Teacher Learning for European Literacy Education. Tel4ELE

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1 Teacher Learning for European Literacy Education Tel4ELE with the support of the Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Union Comenius Multilateral Project Project Outcomes from Denmark National Centre for Reading, University Colleges 1

2 Introduction and aims of the project Year One Outputs National Literacy Profile: Denmark p Lesson Plans Denmark p. 11 Year Two Outputs Outline of Teacher Training Programs - Denmark p Sample classroom implementation sequences p Sample Students texts Denmark p. 26 Dissemination Activities - Denmark 6. Communication on a National Scale p Unexpected outcomes p The Danish National Cluster p. 37 Future activities p. 44 Introduction and aims of the project The ultimate aim of the Teacher Learning for European Literacy Education (TeL4ELE) project was to improve student learning outcomes, particularly for those who are educationally disadvantaged, including second language learners. The consortium aimed to do this by supporting literacy educators in five European 2

3 countries to become experts in genre based literacy pedagogy, specifically in the Reading to Learn program. In the first phase of the project the National literacy teams gathered data on their national curricula, student literacy achievement and the key approaches to literacy education as a platform to guide their national adaptations of the functional approach to literacy learning. What follows is the national literacy profile for Sweden which paints a picture of the literacy environment where the key educators trialled the new approach to literacy education. Year One Outputs National Literacy Profile: Denmark THE DANISH FOLKESKOLE The Danish educational system is divided into: Primary and lower secondary education (the Folkeskole) Upper secondary education Short-cycle higher education Medium-cycle higher education Long-cycle higher education The Danish Folkeskole is not an examination-oriented school. The main rule is therefore that a student attends a class with students of the same age. The Folkeskole is the responsibility of the municipalities. According to the Folkeskole Act the municipal board is responsible for ensuring every child in the municipality a free education in the Folkeskole. The municipal board is responsible for setting the targets and framework for the activities of the school within the provisions of this Act and the Common Objectives (see below). Each school is responsible for ensuring the quality of the education in accordance with the aims of the Folkeskole and with the framework set by the municipality, and also bears the responsibility for determining the planning and organisation of the programme of education. 3

4 (http://eng.uvm.dk/education/primary-and-lower-secondary-education/the- Folkeskole/The-Aims-of-the-Folkeskole) Primary and lower secondary school The Danish public basic school, Folkeskole, is an undivided (comprehensive) school and consists of one year of pre-school class, nine years of primary and lower secondary education and an optional one-year 10th form for youngsters who need better scholastic achievement. Approximately 87 per cent of all children attend the public Danish Folkeskole, which was established in Today we have over 1600 public schools in Denmark offering basic education. (http://www.dlf.org/english/the+folkeskole) The children normally continue in the same group from pre-school class up to and including the 9th grade. The average class size is 20 pupils, and the average teacher/pupil ratio is 1:11. By law the Folkeskole is required to provide children with academic qualifications and to prepare them for active citizenship in a democratic society. The school collaborates closely together with the parents and teaching is based on the individual pupil s abilities. Some 13 per cent of a year group attend one of the country s approximately 500 private, albeit state-subsidised, schools where parents contribute to the funding. Elsewhere tuition is free in the Danish school system that is to say: tax funded. Upper secondary education Upper secondary education is free. Usually, upper secondary education takes three years, and great importance is attached to developing both the pupils academic and personal qualifications. THE CURRICULUM There is no compulsory National Curriculum for the Danish Folkeskole but national guidelines are laid out by the Ministry of Children and Education. Since 2006, the Folkeskole Act has given the Minister for Children and Education the authority to establish the regulations and aims regarding education and regarding the central knowledge and proficiency areas (final objectives) in subjects and compulsory topics. Moreover, the Minister for Children and Education determines the regulations and 4

