Who knows what? The Teaching of Knowledge and Knowers in a Fifth Grade Danish as a Second Language Classroom

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1 Who knows what? The Teaching of Knowledge and Knowers in a Fifth Grade Danish as a Second Language Classroom Anna Vera Meidell Sigsgaard March, 2013

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3 Who Knows What? The Teaching of Knowledge and Knowers in a Fifth Grade Danish as a Second Language Classroom Anna Vera Meidell Sigsgaard BA, German Language and Literature (Boston University, 2000) BS, Bilingual Education and ESL Education (Boston University, 2000) BA, Pædagogik (Københavns Universitet, 2005) Cand. mag., Almen Pædagogik (Københavns Universitet, 2007) A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Program of Learning and Education Graduate School of Arts, University of Aarhus Copenhagen, Denmark March, 2013

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5 Table of Contents Acknowledgements English abstract Dansk abstract v vii ix INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER 1 Prologue 1 Introduction 2 Focus of this study 5 Context of this study 6 Contributions 6 Research questions 7 Approach 8 Literature Review 10 Danish second language education research 10 Studying classrooms by way of sociology 11 Linguistic analysis of classroom interaction and discourse 12 Summary of literature review 14 Theoretical Framework Schooling, Learning and Language 15 Code Theory: identifying power and control in classrooms 15 A sociocultural view of learning 23 Language as a social semiotic 24 Summary of theory and analytical tools 29 Background Danish as a Second Language in Folkeskolen 30 Historical development of the school subject Danish as a Second Language 30 Official curriculum guidelines for Danish as a second language 34 Summary of DSL in Folkeskolen 37 Data: Background, Procedure and Method 37 Data background the school, the class, the unit and the materials 38 Data collection procedure 46 Selecting examples for analysis 49 Summing up the collected data 50 Data Analysis: An Overview of the Findings in the Thesis Articles 51 i

6 Article 1: What should I write? You should know that for yourself : about how focus on respectively knowledge and action in teacher student conversations leads to obscurity in instruction 52 Article 2: Who Has the Knowledge if not the Primary Knower? Using exchange structure analysis to cast light on particular pedagogic practices in teaching Danish as a Second Language and History 52 Article 3: Who learns what? Teaching Democracy through Social Relations when Danish as a Second Language is embedded in a History Unit 54 Article 4: Semantic gravity and semantic density in democracy an analysis of a Danish as a second language and History topic in a 5th grade class 55 Epilogue 56 Combining the findings: conclusions and implications 58 Introductory Chapter References 63 ARTICLES 73 Article 1: Hvad skal jeg så skrive? Det må du selv vide : Udvekslingsstrukturanalyse af samtaler mellem lærere og elever i dansk som andetsprog og historieundervisning 73 Introduktion 73 Data baggrund: S Skolen, historiegruppen og Sat Ud 76 Samtale som forhandling teorien bag og om udvekslingsstrukturanalyse 79 Når viden og handlen støder sammen analyse af to eksempler på lærer elev samtaler i undervisningen 84 Goddag mand, økseskaft en konklusion og perspektivering 92 Litteraturhenvisninger 94 Appendiks 1 Transskriptionskonventioner 97 Appendiks 2 Oversigt over træk og engelske ækvivalenter 98 Article 2: Who Has the Knowledge if not the Primary Knower? Using exchange structure analysis to cast light on particular pedagogic practices in teaching Danish as a Second Language and History 100 Introduction What Are We Going To Learn Today? 100 Theory of pedagogical discourse 102 Where s the Knowledge? Applying ESA to the data 103 Learning a knower code 105 References 106 Article 3: Who learns what? Teaching Democracy through Social Relations when Danish as a Second Language is embedded in a History Unit 108 Introduction 108 Seeing and analysing knowledge and knower structures: using Legtimation Code Theory 109 Operationalizing notions of ER and SR in terms of the data 111 Data Background The S School, the teachers and the class 112 Applying specialization codes to the collected data 114 ii

