SBi 2012:01. Danish building typologies Participation in the TABULA project

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1 SBi 0:0 Danish building typologies Participation in the TABULA project

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3 Danish building typologies Participation in the TABULA project Kim B. Wittchen Jesper Kragh SBi 0:0 Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University 0

4 Title Danish building typologies Subtitle Participation in the TABULA project Serial title SBi 0:0 Edition edition Year 0 Authors Kim B. Wittchen, Jesper Kragh Language English Pages 89 Key words building typology, average buildings, example buildings, energy demand, energy consumption, energy measures, energy-savings. ISBN Cover Publisher Kim B. Wittchen and Jesper Kragh SBi, Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University Dr. Neergaards Vej 5, DK-970 Hørsholm Please note that this publication is protected by Danish copyright law.

5 Table of context Table of context... 3 Foreword... 4 Summary... 5 Establishing national building typologies... 6 Identifying building types... 6 Extracting knowledge from the ECP scheme... 8 Supplemental data... 9 Danish Dwelling and Building Stock Register... 0 Statistics Denmark... The TABULA excel sheet... 3 Building type definitions... 3 Single-family houses... 3 Terraced houses... 3 Block of flats... 3 Trade and service buildings... 3 Periods of buildings... 4 Climate data of Denmark... 4 Building envelope data... 5 Construction type examples... 5 Heating and ventilation data... 8 Building models... 9 Example buildings... 9 Average buildings... National energy balances... 3 Comparison adjustments... 3 Adjustment of calculated energy demand... 4 Boundary conditions... 4 Total heated building area... 6 Space heating demand calculation... 7 Energy demand for heating and domestic hot water by energy carrier 8 Comparison with official Danish energy statistics... 9 Calculated energy-saving potential... 9 Display sheets example buildings Perspectives for using TABULA building typologies... 3 References Annex I Screen dumps from Danish TABULA building typologies Screen dump from the TABULA Excel sheet Tab.Building.Constr Annex II Display sheets

6 Foreword This report is made as part of the Danish participation in the TABULA (Typology Approach for Building Stock Energy Assessment) project supported by Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE/08/495/SI.58396). The TABULA project has the following European partners: IWU; Institute for Housing and Environment (coordinator), Germany, NOA; National Observatory of Athens, Greece, BCEI ZRMK; Building and Civil Engineering Institute ZRMK, Slovenia, POLITO; Politecnico di Torino Department of Energetics, Italy, ADEME; French Energy and Environment Agency, France, Energy Action Limited, Ireland, VITO; Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Belgium, NAPE; National Energy Conservation Agency, Poland, AEA; Austrian Energy Agency, Austria, SOFENA; Sofia Energy Agency, Bulgaria, MDH; Mälardalens University, Sweden, STU-K; Structural Design, Czech Republic, SBi; Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Denmark. The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies. This report outlines the Danish contribution to the TABULA project in the first years. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the potential of building typologies for estimating the national energy balance for selected building types and the potential national energy savings in these buildings, depending on their age. Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University Department for Energy and Environment August 0 Søren Aggerholm Research director 4

7 Summary A Danish typology for residential buildings was established in the TABULA project. Three different main building types were used: Single-family houses, terraced houses and apartment blocks. Each main building type was again split up in nine periods of buildings representing typical building tradition and insulation levels. Within each main building type and building period, a typical building has been selected from the energy labelling scheme database as a real example building. The selected buildings are buildings that have not yet been through any major energy upgrading (except windows and doors), since they were erected. These model buildings can be used for promoting energysavings potentials for homeowners. Another main purpose of the building typology was to establish a tool that is able to calculate different energy-saving scenarios for the entire residential building stock. To make such calculation average buildings were constructed. These theoretically designed building models are based on statistical data obtained from the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme and other knowledge sources of buildings. A national energy balance was calculated using the TABULA tool for each building typology and results multiplied by the total heated floor area representing each of the building typologies in Denmark. In this way it was possible to establish a national energy balance within each building typology (building type and building period). The total calculated energy demand was compared with the statistics of the energy consumptions of residential buildings made every year by the Danish Energy Agency. The difference between them was found to be -7 % for single-family houses and terraced houses and + 5% for apartment blocks. The technical energy saving potential was calculated following different recommended measures given by the Danish Knowledge Centre for Energy Savings in Buildings. The total potential energy savings in residential building were found to be approx. 35 and 5 PJ for the standard and for the ambitious measures and the corresponding CO reduction.5 and.3 million tons CO, respectively. Each of the real example buildings are presented in a brochure called display sheets. The display sheet is intended to be used in Denmark for promoting energy upgrading and therefore the descriptions are in Danish. The display sheets give a short and easy-to-understand overview of the energy upgrading possibilities for each example buildings. The display sheet contains information on the envelope constructions (area and U-values) at the current state and the possible savings at two levels of measures. 5