5 objectives for specific form levels (threshold objectives) for the specific subjects/topics. The final and threshold objectives establish a national objective for the direction and aims of the teaching, ensuring that students acquire the knowledge and skills in the subject/topic at, respectively, the end of their program of education and at the conclusion of specific form levels. A description (in Danish) of each subject is provided in the subject s folder under the title Common Objectives (Fælles Mål) at Common Objectives cover the two most important sets of academic texts regarding the subjects and topics of the school. The binding national objectives in the form of the subject aims, central knowledge and proficiency areas (final objectives) and threshold objectives. Guidelines for curricula and descriptions of the educational development designed for reaching the threshold and the final objectives. Once the local curricula and descriptions receive final approval from the municipal board, they also become binding and thereby common for the individual school. LITERACY In the Common Objectives, the word literacy is not used; rather reading and writing are described separately. Only recently, writing has become a topic in Danish school discussion (see later in the description of the DLF project Reading for Life ). In the description of the subject Danish in the Common Objectives, reading and writing are therefore separated: The spoken language The written language read The written language write Language, Literature and Communications 5

6 In the review of the Common Objectives from the Ministry of Education in 2009, it was recommended that for all subjects reading should be an integrated part of the subject, but the recommendations were followed up only in a few cases (Mathematics, Science). Student Plans Grades are only given in the upper secondary school. In the subject Danish, students are given grades for performance in reading, spelling, writing and oral language. Since 2006, individual student plans have been compulsory. In order to strengthen the process of carrying out an ongoing evaluation of the Folkeskole, a provision was introduced requiring teachers to provide an individual student plan for all students at all form levels. The student plans are to contain information about the student s current achievements in all subjects and the course of action decided based on these results. The student plans are to be prepared at least once each school year. A standard form or template for the student plans has not been introduced. More than student assessment the student plans are a means of informing the parents of the student s progress. It is tradition and part of the responsibility of the school boards to determine the specific principles for notifying the homes regarding the students learning outcomes and regarding any additional cooperation between school and home that is to take place within the framework established by the individual municipal boards. (http://eng.uvm.dk/education/primary-and-lower-secondary- Education/The-Folkeskole/Evaluation-Tests-Student-and-Plans) KEY APPROACHES TO LITERACY TEACHING As mentioned above, the Common objectives are national guidelines which are interpreted locally. Therefore Danish teachers have a rather extended autonomy when it comes to planning and organising their teaching in order to meet the Common objectives. However, many primary schools use commercially published schemes for teaching reading, phonics, grammar, handwriting, punctuation etc. The National Centre for Reading has carried out an online survey among Danish teachers to identify classroom practices concerning text writing and reading in Danish public schools. The survey can be divided into three parts: Teacher s background, Teaching writing and Teaching reading. A total of 97 teachers 6

7 participated in the survey and over 90% of them are teaching Danish primarily in the year 1-6 levels. More than 50% of the respondents indicate that writing is taught by first analysing and modelling similar texts in class. But the students still do a lot of writing on their own and only sometimes texts are written together in class. Reading in the class room is mostly done silently but also in groups. The most common teaching strategy when teaching reading is to explain the content and the purpose of the text and check if the students have understood the content. Students read and write the same type of texts but recounts and narrative texts seem to dominate the written work. The results of the survey are conditioned by the fact that the number of respondents is relatively low and the fact that most of the respondents are reading consultants and therefore very attentive to both reading and writing. Bearing this in mind, however, this survey shows the presence of intentions to work explicitly with both reading and writing in the Danish public schools. STUDENT LITERACY ACHIEVEMENT Denmark took part in The International Association for the Evaluation of Education Achievement (IEA) in 1991 and the result was shocking. The score of the Danish students was very low compared to countries with the same socio-economic level. Following studies (1996: Nordlæs, 1998 Danlæs (Danish Reading) and Folkeskolen år 2000 (Folkeskolen Year 2000)) had the same result: Danish students in third grade were reading significantly worse than students in third grade in the other Nordic countries. In eighth grade, the Danish students matched the other Nordic students, but they still were slow readers. The Ministry of Education decided that Denmark should participate in the OECDprogram.. Denmark participated for the first time in the PISA The result from Denmark (495 points) is just above the average of the other participating countries (493 points) but compared with the Nordic countries, Denmark still holds the last position. 7

