Page (see Picture 5). If the user downloads the book, they can pick the preferred format to download e.g. MP3-file or a podcast. If the user instead presses play they are led to E17 Direct where the book is live streamed (see Picture 3). The user is also presented with book suggestions from other users with related book interests. Picture 3. E17 Direct The live streaming function. 13

14 Picture 3 presents E17 Direct, which is a streaming function in E17. The users are navigated to this page when pressing the play button on a book. Some books are available in more than just one format and can be downloaded as both an audiobook and e-book. Picture 3 illustrates this format and how the text is being highlighted as the book is read aloud. E17 Direct presents the reader with some options for speed and appearance. It is also possible to navigate in the timeline by skipping back and forth in the chapters. Picture 4. Search results of e.g. Ole Lund Kirkegaard. When the user for example searches for Ole Lund Kirkegaard in the search function, the results are presented as in Picture 4. Below the bar, the results are listed after relevancy, with information 14

15 such as the title, the author, a picture and format type illustrated. On the right side of the page, the user is able to filter e.g. the format of the book such as audiobook in order to get the most relevant search-results. Furthermore, the user can choose a certain genre or a subject, which they are searching for. Picture 5. My page - the user s saved books. If a user discovers a book and want to save it for later, E17 provides with the possibility to save the books at My Page (Picture 5). Therefore, My Page functions as the user's personal page on E17. On this page, the user can view the date of the saving, whether or not they have already read it and what format it is available in. At the top of my page, a menu is given containing three options: 1) view saved books (my page), 2) recommendations 3) their E17 profile. 15

16 1.4.2 Collaboration with Nota People with dyslexia are a user group difficult to access due to being an invisible disability. Hence, making it impossible to get access to these people, without personal connections. Therefore, a collaboration with Nota s knowledge and development department was established. Through our partnership with Nota, we were able to get in touch with their dyslexic users of E17. Furthermore, Nota provided us with randomly selected users, based on our scope of interest. Nota also sponsored two cinema tickets to each of the chosen respondents participating in our activities. Additionally, they provided a contact person, Signe Juel Rasmussen, a student employee of Nota who throughout our process would be of assistance. Several meetings with Signe were held as the empirical data were collected. The purpose of the meetings was to update Nota on the status of the project as it proceeded. Furthermore access to as guest users were granted by Nota in the given time range of this project. As guest user of E17, it was possible to investigate the online library for ourselves and adjust the method for collection of empirical data. 2.0 Theory and Literature review 2.1 Online and Dyslexic As a dyslexic, navigation on websites can be experienced as difficult because information on websites are mainly text based. McCarthy & Swierenga (2010) attempts to identify the most common problematics, such as confusing layouts of websites, too few graphics and complicated language. There is no doubt that dyslexics or users with reading difficulties are generally weaker online than regular users (Lauridsen, 2009). However, the internet offers customizable possibilities such as zooming in or out and read out loud options, such visual effects increases the usability of the site for dyslexics. In recent years, legislation requires webpages to offer the best accessibility to all user groups, which includes minimum standards for websites. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an organization who has developed global standards for websites. Their standards include all people regardless of disability, such as dyslexia (Lauridsen, 2009). These technical and practical guidelines are undoubtedly beneficial for dyslexics when navigating online. However, as Lauridsen (2009) mentions, the guidelines from W3C are general standardizations. He questions why dyslexics and visually impaired are not taken into special consideration, since they have different needs compared to an average website user. In his opinion, there would be a societal gain by including this group, considering the substantial amount of people with mentioned disabilities. Above-mentioned articles illustrate that dyslexic people have issues navigating online. This is due to the fact that most websites are mainly text-based and has a confusing layout. Additionally, the study by Lauridsen (2009) questions why there is not taking greater consideration of dyslexics. This illustrates that dyslexics are an overlooked segment of the online user population. This is relevant for us to take into account, as E17 is an online platform meant for dyslexics. 16