8 Establishing national building typologies Article 5 of the EPBD (Directive 00/3/EU) requires Member States (MS) to establish the comparative methodology framework in accordance with Annex III and to differentiate between building categories. EPBD Annex III further states that MS should define reference buildings (building typologies) that are characterised by and representative of their functionality and geographic location, including indoor and outdoor climate conditions. The reference buildings should cover residential and non-residential buildings, both new and existing ones. There are two fundamentally different ways of defining building typologies: average buildings and example buildings. The average building is composed of small areas of all kinds of construction types, e.g. brick, concrete, timber-frame, etc. with average insulation thickness. Each of the sub-areas represents the share of that particular construction type found when auditing the entire building stock of a specific construction period. Thus the artificially average building does not exist in real life, but is a statistical valid representation of a selected share of the entire building stock. The example building is, as the name indicates, a representative example of a specific building type and age. When defining an example building, it is extremely important to decide whether the example building should represent the building as it was originally constructed or whether it should represent the building with a number of common (more common than the unchanged building) changes to the building. Neither approach is better than the other, as it depends on the statistical significance of the two variants which one is preferable and the intended use of the example building model. Each of the two building typologies can be used for different purposes. The average building can be used to analyse the energy-saving potential for the entire building stock in a country or region by multiplying the heated floor area or number of buildings in the country/region. These results can be used by policymakers to make decisions on the implementation of various incentives to promote energy savings. The main purpose of the example building is the calculation of (cost-optimal) energy-saving measures for one real building, more or less similar to the example building. This information can for example be used to validate implementation of energy performance requirements for existing buildings. In addition to these building typologies, which represent the thermal envelope, any typology should be able to be equipped with any (common) technical installations. It is crucial to be able to combine building typologies (thermal envelopes) with technical installations as the installations are more or less independent of the building typology. Combining building typologies and installations will thus reduce the number of individual building models. The Danish average and the example building typologies were defined in the TABULA project. Identifying building types 6 The Danish building stock were divided into three types and nine periods of construction (Wittchen, 009) (Kragh & Wittchen, 00). The building typology and construction types were judged to be uniform for each period of construction. Furthermore, building usage has been used to identify the

9 three most common residential building types, namely: Single-family houses, terraced houses and apartment blocks. The reason for selecting these building types was that these types were the dominant building types in the EPC (Energy Performance Certification) database containing information collected in the course of building energy audits since 006. Additionally, buildings denoted trade and service (including offices) is a widespread Danish building type, and it was therefore crucial to define building typologies for this building type as well. The construction periods were identified from acknowledged changes in building tradition in the early periods and from changes in the energy requirements stated in the Danish Building Regulations in more recent periods. The eight periods of construction and their corresponding energy-related changes in building tradition or the Danish Building Regulations energy requirements are shown in Table. Table. The Danish building stock can be divided into 8 different age classes depending on shifts in building tradition or shifts in energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations. Each class is somewhat uniform with respect to construction principle and initial, specific energy standard. Building period Comment Before 850 shift in building tradition shift in building tradition cavity walls introduced insulated cavity walls introduced first energy requirements in BR6 ) tightened energy requirements in BR7 ) tightened energy requirements in BR78 ) tightened energy requirements in BR98 ) tightened energy requirements in BR06/08 ) ) BR is a reference to the Danish Building Regulations and the following digits refer to the year when the BR came into force. Similar knowledge for Danish single-family houses is established by Realia. The photos below illustrate Danish single-family detached houses typical of different decades of the twentieth century. Approx 'ies 930'ies 940'ies 950'ies 960'ies 970'ies 980'ies 990'ies Figure. Typical Danish single-family example houses from different decades in the 0 th century. 7