7 Discussion and implications 121 Conclusion 122 References 123 Article 4: Semantisk tyngde og semantisk tæthed i Demokratibegrebet Dansk som andetsprog som dimension i en 5. klasses historieundervisning 127 Introduktion 127 Teoretisk ramme: lingvistisk orienteret pædagogisk socialrealisme 128 Data: At være barn for 100 år siden et tværfagligt emneforløb i historie og dansk som andetsprog 130 Analyse og Diskussion Hvornår har vi demokrati i Danmark? 131 Perspektivering 140 Henvisninger 141 Appendiks 1 Transskriptionskonventioner 144 APPENDICES 145 Appendix 1: Lesson overviews 145 Lesson 1 Monday, May 11 th Lesson 2 Tuesday, May 12th Lesson 3 Friday, May 15th Lesson 4 Monday, May 25th, Lesson 5 Wednesday, June 3rd, 2009 unobserved 148 Lesson 6 Thursday, June 4th, Appendix 2: Transcripts of examples referred to in the thesis articles 150 KWL Start 150 The Right Kind of Chart 158 Bonny s Understanding of Sat Ud 161 Poor House Episode 165 When do we have democracy in Denmark? 173 Appendix 3: Rough transcripts 178 Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Appendix 4: DVD with video recordings 273 Appendix 5: Examples of screen shots from Sat Ud 274 Appendix 6: Excerpts from the teacher guide for Sat Ud 285 iii

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9 Acknowledgements On the verge of submitting this thesis, I am reminded that there are many reasons to be thankful; many people deserve thanks for helping me along the way through what at times seemed to be a very dense and murky wood. Honestly, this section could fill a whole chapter on its own, if I were to name you all. For the sake of brevity, I will stick to more general acknowledgements. I have chosen to divide my thanks in two groups of people: those of you who I know in English, og de af jer som jeg kender på dansk. Først til de dansk talende: Mange tak til de lærere og elever, som gav mig lov til at komme og forstyrre undervisningen med videokameraer og spørgsmål både til de af jer som indgår som data og de af jer som blot lod mig afprøve hvad det ville sige at samle data ind. Jeg ved at det kan være svært at åbne op for sådan en udefrakommende en som mig, men jeres måde at imødekomme mig på var åben og ærlig. Jeg er dybt taknemmelig for den hjælp I har ydet, begge mine vejledere, Anne Holmen og Bolette Moldenhawer. Tak for jeres engagement og støtte til mit projekt (selv fra før det begyndte), og tålmodighed med mig som lærende derigennem. Tak også til Ruth Mulvad for sparring og mange gode samtaler undervejs. Jeres faglige engagement og interesse for mit projekt fra hver sit perspektiv har været altafgørende for, at afhandlingen er blevet til. Mange tak! Derudover må jeg takke alle de af jer som har læst, snakket, kommet med synspunkter af mere eller mindre faglig karakter. I er mange, men jeg ved at I ved hvem I er. Tusind tak. Tak også til Rasmus, min sødeste sødning, for din hjælp og støtte gennem den tid det tog. And to those of you, who I ve gotten to know through English: I wish to earnestly thank the community of both senior and junior scholars in and around Sydney for stimulating conversations and a wonderful, friendly environment. Thanks go especially to Jim Martin, for inviting me to stay at the University of Sydney and for making available valuable time and connections. Thank you to Fran Christie, Karl Maton, Sue Hood and Maree Stenglin for taking the time to give me extra supervision throughout my stay. And thanks to the rest of you too. You, who welcomed me and Rasmus into your homes and hearts: you know who you are. I feel truly privileged and blessed to count you as my friends and colleagues. Thank you, too, to my family, and especially to Elena Josephine, my little joey. You don t know it yet, but you deserve thanks of a greater and much more personal nature. v

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11 English abstract The overarching focus of the thesis is to investigate why minority students, offered instruction labelled as Danish as a second language as a means of academic support, nonetheless seem to have more difficulty attaining school success than their majority peers. Based on a theoretically informed position that classroom discourse plays an important role in both student learning and the shaping of their consciousness (Bernstein, 2000; Christie, 2007; Maton, 2010), the research has investigated the implementation of the school subject Danish as a Second Language in History instruction through the analysis of teacher student interactions with different teachers and at various points in the progression of an observed 5 th grade unit of study about Denmark in the early 1900 s. Collected video observations and later transcriptions of teacher student interactions served as the main source of data, supplemented by screen shots of the multi media teaching materials used for the unit and teacher interviews. Using linguistic tools of analysis known as exchange structure analysis and based on Hallidayan systemic functional linguistics, as well as sociological tools of analysis based on Bernstein s code theory, namely Legitimation Code Theory s (Maton, forthcoming) tools of Semantics and Specialization analysis, the research explores connections between learning, language, knowledge and knowers in the observed classroom practice. The research findings are presented in four articles, which together provide insight into the importance and complexity of classroom discourse for shaping students understandings of the content being learned, and ultimately of the shaping of their consciousness in terms of what is and is not considered legitimate knowledge in the classroom. vii