17 2.2 Web accessibility and Dyslexia In continuation of Lauridsen's argument, it is essential to consider web accessibility and such barriers for dyslexics. To solve such issues Santana et al. (2012) presents 41 specific guidelines for stakeholders involved in the process of designing a website. The guidelines presented in the paper are identified and grouped based on academic papers regarding the subject of web accessibility and dyslexia. Three potential groups of stakeholders: designer, developer and content producer are identified. It is further mapped out which guidelines have the highest relevance for each stakeholder to consider. An example of such guidelines which has high relevance for designers, is the layout hence the structure of a website. Whereas, the possibility to customize features of the website has a high relevance for developers of a website. Rello, Kanvinde & Baeza-Yates (2011) present eight guidelines (see Table 1) similar to the previously mentioned study. In contrast to Santana et al. (2012) this study focuses on web-based text, and how to make text easier to approach for a dyslexic on a website. The guidelines are applied using methods such as interviews, eye-tracking and questionnaires with 22 participants. The study concludes that these guidelines allow dyslexics to experience better online accessibility. For example, they argue that Poor color selections are one of the key problems encountered by dyslexics when reading the Web (Rello, Kanvinde & Baeza-Yates, 2011, p. 5) which is why the paper recommends color pairs, such as creme/black. This is based on the notion that high contrasts do not work well with dyslexics because these users might be sensitive to the brightness and a high contrast. This can cause the words to blur and swirl together (Rello, Kanvinde & Baeza-Yates, 2011). Rello, Kanvinde & Baeza-Yates (2011), expresses the guidelines as Good for dyslexics, useful for all (p.1), thus these improvements is not only helpful for dyslexics, but also users who for e.g. are visually impaired. Since, E17 is meant for both groups of users these guidelines are relevant for Nota to consider. Table 1. Dyslexic-friendly Guidelines for Web Text (Rello, Kanvinde & Baeza-Yates, 2011, Table 2, p. 6) In collaboration with Nota, two scholars (Tausbo & Jørgensen, 2014) presented 31 design guidelines, based on previously mentioned studies; in a thesis, regarding dyslexics aged The thesis focused on how to communicate design improvements for dyslexics properly to web designers. These guidelines were divided into themes such as: menu structure, colors, breadcrumbs etc. In contrast to Rello, Kanvinde & Baeza-Yates (2011) and Santana et al. (2012) this thesis centers on a specific case; the online library, E17. The thesis emphasizes that there is a lack of new research regarding dyslexia, hence existing research is a couple of years old and 17

18 might be considered as obsolete in regards to online behavior. Additionally, they mentioned that there are no studies with a Danish population to be found regarding this subject, which seems peculiar since 7% (Nota, 2014) of the Danish population suffers from dyslexia. It is essential to note, that this paper will not attempt to rewrite the presented guidelines for web accessibility for dyslexics. However, these are relevant to consider in relation to issues identified with the online library E17 and how to improve the values the site provides to our selected target group. Although, it is important to take into account that these guidelines, which are presented in the study by Rello, Kanvinde & Baeza-Yates (2011) and Santana et al. (2012) are not considered in relation to a specific case, but provides general guidelines for the whole World Wide Web. Nor does the guidelines focus on detailed areas of the website such as the search function. The thesis by Tausbo & Jørgensen (2014) and the study by Rello, Kanvinde & Baeza-Yates (2011) focuses on respondents in a younger age group. Hence, it is central to consider that most of our respondents are in their 40 s-50 s and might have a completely different experience than a younger target group. Furthermore, these guidelines display uncertainty to some extent. For instance, it is argued by Rello, Kanvinde & Baeza-Yates (2011) that the respondents prefer fore -and background color combinations of black and yellow, due to the high contrast, which enhances the use for the dyslexics to decode the text. In contrast, using eye-tracking Rello, Kanvinde & Baeza-Yates (2011) found that the text, which was the easiest to read for respondents, was the combination of black and cream colors. Lastly, although Santana et al. (2012) argue that such guidelines will influence the users motivation to use the internet and it is therefore important to consider that these studies are approximately five years old. Hence, the guidelines should be carefully applied, since the online library has changed vastly in this timespan and assumingly the users behavior has as well. 2.3 Online Libraries Axel Schmetzke (2002) argues that the print-based information has changed to digital information for a variety of education-supporting resources. Web and are the main channels for communication of the school s administrative information, class schedules, course readings and class syllabus. The libraries in particular, are affected by this change as catalogs, indexes, encyclopedias, books, articles and dictionaries should be contained in a database. Accessing information has become a digital issue instead of a physical one. An issue that to some extent can be solved by extra technological tools, such as larger screens etc. However, is the web page or database not properly designed, people might have a hard time accessing the correct information. Especially, people with certain disabilities, will have trouble overcoming basic barriers, rendering the online resources not accessible, regardless of the users technological tools. Web-design and information architecture can create these unclimbable barriers for disabled people (Schmetzke, 2002). Additionally, Schmetzke (2002) continues, As more and more learning in higher education takes place in cyberspace, the accessibility of online resources to all people, including those with disabilities, has become an important issue. (p. 390). Related to this, is a study by White, Wright & Chawner (2006) who argues that the digital databases, used by university libraries have several usability and design issues. The authors found that the problems covered the use of the online catalogues as well as the user s ability to find the 18