8 (http://www.uvm.dk/uddannelser-og-dagtilbud/folkeskolen/de-nationale-test-ogevaluering/internationaleevalueringer/pisa/~/media/uvm/filer/udd/folke/pdf11/110920_hovedresultater_pi SA_2009.ashx.ashx) PIRLS 2006 showed that in fourth grade, reading performance had increased with the equivalent of one school year since 1991, but no changes in reading scores from PISA 2000 to PISA 2009 have been recorded. Instead, the reading results show an impressive stability over the years. The difference between 2000 and 2009 is minus 2 points. One possible explanation for the absence of progression despite reforms may be that basic reading skills, which are all strong predictors of reading competence, are no longer in focus when subject teaching, including increased attention to literature in the teaching of Danish, is introduced from third grade and assigned crucial importance from seventh grade. Other possible explanations could be a rise of 2.4 % from 2000 to 2009 in number of students with immigrant background, the fact that students read less for pleasure and that more schools have a high proportion of immigrant students and native students from low socio-economic backgrounds. 8

9 NATIONAL TESTING As a part of the process of evaluating the students learning outcomes, a range of obligatory national tests have been introduced. The tests are to be used in order to able to follow the individual student s acquisition of knowledge and skills so that the education process can be planned to a greater extent according to the individual student s strengths, weaknesses and potential. In Danish, students must complete a test with a focus on reading (language comprehension, decoding and text comprehension) in form levels 2, 4, 6 and 8. Latest addition to the national tests is an optional test in Danish as a second language in form levels 5 and 7. The tests are computer based and adaptive, meaning that they are continuously adapted to the individual student. If a student answers a question incorrectly, then he is given an easier question; if the student answers correctly, he is given a more difficult question. In this way, it is assured that the tests provide a precise picture of each student s academic level. No two students receive the exact same test. It is therefore not possible to make internal comparative evaluations of the tests within a specific class. The test is one of a number of pedagogical tools available to the teacher. Together with the results of the evaluation, which the teachers also make use of, these tools are to be used in the planning of the further programme of education. The results are also used in guiding the individual student and will additionally be beneficial in strengthening cooperation with parents. The parents are therefore to be informed in writing about the results of the tests. Information concerning test results for individual students, groups of students, teams, classes, schools, municipalities and regions etc., is to be kept confidential, with the exception of the reporting on a national level. The test results will therefore similarly not be covered under the Public Administration Act s regulations regarding the right to public access to information. Finally, the exercises included in the tests will also be kept confidential. 9

10 EVALUATION As a part of the education process, regular evaluations of the students learning outcomes are to be carried out. The evaluations are to gauge the students level in terms of acquiring the knowledge and skills in the subjects and topics in accordance with the level and end objectives. The evaluations are to form the basis for providing guidance to the individual student and for the further planning and organisation of the teaching as well as being a tool for assisting in keeping the parents informed of the students learning outcomes. It is made clear that the regular evaluations of the students learning outcomes must be in accordance with the level and end objectives of the individual subjects as they are defined under Common Objectives. Final examinations At the conclusion of form levels 9 and 10, Folkeskole students sit for school-leaving examinations. This is compulsory after form level 9 but voluntary after the 10th. The final examinations test the students achievements in fulfilling the goals in the Common Objectives. Standard rules for all examinations ensure uniformity throughout the country. The examinations include among other subjects: written and oral examinations in Danish. STAFF AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN DENMARK The results of the international and Danish assessment initiatives led to a significant number of school policy reforms in Denmark. First of all, the Common Objectives, National tests, an increased number of lessons, individual student plans and a strategic education of reading consultants at all schools. The Ministry of Education appointed a committee to prepare a National Action Plan for Reading, leading to the following: Language screening of all three year olds in kindergarten and an intensive training of pedagogues in kindergartens and day-care. Pre-school class is now mandatory Reading consultants at a municipal level, employed by the municipalities and responsible for the political organisation of implementing literacy at all levels of the education system. 10