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13 Dansk abstract Det overordnede fokus for afhandlingen er at undersøge hvorfor minoritetsbørn, som får støtte i form af dansk som andetsprogsundervisning i Folkeskolen, ikke desto mindre tilsyneladende har svært ved at opnå samme akademiske niveau som deres etnisk danske medelever. Med udgangspunkt i en teoretisk position, hvor klasserumsdiskurs spiller en afgørende rolle i udviklingen af elevers læring og bevidsthed (Bernstein 2000; Christie 2007; Maton 2010), undersøges implementeringen af skolefaget dansk som andetsprog som dimension i historieundervisningen ved at analysere lærer elev interaktioner med forskellige lærere og fra forskellige tidspunkter fra et observeret undervisningsforløb i en 5. klasse omhandlende Danmark omkring århundredeskiftet (1900 tallet). Det indsamlede videomateriale og senere transskriptioner af lærer elev interaktioner herfra dannede hovedparten af forskningens data, og blev suppleret af screen shots af det multimediemateriale som undervisningen baserede sig på. Derudover blev datasættet også suppleret af efterfølgende lærerinterview med de pågældende lærere. Ved hjælp af lingvistiske analyser gennemført via den såkaldte udvekslingsstrukturanalyse (exchange structure analysis) som baserer sig på Hallidays systemisk funktionelle lingvistik, samt uddannelsessociologiske analyser via grebene Semantik og Specialisering fra Legitimation Code Theory (Maton, forthcoming) baseret på Bernsteins kodeteori, udforsker forskningen forbindelser mellem læring, sprog, viden og knowers i den observerede klasserumspraksis. Forskningens fund præsenteres i afhandlingens fire artikler, som samlet set giver indblik i vigtigheden og kompleksiteten af klasserumsdiskursen for udviklingen af elevernes begrebsverden i forhold til forståelser af hvad der læres, og i sidste ende for udviklingen af deres bevidsthed i forhold til hvad der ses som legitim viden i klasserummet. ix

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15 Language is our cultural tool we use it to share experience and so to collectively, jointly, make sense of it... Language is therefore not just a means by which individuals can formulate ideas and communicate them, it is also a means for people to think and learn together. (Mercer, 1995) xi

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17 Introductory Chapter Introductory Chapter Prologue Fifth grade students are working in groups, spread out around the classroom in the first lesson of an interdisciplinary History and Danish as a Second Language (DSL) unit of study. They are working on filling out the first column of a graphic organizer known as the KWL chart. The school s DSLcoordinator has been invited to guest teach part of the History unit with two of the class teachers. As DSL coordinator and guest teacher, Bonny s aim is to give the class teachers ideas on how to incorporate materials and techniques which are aimed at helping the many DSL students in the school. The KWL chart is one of these techniques, meant for noting and organizing in three columns respectively: what students know (K), what they would like to learn (W), and what they have Learned (L) during a unit of study. Today they are working on filling out the first two columns while the three teachers circulate amongst them, listening to what students are saying and offering help as needed. One of the boys asks Adam, the History teacher, for help in making his KWL chart. As they talk, Adam and the boy look at his paper which he holds horizontally. Sarah, the Danish teacher is standing nearby. She sees them talking and comes over, interrupting, Isn't it supposed to be the other way? referring to orienting the page vertically. Adam continues talking to the boy holding the page horizontally, telling him where to make the columns, pointing to the paper, saying You just fold it.... Sarah interrupts him again, adding, it might be smart if it is that way, but then the letters are turned. In the meantime, Bonny, who has been standing nearby, turns around to join the conversation. All three teachers are now involved in discussing how this student should orient his KWL chart while the student himself stands by, quietly listening. Bonny takes the page from Adam, holding it horizontally in one hand while at the same time holding up another paper in her other hand vertically. She asks the boy, look here. Which way can you write the most? The boy points to the horizontal paper, looking at Bonny. That one? you think so? she replies, When it's in your folder? The boy smiles and looks at her. Again, he points to the horizontal page. Bonny shakes the horizontal page as she continues, So you like to work on that the most. 1