19 correct material. Therefore, the authors proposed a list of possible solutions, including; simplification of the interface, modernizing the design and generalizing the technology (White, Wright & Chawner, 2006). A necessity that Schmetzke (2002) also mentions, since poor design can prevent people from accessing wanted information. However, this does not mean that there are no guidelines of how to create an online library. The Digital Library Federation (DLF) is a program created in 1995 by the council on library and information resources, with the purpose of establishing an open digital library (Wikipedia, 2015). The Digital Library Federation is a community of over a 100 members, most of which are research or academic libraries in America. DLF advance research, technology and services by collaborating with digital library developers and employees of the Council of library and Information Resources (DLF, n.d.). DLF works on Digital library standards, structures, uses and best practices. Furthermore, they work on research data management and internet services that expand access to resources of use to scholars. The research done by Schmetzke (2002) and White, Wright & Chawner (2006) is from a couple of years ago and things may very well have changed over the last decade. However, this article by Schmetzke (2002) gives a glance at the development of technology and the change in society the digitalization created. This can help us understand Nota s difficulties in design as well as the disabled's frustrations while trying to overcome design flaws and confusing navigation. Another problem with these articles is that they are based on websites from America or New Zealand. Additionally, they focus on college libraries or students. As our demographic is both Danish and not students, the difference in focus may also give some bias. Furthermore, the study by White, Wright & Chawner (2006), might be useful for us in its understanding of normal people s troubles when accessing knowledge in a digital library. This could be used to compare with our results found in E17 s usability issues. Additionally, the DLF article is useful for us as it shows that the interest in accessibility to libraries and knowledge is gaining recognition and that research within this field is still needed. There is a Danish version of this called Danskernes Digitale Bibliotek (DDB), which is a collaboration between the ministry of culture and the Danish libraries (DDB, n.d.). This collaboration was done in order to strengthen the libraries handling of e-book and other digital material. However, the Danish version is neither interested in usability, access, design, standards or disabled user issues. 2.4 Information Literacy Eisenberg (2008) explain the meaning of Information Literacy (IL) as follows: Information literacy (IL) is the set of skills and knowledge that allows us to find, evaluate, and use the information we need, as well as to filter out the information we don t need. (p. 1). Information Literacy is a person's ability to access and process the information presented to them. This skill is particularly important today, as we face a rising amount of online technologies and knowledge. Eisenberg (2008) argues that having computer skills is not enough; one must be able to apply the abilities to needs and expectations. Eisenberg (2008) continues: (...) [one] must be able to identify information problems and be able to locate, use, synthesise, and evaluate information in relation to those problems. (p. 1). Information Literacy is something that affects everyone; business, 19

20 education, public service etc. Information literacy is a necessary tool for navigating past and present information (Eisenberg, 2008). Through a discussion of, the information process, technology in context and the implementation in real life needs and situations, the author conceptualize the range and understandings of IL. Eisenberg (2008) then concludes that libraries and educational organizations have a responsibility to meet people s information needs. Since society believes that Information Literacy skills are needed for a person to succeed, lessons to practice and learn the information and technology are needed (Eisenberg, 2008). Additionally a related study by Guo, Goh & Luyt (2014) evaluates the embodied agents (EAs) effect on students online learning performance in information literacy (IL). In an information society, IL has become a necessary skill. The fast speed of communication and easy access to information brings about the issue of information accuracy and reliability, where people need to carefully assess the varying quality of content before putting it into use (Guo, Goh & Luyt, 2014, p. 389). The internet has changed the speed and accessibility of information, substantially increasing the need for IL (Guo, Goh & Luyt, 2014). Guo, Goh & Luyt continues: At the individual level, IL has been progressively recognized for its value not only in academia, but also in everyday life, as such skills are indispensable for obtaining new information and constructing new knowledge. At the societal level, IL has been recognized as central to the practice of democracy and citizenship, and to the mission of developing lifelong learners (2014, p. 389). Information Literacy is considered as being valuable in academia as well as in one s every day and social life. Guo, Goh & Luyt (2014) conducted the experiment with 120 students from two universities. The results showed that EAs increased students learning, enjoyment and motivation when completing online information tutorials, paving the way for EAs in future information literacy education (Guo, Goh & Luyt, 2014). Information Literacy shows the importance of access to online information in today's society as presented by Eisenberg (2008). One has to have access to succeed. So what happens when you are disabled and do not have the necessary skills to browse the web for information? This and the general understanding of the concept, is something we can use to analyze our findings. What problems does one face when information is hard to come by and does E17 create a difference for people in their daily life? However, the article by Eisenberg (2008) is older and it is not based on any empirical data. Nonetheless, it can be used as a framework for our analysis. Additionally the study by Guo, Goh & Luyt (2014) focuses on Information Literacy in education, claiming that it is needed not only for disabled people but also for ordinary ones. This might suggest that information access and information critique is difficult and time consuming, does one not possess the right skills to do so. The study was made in 2014, making it recent. However, it was conducted in two universities in Singapore, which may have created very different results, than what could be expected in Denmark. The EAs are interesting, but is not the main focus for this study, it is therefore mainly a perspective for Nota to increase their own usability or user access by applying this theory. 20