11 Establishing the National Centre for Reading. Teacher Training Teacher training is performed at seven different University Colleges in Denmark. University Colleges are non-profit institutions under public administration. University colleges offer professional bachelor programmes as well as in-service training and other relevant courses. The age-specialized main subjects (Danish, Math, Science) are aimed at teaching at either the beginner and intermediate level or the intermediate and final level of the school. Teacher training - B. Ed. programme for primary and lower secondary takes 4 years to complete, corresponding to 240 points in the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS points). A student s fulltime work for one year corresponds to 60 ECTS point. The subject Danish (age specialized) is 72 ECTS points. (http://eng.uvm.dk/fact-sheets/higher-education/teacher-training-b- Ed-programme-for-primary-and-lower-secondary-school-teachers) In-service teacher training The University Colleges, other than offering pre-service teacher training, also offer various in-service teacher training, including professional diplomas, e.g. reading consultant. Occasionally, the municipalities organise in-service teacher training at a smaller or larger scale locally. In 2011 the Danish Union of Teachers (DLF) has launched a reading project with a bottom-up perspective: Reading for life hoping that the project will be a catalyst for a national effort regarding reading competencies. The idea of subject-related reading and writing, primarily in lower secondary school, is essential for the reading project. In short terms, subject-related reading considers work with reading and writing as not only the Danish teachers task but as a task for all subject teachers. E.g. the subject teachers have to work with reading and understanding in relation to subject texts. The objectives of the project are to contribute to reducing the number of students who leave the basic school with poor reading competencies 11

12 to create involvement and knowledge about reading with teachers in all subjects and thus work improving the reading efforts in the entire schooling and in all subjects to show the politicians a way to make school policy and school development, without several central legal initiatives. (http://www.dlf.org/english/reading+for+life) National Centre for Reading Since 2006, as a national centre with reference to first the Ministry of Education and later to all of the University Colleges, the National Centre for Reading also offers inservice teacher education by organising courses and conferences for reading consultants, teachers and teacher trainers, including courses in Systemic Functional Grammar. REFERENCES Allerup, Peter & Mejding, Jan (2007): Danlæs. Copenhagen: Dansk Psykologisk Forlag, Forlaget Skolepsykologi. Egelund, Niels (editor) (2012): Northern Lights on PISA 2009 focus on reading. TemaNord 2012:501. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers. Can be found at: Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Kennedy, A.M., & Foy, P. (2007). PIRLS 2006 international report: IEA's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study in primary schools in 40 countries. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College. Can be found at: Lau, Jytte, Mejding, Jan & Sommer, Marianne (1996): Nordlæs - en nordisk undersøgelse af læsefærdigheder i Klasse. University of Aarhus/DPU Reports on the initiatives taken to improve reading skills in the Danish Folkeskole: Rapport fra Udvalget til forberedelse af en national handlingsplan for læsning, Undervisningsministeriet (Ministry of Education) Danmarks Evalueringsinstitut (2005): Læsning i folkeskolen. Indsatsen for at fremme elevernes læsefærdigheder. Copenhagen. Can be found at: 12

13 Web pages: The Ministry of Children and Education: Common objectives (Fælles mål): The Danish Union of Teachers: Eurybase on the Education System in Denmark: ucation_system.ashx Key kompetencies for Lifelong Learing: 2. Sample Lesson Plans - Denmark LITTERATURE The following lesson plan is from a class in the last year of lower secondary class in the Danish Folkeskole. The subject is Danish and the theme is older literature. Old narratives is often a difficult genre to handle both in reading and writing. The lesson plan is made over a sample from the short story the Ring of Karen Blixen. The teachers from the class has emphasized that the greatest problem in older literature is to understand the symbolic language. The aim of the lesson is therefore to understand and to master the symbolic language and how to come from a concrete reading to a symbolic reading. In short terms, the plot in the excerpt chosen for the detailed reading is as follows: A young wife of a rich farmer walks into a forest and here she meets a wounded sheep thief. He pulls his knife against her but instead of being afraid she drops her white handkerchief. He takes the handkerchief and wraps it around the knife and puts it back in the scabbard, and suddenly it fits perfectly. The excerpt has a clearly sexual connotation, but it also implies that the young wife under the scene incorporates some of the sheep thief s more dark and dangerous nature while the thief achieves some of the farmer s wife s more innocent nature. 13