18 Introductory Chapter The boy nods again. As Bonny goes to hand the page back, Sarah interrupts to point out, yet again, that if he orients the page horizontally, his letters will not be at the top of each column. Bonny and she talk back and forth, but end up agreeing that this is true and that he will have to rewrite his three letters. They smile to each other as Bonny returns the page to the boy, who, without saying anything, goes back to his group and sits down. The three other boys in the group have already started writing on their horizontally oriented papers. The boy looks at his paper (oriented horizontally) for a bit and is about to start writing. But then he turns it, orienting it vertically, before he writes the three letters at the top of the page. *** In many ways, the interaction described above exemplifies what subsequent analysis will show: that what seems to be predominant in the pedagogy of this fifth grade classroom is being the right kind of student and that doing things the right way seems to be more important than the History or Danish language knowledge students are presented with. How this is communicated to the students, however, is often vague, despite the many discussions teachers have amongst themselves and with the students throughout the observed unit of study. The observed unit of study, therefore, presents issues of both what counts as knowledge and what are the characteristics of the implied knowers. The choices teachers make in the balance of these two aspects and how this affects students learning is the focal point of the following thesis. Introduction Within education, the issue of how to ensure that all children have access to teaching which will maximize their opportunity to achieve scholastic success is a critical one. It is an issue which prompts fierce debate in all of the world s developed countries and on all levels; including teachers, educational and linguistic researchers, parents, and politicians. At the same time, students with minority or foreign backgrounds are seen as being particularly at risk because of their different cultural and linguistic prerequisites. In Denmark, how to deal with this group of students institutionally has been an area of dispute for several decades (Kristjánsdóttir, 2006). The lower results achieved by minority students to attain school success seems to become particularly visible during the middle school years (4 th 6 th grade) and has been referred to as the fourth grade slump (e.g. Chall et al. 1990; Gitz Johansen 2006; Møller et al. 2012; Thomas & Collier 2

19 Introductory Chapter 1999). Research suggests that the nature of school texts in conjunction with increased expectations towards abstraction and reflection are at the foundation for this falling behind of minority students (Christie 2006; Christie & Derewianka 2008; Gibbons 2009; Hvenekilde & Engen 1996; Hvenekilde et al. 1996; Loona 2009; Schleppegrell 2004; Wedin 2004). Denmark is and has been a fairly homogenous society, when compared to most other countries. However, because of the economic situation in the 70 s and the lack of available manpower, Denmark opened its borders to migrant workers. These workers were seen as temporary visitors, however, contrary to expectation, many migrant workers made use of family reunification laws, bringing their families and settling in Denmark. This meant that Danish schools started to see a new group of students who did not have the expected cultural or linguistic background. The Danish public school system collectively known as Folkeskolen has a long tradition of socalled student centered and equity based educational approaches in both the primary and lower secondary schools. These approaches are seen as being highly sensitive to the needs of the individual student, and are in fact believed to be so sensitive that over time, Folkeskolen will succeed in educating and providing equity for not only diverse socio economic groups, but also for ethnically and linguistically diverse students. In a background study to an OECD review on the educational system of Denmark this ideal of equity is put across in the following way: In Denmark, [ ] the policy is that all children and youths shall have equal access to education and that the obstacles that individuals may have to conquer to gain the experience and knowledge that is required will be removed. It was first seen as important to establish equality between young people coming from different regions, then between the gender groups and between different socio-economic groups and most recently between groups with different ethnical backgrounds. (Ekholm 2004:13) In keeping with their growing numbers, however, public official and unofficial concern has grown regarding this population. Various studies, reports and national tests show that there is a significant statistical discrepancy between educational successes attained by the minority students, as compared to ethnically Danish students (Egelund et al. 2007; Egelund et al. 2009). This is seen as a significant problem for Danish society in general. In many contexts their poor(er) ability to manage in school has been equated with an inability to integrate into Danish society both as youths and later as adults. Since integration into Danish society both culturally and linguistically remains a major public and political concern, how to deal with and help minority students remains a substantial area of public and political debate, as seen by the creation of the bilingual taskforce under the Ministry of Education, various surveys and initiatives by the National School Council (Andersen et al. 2012) as 3