21 2.5 Our Perspective Through our research we strive to gather information, not only useful for Nota, but other online libraries as well or offer a better understanding of how this target group interacts with such a media. Furthermore, a lot of our found research is outdated and more than a few years old. Considering that 7 % (Nota, 2014) which is approximately people of the Danish population has to live with dyslexia, it is even more relevant to conduct new research within this field. 3.0 Method Ten individual interviews of E17 users were conducted using a qualitative approach. additionally, a workshop with four respondents was executed. This was done in order to follow up on the interviews and to get additional insights into the interview-data. Furthermore, an analysis of the interviews resulted in two personas. These personas were used to plan the workshop as they offered a way to understand the users. This chapter presents descriptions and reflections regarding the recruitment of respondents and participants, a pilot interview, and the method approach used for analyzing and coding the collected data. In addition, this chapter summarizes how the workshop was planned and executed and at our approach to the personas. 3.1 The Interviews As previously mentioned, a qualitative approach was used to investigate the respondents lives as dyslexics and their usage of the online library E17. Ten semi-structured interviews of approximately an hour to one and a half hour were conducted with respondents aged held between the 4 th and the 24 th of March It was respectively five females and five males with various social status. A semi-structured interview was chosen due to its flexibility (Kvale, 2011). It was the intention to give the interviewer the possibility to ask follow-up questions and adjust or improvise as the conversation progressed (Bryman, 2012). Since all the recruited respondents (see section ) were of Danish origin, the conducted interviews were held in their native language; Danish. The interview guide can be found in Appx. 1 (in Danish only) Recruitment of Respondents As clarified in section 1.1, the target group of adult dyslexics aged was chosen due to lack of research within this field and the fact that this segment was considered overlooked by Nota. The respondents were all recruited through Nota. A number of 250 respondents were randomly selected from Nota s database, using criteria of geographical location and mentioned age range. The geographical location was narrowed down to the metropolitan area of Copenhagen. This was 1 The number of people is calculated by taking 7% of the Danish population by the first quarter of 2015 (Danmarks Statistik, n.d.). 21

22 decided due to the limited timespan of our bachelor project and the inconvenience when recruiting respondents for interviews (and the workshop) in the sense of commuting back and forth. Since the recruiting went through Nota, bias may have emerged. Foremost, the respondents were selected using the principle of first come, first serve. This created a random selection in regards to background knowledge. However, we chose to select the first five men and women who contacted us. This might have been avoided if the respondents were recruited on the basis of a questionnaire. Although, Nota had selected the most active users of E17, we experienced bias in relation to level of digital competences and use of E17. For instance, one of the respondent used CD s as audiobooks instead of the online library. Furthermore, we could not ensure a fixed agerange of the respondents The Pilot Interview Before collecting the described ten interviews with the users of E17 (see section for further review) a pilot interview was executed to test the structure and questions intended to be used. In addition, it was conducted to ensure that the recruited respondents would be able to reflect and articulate questions regarding a personal matter. The pilot test-respondent was a friend of one of authors. In order to avoid bias, this author did not interview this person. Even though the respondent was 24 years old, which is slightly younger than the chosen age group, the pilot-interview helped clarifying the content of the interview guide. Furthermore, the pilot-interview provided us with insights into the expected duration of the interview. Afterwards, the interview guide was revised in terms of phrasing and structure. In the process of creating the interview guide, we considered using probes during the interview. Firstly, we thought of ranking the functions, which the respondents found most valuable for E17. However, we wanted to avoid our influence in the respondent's answers and decided to consider this method as a part of the workshop instead. A second method, which we considered as a part of the interviews, was for the respondents to draw an E17 page of their own choice, in order to illustrate their preferred functions. It was our assumption that this data could provide knowledge of their behavior and priorities on E17. In addition, we assumed that it would be difficult for them to articulate their preferences and dislikes on the site, without it being visible in front of them. Nevertheless, we found that drawing E17 was difficult for the respondent and that the content, which was produced, was not as useful as intended. It was unclear, how to interpret, what the respondent used on the website from her drawing. We are aware that her difficulties might not have applied for the future respondents. Nevertheless, we assessed that the data outcome would be too indefinite. Lastly, it was decided that E17 s website should be visible during the interviews, due to the assumption that it would make it easier for the respondents to articulate their opinion. However, after the pilot interview we decided that it would be too inconvenient for the respondents if they used their own E17 login information during the interview. Instead, we were provided with individual logins by Nota, which we further used on our own computers during the ten interviews. 22

23 3.1.3 Execution of Interviews In the interview guide, questions were divided into two main categories; 1) the respondent s experience and everyday life as dyslexic; and 2) their use and opinions of the online library E17. We wished to examine the respondents experiences with dyslexia in order to develop a persona that Nota could use when developing E17 in future versions. In order to decrease the risk of a nervous and unpleasant atmosphere and the sensibility of the subject; the interviews were conducted in environments most comfortable to the respondents. Depending on the preference of the respondents the interviews were conducted in their privatehome or in a meeting-room at the IT-university. Three of the interviews were executed in the homes of the respondents, where the rest of the interviews were conducted at the IT-University of Copenhagen. It is essential to have in mind, that the choice of environment may have affected the respondents. Because the interviews contained detailed information of the respondents lives and personality the respondents have been assigned pseudonym names, which are illustrated in Table 2 below. However, the age of the respondents has not been modified. The average age of the male and female respondents were respectively found to be 41.8 and 47.6 years old. Table 2. Name and age of respondents Coding and Analysis After conducting the interviews, the ongoing process were to; 1) meaning code the data; and 2) coding and grouping the findings. It is essential to note, that we decided not to transcribe the interviews due to huge amounts of recorded data. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the respondents exact wording was not in focus as we were more interested in the respondents overall statements and opinions. Furthermore, due to the duration of the interviews we chose to use the method of meaning coding. It is a method where the essence of the meanings expressed through the respondents opinions are summarized in short sentences (Kvale, 2011). The meaning coding was divided into two parts; a short description or recap of the person and a detailed organized meaning coding of the interview (see Appx. 2A to 2J for the meaning coding of all of the interviews). In order to interpret accurate phrasing used by the respondents, the 23