14 R2L Lektionsplan/ R2L Lesson plan klasse og måned Tekst: Karen Blixen Ringen, 1958 Læringsmål: (Emne og indhold, teksttypen, sprog): At få kendskab til forskellen mellem billed- og realplan. At få kendskab til anvendelsen af symbolsprog til at skabe et billedplan i realplanet At få en god forståelse for detaljeret læsnings betydning for at kunne læse mellem linierne - > læseredskab Slutmål skrivning: At kunne benytte sig af symbolernes virkemidler til at skabe to skriftlige tekster. Én tekst, der beskriver den reelle handling og en anden tekst, der beskriver handlingen på billedplanet, den overførte betydningen af den symbolske fortælling. Forberedelse til læsning (Preparing before Reading) Ovenstående link er virkelig værd at læse, og giver en god forståelse af tekstens budskab - og den symbolske fortælling:-) Baggrundsviden: Historiske ramme; Historien foregår I starten af 1800-tallet altså for over 200 år siden, men er skrevet for 55 år siden Karen Blixen typiske træk ved hendes tekster. Hvad skal man lægge særlig mærke til? Karen Blixen ( ) skrev symbolske fortællinger, hvor menneskers skæbne og livshistorie er de absolutte omdrejningspunkter. Forfatterskabet er for en stor del 14

15 atypisk for sin tid, da historierne sædvanligvis foregår i aristokratiske miljøer i tiden ca Men forfatterskabet skriver sig samtidig ind i sin samtid ved at beskæftige sig med det oprindelige, det primitive, som også var litteraturtendensen i Danmark i 1920-erne og 1930-erne. Og det eksistentielle aspekt, der er til stede i stort set alle fortællingerne, var en tendens i 1940-ernes øvrige danske litteratur. Så set i det lys var Karen Blixen moderne og på linje med sin tid. Hendes historier er bygget op over "de store fortællinger"s mønster. Dvs. at forfatteren er en stedfortræder for den skabende Gud og med sin fortælling skaber et ordnet billede af verden. Flere historier er skrevet efter "det kinesiske æskeprincip", hvor én historie ligger inden i en anden historie, som igen ligger inden i en tredje osv. Der er et gennemgående fortællende forløb i teksterne og opbyggelige budskaber. Hendes fortællinger betyder altid noget andet og mere end det, der umiddelbart fortælles. Interview med Karen Blixen - Dette klip viser HW ikke Reference til andre historiske tekster (deres erfaringer med tekster) Læse med symbolsk forståelse (husk f.eks. Kammen ) hvad betød Kammen som symbol? Referat af tekst: - læses inden teksten læses, så det kan forstå forskellen ml. realplan og billedplan Teksten er på det reelle plan en enkel historie, der handler om et ungt, nygift par, Konrad og Lovise, der går en tur ned over deres marker. Her møder de Mathias som passer fårene. Han fortæller dem, at der er en fåretyv, som har dræbt flere får hos naboen. Han fortæller også, at fåretyven er blevet såret. Lovise forlader de to mænd og går ind I en skov, hvor hun tidligere har fundet et særligt sted, som er en rund lysning med det fineste bløde græs. Da hun finder stedet, opdager hun, at fåretyven er der. De to har et kort møde, hvor de ikke siger noget til hinanden, men tyven får Lovises lommetørklæde, og svøber det om sin kniv. Lovise taber samtidig sin vielsesring, da hun vil give den til fåretyven. Efter mødet løber Louise tilbage til Konrad, men fortæller ham ikke om mødet med fåretyven. Hun fortæller blot, at hun har tabt sin ring, og Konrad siger, at han vil bestille en ny. På billedplanen er det måske mere en historie om fornuft og følelser. Om tryghed og 15