10 Extracting knowledge from the ECP scheme Denmark has had a mandatory EPC scheme since 997 when owneroccupied residential houses and flats needed a valid EP certificate (based on a calculated energy performance) when sold. Additionally, all large buildings (+500 m²) needed to be certified every year based on a measured energy performance. From 997 to 006, a total of approx certificates were issued, including approx certificates for large buildings. Over the period, approx single-family houses were certified each year. In the current EPC scheme (since 006), the number of issued certificates (all based on calculated energy performance) is shown in the table below. Since September 006, a total of approx certificates have been issued in the current EPC scheme. The total number of issued certificates in Denmark, since certification was initiated in 997, is over million. Table. Number and distribution of energy performance labels in five major building categories from the current Danish EPC scheme (Dec. 00). Second Single family Multi family Office/trade Education homes Other A A A B C D E F G Total % 30% 5% 0% 5% A B C D E F G 0% 5% 0% Farm houses Single family Row houses Blocks of flats Student hostels Residential home Other dwelling Figure. Label distribution on Danish dwellings as registered in the current (since 006) EPC scheme. A label on the certification scale indicates a range for the energy performance according to the table below. 8 December 00.

11 Table 3. Calculated primary energy consumption and corresponding EPC label (valid until end of 00). Label Residential [kwh/m² per year] Non-residential [kwh/m² per year] A < /A < /A A < /A < /A B < /A < /A C < /A < /A D < /A < /A E < /A < /A F < /A < /A G > /A > /A All kinds of information collected, while performing an energy audit to be able to issue an EP (Energy Performance) certificate, are stored in one central register. Among these kinds of information are: Element areas of the thermal envelope and their corresponding U-values, Heated floor area, Orientation, thermal and optical properties of all windows including information about shadings, Type and efficiency of heating supply systems, Efficiency and size of heating and domestic hot water distribution systems, Efficiency and areas of renewable energy systems (PV and thermal solar system), Efficiency and size of lighting fittings (only in case of non-residential buildings). In addition to these pieces of factual information about the building and its envelope, the registered as well as the calculated energy consumption are being stored together with the expert's suggestions for energy-saving measures and the corresponding investments as well as the calculated energy savings. Finally there is information about the age of the building and the year of the most recent energy refurbishment. Access to this central database was willingly granted Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University by the Danish Energy Agency and made it possible to perform all the mentioned analyses and to extract data for the TABULA project. Supplemental data To establish a total overview of the energy performance of the Danish building stock, some additional information is required. The EPC database only covers that part of the building stock that has been certified in conjunction with sale or rent of existing buildings and in conjunction with finalisation of new buildings. The current EP scheme has been running since 006 and covers approx. 0-5% of the total building stock in the selected typologies. This kind of information can be obtained from two sources in Denmark and they are the Dwelling and Building Stock Register and Statistics Denmark. From these two sources, it is possible to extract information that enables an extrapolation of the EPC database information to cover the entire Danish building stock. 9