24 interviews were meaning coded in Danish. However, since this paper is written in English, interesting and relevant quotes have been transcribed and translated. We were able to divide and compare the data, in order to identify similar patterns and themes. This was done in the attempt to get a further in-depth understanding of our respondents answers. Although all the data was coded, the grouping mainly focused on the second part of the interviews, thus the use of E17. In addition, the analysis of the data was a combination of open and closed coding (Emerson, 1995). Due to the vast amount of data, two closed categories were defined beforehand: Positive/negative experiences with E17 Positive/negative experiences with dyslexia. Our first phase of the coding was to go through all of the data, and as we started grouping it, new subgroups emerged from the above categories. Our main goal with this process was to categorize issues and values the users experienced with E17. Post-it s were used to visualize the data (Picture 6-8). Affinities between the data emerged and clusters increased. In some instances, there were even multiple layers of clusters. Using this method helped us drawing similarities across the data (Kuniavsky, Goodman & Moed, 2012). In phase two, we reduced the categories choosing subjects of most relevance. In this process, affinities between similar arguments were mapped out; ranking the subjects in level of relevance (see Appx 3A and 3B). From this process six themes emerged, on the basis of which issues were mentioned by most of the respondents. Additionally, the same was done with positive findings - yet the focus was here the value. Six main issues were created (see Model 3) and made the foundation for the workshop. Picture 6. Coding with post-its. 24

25 Picture 7. Coding with post-its. Positive expressions about dyslexia or E17 Picture 8. Coding with post-its. Negative expressions about dyslexia or E17. 25

26 Model 3. Coding subjects found by coding with post-its. 3.2 The Workshop Next step was to arrange a workshop. The workshop s purpose was to discuss the most common E17 problems provided from the coding and analysis. The workshop functioned as a closure to the interview findings. It is worth noting that the workshop was held in Danish. It was in our interest to let the participating respondents get an insight into our data and thereby what they had been a part of. In addition, the participants were given the possibility to add and discuss the findings presented, during the workshop. Furthermore, it was a workshop designed to let us know the participants own solutions by allowing them to perform a light version inspired of a future workshop (Bødker, Kensing & Simonsen, 2004) and co-designing techniques (Sanders & Stappers, 2008). This workshop section contains a description on how the participants were recruited, how the workshop was executed, and lastly how the data was analyzed and interpreted. 26

27 3.2.1 Recruiting of Participants The recruiting of participants to the workshop encountered a couple of barriers. Not all of the ten interviewed respondents were invited to participate in the workshop by . It was in our interest to recruit respondents, who we felt would be able to work together in a workshop. We had therefore already paired them up into working groups, since we could use our previously conducted interviews as an advantage to understand their personalities and their work engagement. Unfortunately, many declined, which resulted in only two respondents participating, leading us to invite two of participants that we previously had decided to deselect. We had not invited them at first, as we thought them unable to discuss E17 in as much detail compared to the others. This resulted in a final of four participants. However, when the day arose only one participant showed up, forcing us to cancel the workshop. It was therefore decided to push the workshop by two weeks. Since it was not in our interest to be intrusive with our previous (and already once recruited) respondents, it was decided to only invite the initial four respondents, who first had declined the workshop. In correspondence with Nota, an was sent to the respondents, who had shown interest for our project but not gotten interviewed in March. Nota sponsored cinema tickets to those who signed up for the workshop. Five people agreed, but when the day arrived, only four people showed up as one fell ill. The workshop was held April the 25 th 2015 at the IT-university of Copenhagen and contained following participants: Table 3. Workshop participants Planning and Execution of Workshop We were told by Nota that getting respondents for a workshop could be difficult. We were therefore advised to keep it within two hours. However, when the first workshop failed and we found out that our tight schedule did not allow for the participants to be creative and show up late, we changed the program. Therefore, the second workshop lasted three hours instead of two. This would give our schedule some air and would allow the participants extra time for the exercises and general tardiness. It was clear to us that we had to design the workshop in a way that could avoid the respondents having to write. In the interviews, it was our impressions that almost every respondent did not prefer to read or write. It made them uncomfortable if they were to read out loud or write down 27