20 Introductory Chapter well as reports and tests done in continuation of OECDs PISA studies (Egelund et al. 2007; Egelund et al. 2009). Because of a high level of autonomy within the school systems and lacking official guidelines, how to deal with minority students was often left up to individual schools. Often, minority students were placed in remedial classes or offered compensatory instruction (Kristjánsdóttir 2006). In most cases, though, these classes were aimed at students with special needs rather than for providing second language support. Until as recently as 1995, official pedagogic guidelines were almost non existent, leaving the implementation of second language pedagogy largely up to individual teachers with highly varying professional backgrounds and theoretical convictions. As a result, the development of second language pedagogy into the school subject known as Danish as a second language (DSL) has been relatively recent and quick. Specifically, DSL is aimed at those students who speak one or more languages in their homes, often encountering Danish for the first time when they enter Danish institutions such as public day care or Folkeskolen (Undervisningsministeriet 2005, 2009). These students are classified as bilingual students officially, often simply referred to as bilinguals regardless of the student s actual ability to speak more than one language. The Danish Evaluation Institute (EVA) and The Danish National Centre for Social Research (SFI) have recently completed a study of specific focus areas for bilingual children in Folkeskolen (Andersen et al. 2012). The results seem to indicate that many bilingual children do not receive the Danish language support of which they are in need. At the same time, the study criticizes the prevalent pedagogic practice of pulling out bilingual students from mainstream classes, reinforcing the current trend towards teaching DSL as en integrated element in other subject areas: En undersøgelse af særlige indsatser for tosprogede elever, som EVA har gennemført sammen med SFI, viser imidlertid, at kun en fjerdedel af lærerne i 9. klasse altid eller ofte har fokus på at inddrage dansk som andetsprog, når de underviser i klasser med tosprogede elever. Der er derfor grund til at antage, at tosprogede elever ikke altid får den sproglige støtte i undervisningen, som de har behov for. Samtidig bliver tosprogede elever på fire ud af fem skoler taget ud af klassen og tilbudt supplerende undervisning i dansk som andetsprog. Det betyder, at de tosprogede elever går glip af den undervisning, som deres klassekammerater modtager. Det er ærgerligt, når vi ved, at det netop er ved at deltage i undervisningen, at elever lærer de begreber, der knytter til sig til fagene, og at det er i takt med progressionen i fagene, at elevernes begrebsverden udvikler sig. 1 1 Translation: An evaluation of particular endeavors for bilingual children, which EVA completed in cooperation with SFI, shows that only one fourth of all teachers in the 9th grade always or often have focus on 4

21 Introductory Chapter (Thorsen & Pedersen 2012) While both International and Nordic research seems to suggest that an integration of (second) language education into the school s subject areas is helpful to second language development and school success more generally (Axelsson et al. 2002; e.g. Brisk 2006; Cummins 2000; García & Kleifgen 2010; Holmen 2002, 2008; Smyth 2003; Øzerk 2003), educational linguists centered around the Sydney School in particular warn that this integration of language education must provide specific linguistic instruction in order to be successful (Christie 2006; Christie & Martin 2007; Dreyfus et al. 2011; Gibbons 2006; Rose et al. 2008; Schleppegrell 2004). Focus of this study This research investigates the implications of incorporating the school subject Danish as a second language into the school subject History by observing pedagogic practices in a fifth grade History unit where the majority of students are seen as in need of DSL support. This is done by investigating teacher student interactions in whole class and individual or small group discussions. The research contributes to an understanding of some of the possible reasons for why minority (i.e. DSL) students are less likely to succeed in school than their Danish peers by identifying patterns in teacher student talk that seem to suggest miscommunication. How and what teachers focus on when talking with students and how students respond to the teachers indicates different foci and gives an impression of each participant s interpretation of the subject matter being studied, thus suggesting each of their positions within an educational and intellectual field. This research makes its contributions based on the corpus of video data from the observed unit of study; the qualitative study of a limited number of texts from this case permits in depth analysis, and enables a rich description which itself generates new data born questions. The application of the chosen theoretical framework in the context of Danish as a second language education in Folkeskolen is hitherto unknown, making the research both data and theory driven. With this central aim, this research provides a launching point for future research into the connections between teaching, learning, knowledge and language, and a point of comparison for research into other academic disciplines, educational, linguistic or otherwise. including DSL when teaching classes with bilingual students. There is therefore reason to believe that bilingual students do not always receive the language support in instruction of which they are in need. At the same time, in 4 out of 5 schools bilingual students are pulled out of instruction and offered supplemental DSL instruction. This means bilingual students miss out on instruction which their classroom peers receive. This is a shame when we know that participating in instruction in particular is when students learn the notions and vocabulary which is part of the school s subjects, and that it is together with the development of subjects that students conceptual univers develops. 5