12 Danish Dwelling and Building Stock Register The Danish National Dwelling and Building Stock Register (BBR) was created in 976. The register was originally designed to deliver basic information for the assessment of real estate and for censuses. Originally all information in BBR was provided by the building and dwelling owners. Over time, BBR has been used in conjunction with other administrative tasks by the state, regions and municipalities. Today, BBR holds information about.6 million properties, 3.8 million buildings and.7 million dwellings and commercial units. The data model and the plans for a new BBR was created in the years around 995, while the responsibility for the register was at the National Survey and Cadastre Agency. With the new plans, an agreement was made about the framework and the targets for the future development of BBR and the basic structure. More than 0 years have passed, and now the changes are being implemented. The new BBR is expected to be launched during 0. In the current version of BBR, it is possible to extract information about each property in the register regarding (only data that can be used in the definition of a Danish typical building typology are listed): Areas Total building area Total residential area Total commercial area Built-up area Number of storeys Total area of attic Area of unexploited part of attic Total basement area Basement area with ceiling height less than.5 meters above terrain Other areas Source for building areas Area of in-house garage Area of in-house carport Area of in-house shed Area of patio Area of legal residential share of partly exposed basement Area of covered terrace Area of waste-room at terrain level Not covered areas Area of finished part of building Temporarily finished area Building constructions: Constructional issues External walls materials Roof covering material Installations: Heating installation Heating source (oil, gas, district heating, etc.) Energy supply Elevators Date of energy certificate Additional heating 0 Additionally, BBR contains information about the main use of the building: Farmhouses Detached houses

13 Terraced house Blocks of flats Students hostels Residential home Other whole-year dwelling Trade/Farm Trade/Industry Supply plants Other production buildings Transport Office/Trade Hotel & service Other trades & services Culture buildings Education Hospitals Day care Other institutions Single-family vacation home Multi-family vacation building Sports facilities Allotments Other leisure buildings. In addition to knowledge about how buildings have been constructed during different periods of time, knowledge about the size of the building stock is vital for establishing the national overview. It should thus be possible to summarise the number and size (built-up area and total heated floor area) of buildings during each of the time periods and for each of the evaluated building categories. Additional information (in Danish) about the BBR register is given at Statistics Denmark Statistics Denmark provides all kinds of statistical data about Denmark and the Danes. Some of the information is free, while other must be paid for. Among the free statistics is information about the Danish building stock as listed in Figure 3. Data are aggregated, but can be used for identifying building typologies.

14 Figure 3. Screen dump from Statistics Denmark (www.statistikbanken.dk) listing free statistics related to the Danish building stock. Any of the links can be expanded and filtered according to a number of fixed criteria and exported for further processing in a spread sheet tool. Most of the information (in Danish and English) is publicly available at

15 The TABULA excel sheet An Excel tool was developed within the TABULA project by IWU, which was used to generate the typology buildings. The Excel tool consists of several sheets containing input of the boundary conditions, building type definitions and the building envelope and heating installation data. Figure 4. Screen dump from the excel tool showing the workflow diagram. Any building typology can be combined with a heating system and a domestic hot water system, radically reducing the number of individually needed building typologies to cover the entire building stock. Building type definitions Single-family houses Single-family houses cover all residential buildings in Denmark with one dwelling. It also includes old farmhouses (residential houses at large farms). Terraced houses Terraced houses or row houses cover all residential buildings in Denmark with a vertical division between the individual dwellings. Block of flats In the Danish EPC scheme, blocks of flats cover all residential buildings with horizontal divisions between the individual dwellings. The definition block of flats covers from a two-family house (with the two dwellings on top of each other) to a high-rise multi-family building. The reason for grouping these very different building typologies is the similarities in the requirements due to fire regulations. Trade and service buildings Trade and service buildings are not part of the Danish participation in the TABULA project. 3

16 Periods of buildings According to previous analyses of the energy-saving potentials in the Danish building stock, it was decided to use nine periods of buildings representing typical building tradition, building regulation demands, building materials, insulations thicknesses, heated areas etc. Table 4. Building age periods. Period Year Before After 007 Climate data of Denmark For Denmark only one climate zone is being used in the energy performance calculations. The specific climatic data are shown in the table below. Table 5. Climate data of Denmark. Heating base temperature: heat demand is calculated in case that the daily average external temperature is below this value (TABULA standard value: C) Number of days per year during heating season with an average daily temperature is below or equal to the base temperature C Average outdoor air temperature during the heating season 4. C Average global irradiation on a horizontal surface during the heating season Average global irradiation on a vertical surface oriented East during the heating season Average global irradiation on a vertical surface oriented South during the heating season Average global irradiation on a vertical surface oriented West during the heating season Average global irradiation on a vertical surface oriented North during the heating season kwh/a 33 kwh/a 54 kwh/a 33 kwh/a 50 kwh/a 4