28 something to show other people. Considering this, we could not make them write during the activities so we designed the workshop in a way, which allowed them to draw instead. These precautions and difficulties are elaborated and discussed further in section 8.1 method reflections. Table 4 below presents an outlined structure of the workshop. Please note that a full description of each workshop activity is presented in the following paragraphs. Table 4. Structure of the Workshop Activity Content of Activity Time: 3 hours with a break (10.00 to 13.00) 1.0 Introduction - Pick a name tag - Offer water to the respondents 2.0 Short introduction of the participants and Icebreaker activity (M&M s) 3.0 Activity 1 - Rating and prioritizing issues NB: The six main issues were extracted throughout the analysis of interviews. 3.1 Critique of E17 - The six issues are listed on the board - Ask if any issues are missing 3.2 The critique ranking NB: - Red post it: largest issue (3 points) - Yellow post it: second largest issue (2 point) - Green post it: third largest issue (1 point) Introduction of the agenda, what the purpose of the workshop is and who the facilitators are and the note takers. Each participant introduces themselves with name and employment or status. Furthermore, they pick a random number M&Ms. For each M&Ms they tell something about themselves. Introduce the activity In this exercise the respondents should rate the problems from the largest to third largest issue in rounds of three. Respondents should consider short if any new categories should be added. Spend a minute on deciding which category is the worst least/third worst. 1st round (red): Place the largest issue on the blackboard. Discussion of this ranking. 2nd round (yellow): Place the second largest issue on the blackboard and discuss the ranking. 3rd round (green): place the third largest issue on the blackboard and discuss the ranking (20 min) (10 min) (35 min. in total to Activity 1) (10 min) (20 min) 3.3 Wrap up of Activity (5 min) 4.0 Break Coffee/tea, cake and fruit (15 min) 5.0 Activity 2 - Draw on printed E17 pages (A3) Introduction to activity no. 2 and divide in groups of 2 and :15 (55 min. in total to Activity 2*) Introduction: (5 min) 28

29 5.1 Drawings Pictures of different pages from E17 are placed in the groups - the groups are then encouraged to use them to draw on. They can be used as a design tool or something they can use to explain their idea. Demonstrating them on the laminated paper. 5.2 Discussion The group should discuss solution to solve the problem and the content of this solution. How does the drawings differ from each other and what did the groups discuss 5.3 Wrap up of solutions Wrap up of all the solutions mapped on a whiteboard 6.0 Recap & Thank you What is the further process with the for your cooperation bachelor project (20 min) 20 minutes to draw three proposals (15 min) 15 minutes to discussion of drawings (15 min) (10 min) * 55 minutes was estimated to activity 2 but depended on the engagement more time was added. Introduction and icebreaker First, the two facilitators welcomed the participants, and informed the respondents of the purpose and structure of the workshop. Shortly thereafter, the participants presented themselves by name. Furthermore, they picked a random number of M&Ms. However; it was unknown for the participants what the M&Ms would be used for. For each M&M they would had to tell something about themselves e.g. age, their love for cats etc. Thereby the facilitators and the participants started to get to know each other and became comfortable sharing information. Activity 1 In activity one we wanted the respondents to rate six selected issues on E17. The issues were the main problems extracted through a coding of the most common topics throughout the ten interviews. The interview findings will be presented in chapter 4. The six selected issues were as follows: Icons: It is a problem that there are too few icons on the E17. There is too much which is only described by text and therefore anything more visual would be preferable. Pictures: It is a problem that many books do not have cover images. Customize My Page : It is a problem that "My Page" cannot be made personal e.g. by creating folders, categories, and themes. Instruction videos: It is a problem that there are no fulfilling instruction videos, which explains how the book is downloaded or transferred to a mobile device. Search: It is a problem that the search function e.g. is not good at recognizing keywords or misspelled words. Read aloud feature: It is a problem that there is no button for reading the summary of the book aloud. The issues were placed on a blackboard. The participants were then to place colored post-its as their top three largest issues with E17. A red post-it represented being important and thereby the largest issue; yellow the second largest; and a green the third largest issue. Hereafter, the 29

30 participants discussed their placements as well as new problems on E17. The post-its were each given points (red = 3 points, yellow = 2 points and green = 1 point). This system allowed us to rate the problems. The three issues with highest score functioned as the base for activity 2. Activity 2 After a break, the participants were split into two groups. Here they were given paper, scissors, pencils and printed versions of different pages from E17. They were then encouraged to draw, write or do as they pleased with the material in order to try to solve the discovered three main issues from activity 1. After an appropriate time frame, the ideas were presented in plenum. A discussion was further established, with the purpose of comparing and commenting on each other's ideas. This was done with the intention to let the participants share and learn from each other. Wrap up and thank you for today When all ideas had been discussed, a wrap up and evaluation of the workshop was next. The facilitators were given critique and other thoughts in relation to the workshop activities. Full descriptions of the conducted findings of the workshop are presented in chapter Personas As part of the meaning coding of the interviews, a short description was written of each interviewee, functioning as a recap. These short descriptions helped us, as an overall tool to create the personas. Based upon the respondents depictions of their everyday life as dyslexics, two personas were developed, respectively representing the male and the female respondents. In section 5.1 personas will be further explained and elaborated in regards of recommending them for Nota and provide a basis for the execution of the workshop and general understanding of the findings and analysis. 4.0 Interview Findings Closed coding was used as a method for analyzing the empirical data as mentioned in section 3.1. The interviews were divided into two main categories: Negative experiences with E17 and being dyslexic. Positive experiences with E17 and being dyslexic. However, experiences with being dyslexic were mainly used to get an understanding of the respondents lives as dyslexics and how it affected them personally or in everyday situations. It is essential to note that the experiences of being dyslexic were mainly used to create the personas, which will be presented in chapter 5. Negative and positive experiences of being dyslexic also functioned as a basis for understanding the negative and positive experiences of E17, which will be presented in this chapter (section 4.1 to and including 4.3). Additionally, it is important to take into account that this chapter presents both general and dyslexic related findings. Meaning that some of the findings could apply for other users than just dyslexics. However, some of these findings might overlap, since the collected date only comes from E17, a library designed for print disabled users. 30