16 faste rammer på den ene side og frihed på den anden side. I sidste ende er det måske en historie om at være en pæn og ordentlig pige i modsætning til at være en mere fri og løssluppen og følge sine lyster. Historien er fyldt med symboler og billeder der leder os i den retning. Ægteskabet mellem Lovise og Konrad står på den ene side som billedet på det fornuftige og pæne selvom der på ingen måder er tvivl i teksten om at de elsker hinanden. Med historien om fårene og fåretyven bliver vi ført over i den anden verden. Fårene kan her ses som det uskyldige og rene som er blevet dræbt af en fåretyv. Fåretyven kommer derfor til at stå som det modsatte af alt hvad Konrad og ægteskabet med Lovise står for. I det udsnit af teksten vi skal arbejde med, møder Lise fåretyven og kommer derfor til at stå imellem de to modsætninger ægteskabet med Konrad og det farlige, men også frie og lystbetonede i fåretyven. Personerne: Lovise / Lise: Vi får meget lidt at vide om Lises udseende, men vi får at vide, at hun er 19 år gammel og har smukt hår. Vi får at vide at Konrad og hende har kendt hinanden længe og at hun kommer fra en rig adelsfamilie, mens Konrad kommer fra knap så rige kår. De har fået lov til at gifte sig, fordi de har været meget ihærdige/vedholdende. Lise beskriver selv, at hun er lykkelig og at hun føler sig fri. Er uvidende -> ikke lærd - > kun dannet til at begå sig blandt de rige på daværende tidspunkt. Konrad: I får ligeledes meget lidt at vide om Konrads udseende. Konrad vil gå igennem ild og vand for hans elskede Lovise. Konrad har studeret fåreavl I Mecklenburg og England. Han er derfor en berejst og nytænkende og udviklende mand inden for fåreavl. Konrad beskriver fåretyven som en stakkels djævel som viser at Konrad har et nuanceret verdens- og menneskesyn, modsat Lovises, der er meget sort / hvidt. Stedet: Lovise er vokset op som adelsdatter - > hører til aristokratiet - det øverste lag i samfundspyramiden Konrad er søn af en fåreavler -> tilhører middelklassen - har været ude i verden for at studere fåreavl Referat af det udvalgte tekststykke: ( Læses og bearbejdes midt i tekstforløbet - da den symbolske betydning ellers erfaringsmæssigt vil gå hen over hovedet på eleverne) - (eleverne har læst teksten og har fået introduceret Karen Blixens forfatterskab) Karen Blixen gør her brug tydeligt brug af billedsproget i en reel handling, beskrevet i 16