17 Building envelope data The main source of information used to establish the typology buildings is the official handbook of the Danish EPC scheme (Danish Energy Agency, 008). This handbook contains all knowledge necessary for issuing EP certificates for typically buildings. The opaque envelope constructions are represented by their type name, a short description and the corresponding U-value. Some examples are shown in the tables below. A complete list of constructions is found in the TABULA Excel sheets. In Annex I, some screen dumps from the tool are shown. Construction type examples Table 6. Ceilings and floors (examples). Description Illustration U-value [W/m²K] Boards / rafter / clay layer.50 Boards / rafter, 50 mm insulation 0.60 Boards / rafter, 300 mm insulation 0. Wood boards + 50 insulation / 0 cm lightweight concrete 0.47 Concrete mm insulation 0. Wood boards / 0 cm lightweight concrete.00 Floor boards on rafter / clay layer.50 Boards / rafter / 50 mm insulation cm concrete.30 Boards / 50 mm insulation / 0 cm lightweight concrete

18 Table 7. Walls (examples). Description Illustration U-value [W/m²K] cm brick 3.0 / brick (massive) + 00 insulation cm brick (massive).50 cm brick + 50 mm insulation cm brick (cavity wall), not insulated cm brick insulated with 30 mm and 0 mm tiled concrete cm brick, 00 mm insulation cm brick (cavity wall), re-insulated with 7.5 cm granulate cm brick (cavity wall), re-insulated with 7.5 cm tiled concrete.00 0 cm lightweight construction, not insulated.90 0 cm lightweight construction, 50 mm insulation 0.70 Brick wall with x95 mm insulation cm lightweight concrete + 00 mm insulation 0,5 6

19 Table 8. Window data (examples). Description Illustration U-value [W/m²K] Fixed window, wood profiles, single glass pane g-value [-] Side/Top hung windows, wood profiles, single-glazed unit Dannebrog window, wood profiles, single-glazed units Mansion windows, single-glazed units Side/Top hung window, wood profiles, double glazing Side hung window, or more sections, wood profiles, double glazing Farm-house window, wood profiles, glazing bars, double glazing Dannebrog window, wood profiles, double glazing Side/Top hung window, wood profiles, double low-energy glazing Farmhouse window, wood profiles, glazing bars, double low-energy glazing Dannebrog window, wood profiles, double low-energy glazing Fixed window, wood profiles, triple low-energy glazing Side/Top hung window, wood profiles, triple low-energy glazing

20 Heating and ventilation data To establish the typology regarding the heating and ventilation installations in existing buildings, data analysed and estimated by the Danish Technological Institute were used [tools.sparolie.dk/statusliste.asp] and supplemented with data from a handbook on ventilation (Danish Energy Agency, 008). Table 9. Heat supply units. Description Typical expenditure coefficient A of the heat generator Constant temp. / non-condensing / Solo / Group / not insulated / 40 kw.54 Constant temp. / non-condensing / Solo / Group / partly insulated / 40 kw.45 Constant temp. / non-condensing / Solo / Group 3 / not insulated / 6 kw.43 Constant temp. / non-condensing / Solo / Group 4 / partly insulated / 8 kw.37 Constant temp. / non-condensing / Solo / Group 5 / partly insulated / 0 kw.35 Constant temp. / non-condensing / Solo / Group 6 / partly insulated / kw.43 Constant temp. / non-condensing / Unit / Group 7 / partly insulated / 3 kw.35 Boiler Energy label A.05 Boiler Energy label B.07 Boiler Energy label C.0 Boiler Energy label D.4 Boiler Energy label E.8 Boiler Energy label F.3 District heating transfer station / exchanger unit very old.06 District heating transfer station / exchanger unit old.05 District heating transfer station / exchanger unit new.03 Electric heating panels.00 Heat pump, air/air 0.9 Heat pump, ground/water 0.5 A Calculated as the reverse of the efficiency (/eff) of the heat generator. Table 0. Ventilation with heat recovery. Description Illustration Heat recovery Old ventilation system with 60 % heat recovery Cross flow 60 % New ventilation system with 90 % heat recovery Counter flow 90 % 8