31 4.1 Negative Findings The negative findings deals with the respondents expressions about what E17 were missing or could do better, what specific problems they were having when using the online library and more. Through closed coding three themes emerged within negative experiences: E17 and Service: Is quotes and opinions regarding E17 in general or functions on the site that could be improved Books: This category contains shortcomings and improvements regarding the book-site (this includes information about the book) or E17 Direct. Help and Instruction: This category contains shortcomings related to information on the site and how the sites are navigated through or used. This category also contains both technical and language issues. In the following section, the three themes will be described and elaborated. However, it is important to note that the respondents statements regarding needs and problems with E17 were considered to be closely related. For instance, one respondent might wish or suggest for something specific to be on E17 because they believe it would increase the user experience. Considering this, such suggestions were categorized under negative experience with E E17 and Service Many of the respondents argued that their thoughts are very visual. Therefore, pictures are important to them. Majbritt and Marcus would prefer the site to be simpler while containing more pictures and videos. As Majbritt puts it I would like it to be as simple as possible: cut out for dummies (Appx. 2J, 23:15), thereby ensuring that E17 is as easy to use as possible. Confusion and frustration should not be a possibility when using the site. Additionally, Marcus recommends adding color to the site and front-page pictures on the books. In continuation to Majbritt s metaphor of simplicity, Marcus and Troels imply that easier shortcuts to themes are needed. Furthermore, the respondents expressed that E17 lacked icons. Marcus, Daniel and Anne expressed that it would be useful if the site contained more icons, to help their navigation through the site. Marcus suggested that a way to incorporate more icons on E17 could be done by adding them to the categories in the menu. For instance, adding an icon illustrating face of a child or a childpictogram next to the category Children and young adults and something similar could to School and studies category. Such small things would make it easier (Appx. 2G, 15:08). Small implementations such as these would make it easier to gain an overview of E17 visually, instead of reading the listed words, and thereby making it easier to navigate. Simplicity and icons could very well be important for other websites as well, because they might benefit a larger group of people. However, the findings stress dyslexics need for visual cues on an online library in order to make navigation easier. For several of the respondents, the search function is essential when finding a book. However, four respondents mentioned difficulties with the function, such as misspelled words or suggested books that does not exist. As Nikolaj explains it: The search function is not exceptional (...), if you do not spell the word correctly you will not get the right books. I would like it if the search function resembled something like Google that actually helps you spell. That would be very beneficial. (...) It seems like they did not think of dyslexic people when making it (Appx. 2B, 36:10). It is very 31

32 frustrating to them that the search-function cannot recognize words properly. Some of them even have to resort to using alternative programs, such as ViseOrd or Google, to help them spell words correctly so they can get to the wished book. This finding is specifically frustrating for dyslexics as most have trouble spelling, making it harder for them to find wanted books. Optimizing the search function to mimic these technologies, could therefore be beneficial for Nota. Anne mentioned that she had issues with the category new books ; Something that made me wonder was those new books [a feature on E17]. Not all of them are new! They are just newly added (Appx. 2D, 34:34). This confused her. It bothered her if she could not get the information she really wanted and got misguided instead. Additionally, to this Birgitte felt that E17 was missing a list of which books that was going to be added to the library in the future. They [Nota] should write which books they expect to get home and when they expect to get them. That would be nice (Appx. 2H, 54:23). Having such a function would mean that she would not have to keep an eye on preferred categories, as well as having to browse through books without finding something of interest. Even though such a function does not exist on E17, coming soon may be written under some books doing a search as shown in Picture 9 below. In addition, Birgitte feels overlooked, as she is unable to offer book suggestions to E17. Therefore, she would like to see such option added as well. However, an overview of upcoming books is more of a general finding, since it would provide any user of an online library with a greater overview. It does therefore not mean that dyslexics are in a special need of this suggested function. Picture 9. Coming soon is illustrated in blue text Books Three respondents expressed the online library s lack of non-fiction. Daniel mentioned that most of the books are too specific towards certain studies (Appx. 2I, 23:27) and Nikolaj felt that: It is just not good enough (...). It would be great with more material such as thesis from universities or law books (Appx. 2B, 46:45). Additionally, Daniel felt that some of the provided books did not live up to 32