17 overført betydning. Det lille tekststykke handler om: Lovise er gået ind i skoven, og i lysningen møder hun manden (manden er fåretyven). I dette tekststykke, sker, der en forandring med Lovise. Dette tekststykke er netop hele essensen af Karen Blixens budskab. Lige inden vi kommer ind i historien har Lise tabt sit lommetørklæde / hvide kammerdug ned på skovbunden. Selvom de seksuelle toner er meget tydelige i teksten er det ikke sikkert vi skal opfatte det sådan at de to har sex. Måske skal det mere forstås sådan at Lise mister sin uskyld på en anden måde, måske bliver hun mere fri fordi hun finder en anden side af sig selv. Fåretyven kan derfor ses som en side af Lise. Den frie og mere naturlige pige frem for den meget dannede pige, der bare skal være, fordi kulturen en gang diktere, at sådan skulle piger være på dette tidspunkt og denne samfundsklasse hun tilhørte - aristokratiet. 2. Tekstuddraget læser vi først i fællesskab, og til sidst tager vi sætningerne en efter en. I skal efter læsningen selv være i stand til at formulere symbolske indhold med jeres egne ord - alle understreger med understregningstusch. 3. Når vi læser teksten på denne måde, er det, fordi I skal have et redskab til at få øje på, hvordan et en symbolsk tekst - kan have en dobbelt betydning: realplan / billedplan 4. Når teksten er læst, skal eleverne én efter én / eller undertegnede med elevernes hjælp genskabe indholdet fra teksten med deres egne ord fælles tekst 5. På baggrund af den fælles tekst skal de genskabe en symbolsk tekst Detaljeret læsning, lektionsplan/ Detailed Reading Lesson plan Sætning 1: Sentence prep Den først sætning fortæller om, hvordan fåretyven rækker ud efter Lise for at tage hendes uskyld fra hende. Cues Sentence 1 Hvad gør fåretyven på det reelle plan? Han rakte armen ned og tog hendes lommetørklæde op 17

18 Elaborations Sætning 2: Sentence prep Hvad er det der gør, at vi kan få lommetørklædet til at blive et symbol på Lises uskyld? Her bliver vi nødt til at gå længere ind i teksten, og se hvordan lommetørklædet er beskrevet: I den næste sætning får vi at vide, at manden er betaget af Lovise, og hvordan han forbereder sig på at tage hendes uskyld Cues Sentence 2 Elaborations 1. I starten af sætningen er der 7 ord, der fortæller os, at han er betaget af hende. Hvilke 7 ord? 2. Lige efter får vi på realplanet at vide, at han trækker noget frem. Hvad trækker han frem? hvor tager han den fra 3. Om det lange knivsblad svøber han et stykke stof - hvilke tre ord beskriver det? Uden at tage øjnene fra hendes ansigt trak han igen kniven ud af skeden, og svøbte det lille lette stykke kammerdug omkring det lange knivsblad 1. Fåretyven holder hende fast med sit blik 2. På billedplanet er kniven et fallossymbol. Et fallossymbol er et symbol på det erigerede mandlige kønsorgan. Som I kan se er det her ret hæftige sager. Vi har altså noget der minder om noget pornografisk, men måske skal vi forstå det anderledes eller på et andet plan. 3. Det lille lette stykke kammerdug er et billede på den uskyldsrene Lovise. En kammerdug er et meget fint og dyrt stykke stof, som kun overklassen havde adgang til. Det viser derfor at Lise er en fin pige fra en rig familie. Kammerdugen kan derfor være et symbol på den Lise er: en fin, uskyldsren pige. Når fåretyven derfor svøber kammerdugen rundt om kniven, er det et symbol på at de bliver en del af hinanden, eller at han tager noget af hendes uskyld fra hende. Sætning 3 Sentence prep Den næste sætning viser, at han er såret. Det viser, at han har det vanskeligt. 18

19 Cues Sentence 3 Elaborations Sætning 4 Sentence prep Cues Sentence 4 1. Hvilke tre ord sidst i sætningen fortæller, hvorfor det var vanskeligt for ham, at udføre det han gerne vil Det var vanskeligt for ham at få gjort, fordi hans ene arm var brækket Flere gange i teksten bliver fåretyven beskrevet som et såret dyr, så måske er det her et billede på at han har vanskeligt ved at rokke ved Lises uskyld. Det viser at det at tage uskylden fra hende er smertefuld. Den næste sætning beskriver, hvordan der begynder at ske en forvandling med fåretyven. 1. Det tredje ord i sætningen fortæller os, hvordan han knokler på - hvad er ordet der dækker over det hårde arbejde 2. Der to ens ord, der viser, at han skifter ansigtsfarve - hvilken farve? 3. De tre sidste ord i sætningen viser, hvor meget den hvide farve lyser op Mens han stræbte med det, blev hans ansigt, under snavset og blodet, hvidere og hvidere, indtil det næsten lyste som fosfor Elaborations Sætning 5 1. at stræbe efter noget, betyder altså at man både ønsker noget og arbejder hårdt for at opnå det. 2. hvorfor tror I at han bliver hvidere og hvidere? 3. Fosfor er i sin rene form selvlysende. Hvordan tror I fåretyven ser ud nu? Kan I huske noget andet der var hvid i historien? (fårene og Lise) (vi talte om at der var en modsætning mellem det hvide og det sorte). Viser det at Lise og fåretyven bliver et Det hvide og uskyldsrene fra Lise kommer over i fåretyven. Den næste sætning har meget tydelige seksuelle toner og 19