21 Building models Two types of building models were created in the TABULA tool. They are: Real Example buildings (ReEx) and Synthetically Average buildings (SyAv). Example buildings The real example buildings exist and were selected from the EPC database as typical examples from the building period with respect to heated area, constructions, energy label etc. The U-value of the real example buildings are shown in Table, Table and Table 3. Table. Thermal envelope: U-values [W/m²K] of the specific examples (single-family houses). Single-family houses Building period Floor Wall Ceiling Window Before After

22 Table. Thermal envelope: U-values [W/m²K] of the specific examples (terraced houses). Terraced houses Building period Floor Wall Ceiling Window Before After

23 Table 3. Thermal envelope: U-values [W/m²K] of the specific examples (blocks of flats buildings). Block of flats Building period Floor Wall Ceiling Window Before After

24 Average buildings The SyAv buildings were composed by average U-values extracted from the EPC database. U-values of ceilings, walls, floors, and windows were calculated within each building period and building type by using the equation:

25 National energy balances National energy balances have been calculated using the TABULA tool for each building typology and results multiplied by the total heated floor area representing each of the building typologies in Denmark. In this way, it was possible to establish an estimate for the national energy balance within each building typology (building type and building age class). The total heated floor area of the Danish building stock has been extracted from the Danish Dwelling and Building Stock Register (BBR) supplemented with information from Statistics Denmark. In Denmark, a national energy balance method already exists. The model has been used in several studies of the energy-saving potential (Wittchen et al., 0). The knowledge of the different input data has been used to make a similar energy balance calculation model using the TABULA approach and artificially average model buildings. Statistics on the energy consumptions of residential buildings are made every year by the Danish Energy Agency. The statistics include both the net energy demands and the energy carriers. Comparison adjustments When comparing the national statistic statement with the TABULA approach, the calculated total energy consumption for heating was climate adjusted according to the number of degree-days. Table 5 compares the number of actual heating degree days in 00 and the climatic impact data of the TAB- ULA tool. Table 5. Number of heating degree days. Statistics (00) 3. TABULA approach DK 3.8 Difference 3.3 % To calculate the total energy consumption the unit consumption in kwh/m² (internal floor area) was converted to external area using a factor.8 (according to the TABULA methodology). 3

26 Adjustment of calculated energy demand In practice, there is always a difference between the calculated and the measured energy consumption, even when the calculation result is climate adjusted (degree days). There is a tendency that buildings with high calculated energy demand in practice (and average) consume less and vice versa that buildings with low calculated energy demand in practice consume more. The measured consumption is also registered in the database of the Energy Labelling Scheme. Therefore, an analysis of the ratio between the measured consumption and the calculated demand was performed for three buildings types. For each building type the average ratio for six intervals of energy demand was calculated as shown in Table 6. These average ratio values are used by the TABULA calculation. Ratio = Measured / Calculated Table 6. Average ratio between measured energy consumption and calculated energy demand for the three building type. Calculated energy demand Building type < 75 kwh/m² kwh/m² kwh/m² kwh/m² kwh/m² > 500 kwh/m² SFH Average ratio No. of buildings TH Average ratio No. of buildings AB Average ratio No. of buildings Boundary conditions Calculation of the energy balance is very dependent on the assumed boundary conditions. The calculated space heating demand and the national statistics on the net heating energy consumption were used to calibrate the boundary conditions. Comparison of the national boundary conditions with the TABULA standard conditions are shown in Table 6 for single-unit houses (SUH) and multifamily houses (MUH). 4