22 Introductory Chapter Context of this study This study is situated in a public school (grade K 9) outside of Copenhagen, Denmark where the overwhelming majority of students is officially and unofficially perceived as bilingual. It takes as its focus the fifth grade and their teachers who, led by the school s DSL coordinator, work through a unit of study concentrating on Denmark at the turn of the last century (around 1900). At the time of observation (spring, 2009), the school had an overwhelming majority of bilingual students, and the school had chosen to deal with this perceived problem by focusing in particular on implementing DSL into as many subject areas as possible at each grade level. Because of this focus, the school had a self perception of being a flag ship school with engaged teachers where DSLinstruction works. Contributions This article based PhD thesis makes its contributions focusing on the connections between language, learning, knowledge and power; and on how an understanding of these connections can shed light on some of the issues of why minority students seem to have more difficulty keeping up in the middle school years, attaining scholastic success and subsequently (perceived) socioeconomic security and integration into Danish society. This research contributes to the understanding of equity in education by investigating pedagogic practices from the perspective of systemic functional linguistics (SFL) (Halliday 1976; Halliday & Matthiessen 2004; Martin 1992; Martin & Rose 2007) and Legitimation Code Theory (LCT) (Maton 2007, 2010, forthcoming). It demonstrates their application in the context of Danish as a Second Language education when integrated in the subject History during the middle years (a period of schooling which is often perceived of as seminal for the scholastic success of a student) and thus contributes to an understanding of second language education and educational practice more broadly by making underlying and heretofore invisible values and structures visible. The research also makes an interdisciplinary contribution building on the long and fruitful dialogue between educational linguistics and the tradition of code theory from the sociology of education which began with discussions between Halliday and Bernstein in the early 1960 s and continues into the present day (Christie & Martin, 2007; Christie & Maton, 2011). The investigation of interactions between teachers and students contributes to the field of educational discourse analysis in Denmark in particular by introducing an analytical framework known as exchange structure analysis (Martin 1992; Martin & Rose 2007) to the Danish context, and by elucidating the importance of teacherstudent interactions for potential student learning. It tests out this existing model of exchange structure analysis by applying it to new empirical data within the Danish context of Folkeskolen. The 6

23 Introductory Chapter research also applies frameworks for the analysis of knowledge and knowers, drawing attention to the requirements placed on students in regard to scholastic success. It challenges teachers and educational researchers to further investigate the valued ways of knowing and participating in the educational setting, and to then consider how the required skills may be introduced to students. Research questions This research was initially motivated by an overarching concern for why minority, so called bilingual students, statistically are less likely to achieve scholastic success than their Danish as a native language peers. Having obtained a Bachelor of Science in Bilingual and ESL Education (Boston University, 2000) and having worked as an ESL teacher in and outside of Boston, Massachusetts on the North East coast of the United States, I was struck after my move to Denmark by the apparently different predominant understandings of and approaches to second language education in Denmark and the USA. This marked the start of my research interest and was the focus of my master s thesis completed at the University of Copenhagen, in which I conducted a Bernsteinian inspired analysis of the official pedagogic discourse (Bernstein 1977, 1990, 2000) describing the school subject DSL as presented in the curriculum guidelines (Meidell 2007). This analysis of the curriculum guidelines raised questions as to how teachers would understand the relatively new subject and how (if at all) they could use this understanding to inform their teaching of minority students in need of DSL support. The present study, therefore, is motivated by a desire to contribute to the still new and growing field Danish as a Second Language, exploring how DSL manifests as a school subject and how it is implemented in real life. With knowledge of the fourth grade slump (referred to in the introduction) and because the prevalent official pedagogic discourse (as presented in curriculum guidelines and academic research and studies) encourages the integration of DSL into the other subject areas of Folkeskolen, and because it is yet unexplored how this can successfully be done within the subject of History, the motivating question then became: How is Danish as a second language integrated as an element of a middle school year History unit, and how does this affect the teaching and learning of both the Danish language and the subject knowledge students are expected to learn? 7

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