33 his standards, when converted into an audio book. The problem is that the models and tables are read out loud, where a picture would be more efficient. Furthermore, Daniel expressed that the possibility to choose the combined e-book with audio is infrequent. Meaning that it is very rare to find a book that has the option of downloading both an audiobook and an e-book. This finding suggest that the library generally needs more material. However, it is important to be aware that the library only can be accessed by print disabled users, and their ability to buy and lend books from other places might be severely limited. Five of the respondents argued that a function that could read the summaries out loud, was missing from the site. If they wish for the information, on the site to be read out loud, they have to use programs such as ViTal, on their own. Functions that this program offers is to play, pause and to choose the speed of the voice, which could be useful functions in this context, should such a button be developed. Below is a screenshot of the book page where a read button may be placed next to the summary (Picture 10). However, the respondents generally wished for this function to be able to read more than just the summaries of the books. This missing function is specifically problematic for dyslexics, as they have trouble reading, and a function that reads aloud for them is greatly appreciated. Furthermore, Alice and Birgitte both mentioned that the summaries concerning the books were not satisfying. However, most users of the online library could benefit from this finding. A respondent explained: I think that they are too short [the summaries] (...) there should be more information about the books (...) that would probably help draw in more people to the books that looks kinda boring (Appx, 2E, 44:47). The summaries did not describe the book well enough; so the respondents have to play the book on E17 Direct first, in order for them to be able to assess the book and whether it is to their liking. This is something they would like to see improved, since the summary is a big part of selecting a book. Picture 10. A read button is needed at the book page to read aloud summaries Nikolaj expressed he wanted the possibility of receiving personalized news-mails. He liked to be updated on what was new, but was not interested in getting information about books that are of no interest to him. As he describes it himself: I want the site to be able to recognize what I usually 33

34 search for (...). And then every time a new additions related to for instance Tao [his field of interest], I would receive a text message or a mail to inform me of this (Appx. 2B, 36:35). This way he would gain easier and faster access to material that interested him. Additionally, Helle, expressed that handling what kind of genres you are interested in, should be easier, so you can keep changing your preferences. In the beginning [signing up for E17] one is to select one's preferences of books (...) but these were difficult to unsubscribe because some of the books had no relevance for me. I had no interest in reading many of them [those recommended] even though those were the popular ones (Appx. 2F, 51:20). Therefore, Helle suggested that it could be great with a function that would let her know what was popular within a certain topic or genre, so she could browse through them herself. Additionally, Nikolaj and Helle felt that My Page had a lot of potential that is currently not being used. For instance, they would like to divide books into categories or specific themes in regards to one's interests. As Helle puts it: It would be preferable if my page could be divided into non-fiction and fiction. That could be fucking awesome (Appx. 2F, 01:06). Since she reads books of various genres, it would be nice for her to be able to organize them in her own way. Implementing this feature would make it possible for them to gain a much better overview of all the books they have added on My Page. This would also help them organize their selected books, possibly making it easier to navigate through. As of right now My Page books are shown in one long list, spanning several pages, as seen on Picture 11 below. These findings are more general for an online library, considering that customization is likely to be something any user of such, might benefit from. Picture 11. The look of the current My Page Help and Instruction Through the interviews, it became clear that there was a general dissatisfaction when it came to finding information on E17. It was either too hard to find the needed information or too hard to follow the instructions. This showed to be rather problematic for our respondents since they seek out this information because they have issues using E17, and cannot solve it themselves. Additionally, five of the respondents mentioned that they would prefer instruction videos to assist 34

35 them if they encountered problems. These instruction videos could for instance help them with navigation on the site or show them how to download books, which was a large, recurring issue for our respondents. However, they felt convinced that information videos would be a great asset and help them solve issues they encountered on E17. This finding is specific for dyslexics as they have trouble reading, and visual information therefore is preferred. Downloading a book proved to be an issue because a couple of the respondents did not understand the downloading process. Helle had issues opening the zip-files that the books are downloaded in, and her computer was infected with viruses when she tried to use other means to open the given file. For Birgitte, it was difficult for her to find where the downloaded file ended up on her computer, which is the same problem Alice encountered. Birgitte solved the problem by asking her spouse for help, as she could not figure it out by herself. However, she would prefer to be able to do it herself. For Anne and Dan the issue was using the downloaded file on other platforms than the computer. Transferring these files/podcasts is a long and difficult process where they would like someone to help them by making it easier. This finding is general for all users of E17, as the IT skills needed to download a book is too complex. The complex process of downloading is essential to dyslexics, since it was our observation that they were more hesitant to venture into the unknown. The issue of downloading is one the respondents especially seek to get resolved by getting instruction videos in E17. However, are one to go to the support site as seen in Picture 12, instruction videos are already available. Nonetheless, the videos are hard to find, since one has to know the location or be willing to explore the site. As a dyslexic, this might be problematic, especially because the pages have a lot of text. Support is written in English as well, which may create some confusion for a print disabled, and make it harder for them to locate the videos that are meant to help them navigate on the site. Picture 13 shows the page with a guide of how to download a book. Additionally, one can click on the link to the video called Download en lydbog til itunes (eng.: Download an audiobook to itunes ), which was something the respondents expressed as a need on E17. 35

36 Picture 12. The support site 36

37 Picture 13. The download guide 4.2 Positive Findings The positive findings deal with the respondents expressions about their values and likes on E17. Through closed coding three themes emerged within positive experiences with E17: Service: This category contains quotes and opinions regarding service received from Nota/E17. Books: This category contains functions and experiences with E17 s books. Website: This category contains functions on the website that the respondents appreciate and would be sad to see go. In the following, these three themes will be described and elaborated Service For four of the respondents it was very important that they had the possibility of calling the support service for E17 in case they needed help of some sort. For instance: E17 provides a customer support where you can ask anything from where to find a book, if you can get a new audiobook 37

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