27 Table 7. Comparison of boundary conditions. Boundary conditions Single unit houses (SUH) Multi-unit houses (MUH) EU.SUH DK.SUH_9 DK.SUH DK.SUH_ EU.MUH DK.MUH Internal temperature [ C] Reduction factor, considering the effect of night setback and unheated space. value at h_tr = W/(m²K). Reduction factor, considering the effect of night setback and unheated space. value at h_tr = 4 W/(m²K). Average air change rate, due to use of the building [/h] Room height (based on internal dimensions) [m] Average internal heat loads per m² reference area Reduction factor due to horizontal, external shading Reduction factor due to vertical, external shading Frame area (fraction of total window area) Reduction factor. Considering radiation non-perpendicular to the glazing Internal heat capacity per m² reference area [Wh/(m²K)] Net energy demand for domestic hot water [kwh/(m²a)] /0.6/ The different boundary conditions were used in the national energy balance calculation as shown in Table 7. Table 8. Use of the boundary conditions in the national energy balance calculation. Building period Single-family houses Terraced houses Block of flats Before 850 DK.SUH_9 DK.SUH_9 DK.MUH DK.SUH_9 DK.SUH_9 DK.MUH DK.SUH DK.SUH DK.MUH DK.SUH DK.SUH DK.MUH DK.SUH DK.SUH DK.MUH DK.SUH DK.SUH DK.MUH_n06* DK.SUH DK.SUH DK.MUH_n06* DK.SUH_ DK.SUH_ DK.MUH_n05* After 007 DK.SUH_ DK.SUH_ DK.MUH_n05* *Air change rate reduced from 0.7 /h to 0.6 or 0.5 /h. 5

28 Total heated building area The total heated floor area of the Danish building stock has been extracted from the Danish Dwelling and Building Stock Register (BBR) as shown in Table 8. Table 9. External floor areas (m²) distributed on primary heating source in different building types and ages. Data extracted from BBR 0. Period Heating source SFH TH AB Before 850 Total District Heating Gas boiler Oil Boiler Electricity Stoves Heat pump Other District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Stoves Heat pump Other District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Stoves Heat pump Other District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Stoves Heat pump Other District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Stoves Heat pump Other Total District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Stoves Heat pump Other

29 District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Stoves Heat pump Other District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Stoves Heat pump Other District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Stoves Heat pump Other Space heating demand calculation The results obtained by applying the TABULA standard and the Danish boundary conditions are shown below. Energy consumption for hot water is not included in the presented results of energy demands for space heating. Table 0. Calculated energy consumption for space heating (not including DHW) [kwh/m² (internal floor area)]. Space heating demand [kwh/m²] Singlefamily houses Terraced houses Blocks of flats Building period DK.SUH DK.SUH DK.MUH Before After The difference between the TABULA and the Danish boundary condition is found to be approx. 5 - for single-family and for terraced houses. For block of flats, the Danish boundary condition increases the net energy consumption by 5-35 kwh/m², mainly due to the higher assumed indoor temperature and higher ventilation rate. 7

30 Energy demand for heating and domestic hot water by energy carrier Results from the TABULA approach are only presented for boundary conditions DK as shown in Table 9. Table. Calculated net energy demand for heating and domestic hot water by energy carrier [kwh/m² (internal floor area)]. Period Building type SFH DK.SUH TH DK.SUH AB DK.MUH Before 850 Total District Heating 3 0 Gas boiler Oil Boiler Electricity Heat pumps District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Heat pumps District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity 7 0 Heat pumps District Heating Gas boiler 65 5 Oil boiler 73 6 Electricity Heat pumps District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Heat pumps Total District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Heat pumps District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Heat pumps District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Heat pumps District Heating Gas boiler Oil boiler Electricity Heat pumps

31 Comparison with official Danish energy statistics Using data on the total building stock area for three residential building types, calculation results were compared with the 00 national statistics on energy consumption (Danish Energy Agency. 00) in order to verify the model. For calculations according to the TABULA approach, boundary conditions described in Table 7 have been used. The results are shown in Table 0. Table. Calculated net energy usage compared with the corresponding national statistics on energy consumption in residential buildings. Net energy demand for heating and domestic hot water [PJ] Single-family houses and terraced houses Block of flats Statistics Denmark 00 09,5 43,4 TABULA approach DK 3,3 44,5 Difference TABULA approach DK 3,4%,4% Calculated energy-saving potential The technical energy-saving potential is calculated without taking into account different barriers such as economy, technical limitations or architecture. The different measures follow the recommendations given by the Danish Knowledge Centre for Energy Savings in Buildings [www.byggeriogenergi.dk]. Recommendations for specific energy-saving measures are shown in Table. Table 3. Recommended energy-saving measures. Standard Ambitious Ceiling 300 mm 400 mm Wall (outside) > 00 mm > 00 mm Wall (inside) 50 mm 50 mm Cavity wall Filled Filled Slab on ground 50 mm 50 mm Floor above basement > 00 mm > 00 mm Windows with double energy glazing with triple energy glazing The energy saving potential is calculated for both scenarios: Standard and Ambitious. The results are presented in the Table 3. Table 4. Calculated theoretical/technical energy saving potential Net energy demand for heating and Single-family houses domestic hot water [PJ] and terraced houses Block of flats Reference (TABULA approach) 3, Standard measures Ambitious measures The total theoretical potential of energy savings are approx. 7 and 78 PJ for the standard and the ambitious measures, respectively. The corresponding CO reduction is 3. and 3.4 million tons CO respectively assuming the current mix of energy sources. The energy-saving potential is a theoretical figure and not fully achievable for the whole building stock due to previously mentioned barriers of economy, technical and architectural limitations. 9

32 Display sheets example buildings Each of the real example buildings are presented in a brochure called display sheets. The intention is that the display sheet should be used in Denmark for promoting energy upgrading and therefore the descriptions are in Danish. The display sheets give a brief and easy-to-understand overview of the energy upgrading possibilities for each of the example buildings. The display sheet contains information of the envelope constructions (area and U-values) at the current state and the possible savings at the two levels of measures given in Table. A corresponding overview is given with regard to the current state of the heating and ventilation installations. Figure 5 and Figure 6 show an example of one display sheet. All the display sheets of the example buildings are shown in Appendix II. 30 Figure 5 Example of a display sheet showing the building envelope constructions of one of the real example buildings (Single-family house from ).

33 Figure 6 Example of a display sheet showing the information on the heating and ventilation installation of one of the real example buildings (Single-family house from ). 3

34 Perspectives for using TABULA building typologies According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (Directive 00/3/EU) (EPBD), European Member States (MS) are obliged to use reference buildings (building typologies) to evaluate cost-optimal energy-saving measures in new and existing buildings. Article 5 of the EPBD requires MS to establish the comparative methodology framework in accordance with EPBD Annex III and to differentiate between different categories of buildings. Annex III states that MS must define reference buildings that are characterised by and representative of their functionality and geographic location, including indoor and outdoor climate conditions. The reference buildings shall cover residential and non-residential buildings, both new and existing ones. Application of the TABULA building typologies and building models represent a golden opportunity for kick-starting the establishment of a collection of reference buildings in the European MS (Wittchen, et. Al., 0). 3

35 References Danish Energy Agency (008). Appendix to Handbook for Energy Consultants, 008. Available in Danish at: Danish Energy Agency (009). National Energy Statistics, 009. Located at Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority (00). Dwelling and Building Stock Register (BBR), 00. Located at Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority (00). Danish Building Regulations 00 (BR00). Located at Directive 00/3/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 May 00 on the energy performance of buildings (recast). Kragh J & Wittchen K.B. (00). Danish buildings energy consumption in 050 (In Danish: Danske bygningers energibehov i 050). (SBi 00:56). Hørsholm: Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University. Wittchen K. B. (009). Potential energy savings in existing buildings (In Danish: Potentielle energibesparelser i det eksisterende byggeri). (SBi 009:05). Hørsholm: Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University. Wittchen K.B. Kragh J & Jensen O.M., (0). Energy saving potentials a case study on the Danish building stock. ECEEE 0 SUMMER STUDY Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society p June 6-, 0. Belambra Presqu'île de Giens, France. ISBN:

36 Annex I Screen dumps from Danish TABULA building typologies Screen dump from the TABULA Excel sheet Tab.Building.Constr Figure 7. Tab.Building.Constr holds information about the defined building constructions in the TABULA Excel sheet. 34

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