20 Sentence prep Cues Sentence 5 Elaborations Sætning 6 Sentence prep Cues Sentence 6 Elaborations minder meget om et samleje. 1. Næsten først i sætningen er der 3 ord, der fortæller os, hvad han tager fat i og hvordan - hvilke 3 ord? Idet han famlede ved kniven med begge hænder, tvang han den igen ned i skeden 1. Famlede er en handling, der udtrykker usikkerhed, tøven, ivrighed, nervøsitet 2. når hans hænder tvinger kniven i skeden betyder det at han gør det voldsomt. Når man tvinger nogen, gør man det også mod ens vilje. 2. Billedplanet viser hans maskulinitet og han tager magten Billedet her er meget tydeligt at vi har kniven og skeden. Men igen er det ikke sikkert at vi skal opfatte det så bogstaveligt. Her betyder det snarere at de bliver forenet og dermed får noget fra hinanden. Den næste sætning fortæller os, at kammerdugen får kniven og skeden til at passe sammen. 1. I starten af sætningen får vi med 3 beskrevet, at noget er forkert - hvilke 3 ord? 2. Lige efter får vi den første mulige grund til, skeden var for stor - hvilken? 3. Lidt efter får vi den anden grund - hvilken? 4. til sidst får vi at vide hvad der får den til at passe Enten var skeden for stor, og havde aldrig passet til kniven, eller også var bladet tyndslidt, - kniven, med lommetørklædet om sig, gled ind Det er således lommetørklædet der får kniven til at passe til skeden. Som I kan se var der noget der ikke passede før. Kniven, tekstens fallos, passede ikke i skeden, men det gør den nu hvor den har fået lommetørklædet om sig. Hvis lommetørklædet er et symbol på uskyld, kan det betyde at Lise 20

21 må give noget af sin uskyld fra sig for at få den dyriske vildskab som fåretyven symboliserer til at passe sammen med hende selv. Sætning 7 Sentence prep Cues Den sidste sætning fortæller os at fåretyven har opnået det han ville og giver slip på Lise 1. i den første del af sætningen ser vi hvordan fåretyven kigger på Lise? - hvilke tre ord 2. Senere får vi beskrevet, hvordan han ser ud i ansigtet - det er fire ord, der fortæller dette. 3. til sidst i sætningen, får vi at vide, hvad han gør Sentence 7 Elaborations Endnu i to eller tre sekunder hvilede hans blik på hende, - så løftede han sit ansigt, endnu gennemlyst af den forunderlige fosforglans, og lukkede øjnene. 1. Hvad vil det sige at man lader sit blik hvile. Læg mærke til ordet hvile 2. Kan I se ham for jer. Hvordan ser man ud når man har en fosforglans. Som vi sagde før er fosfor selvlysende (helgen eller kristusfigur). Dette kan jo minde om et seksuelt klimaks, men måske handler det mere om at fåretyven finder fred eller at det som fåretyven står for bliver en del af Lise, fordi han har frataget hende noget af hendes uskyld. The challenge in these particular lesson plans is to elaborate the understanding of the text in a more symbolic direction. The teacher needs here to make two elaborations: one on the concrete understanding of the words or chunks and one on the symbolic understanding. The blue print in detailed reading is an addition to the elaboration of the single words or chunks where the teacher interprets the symbolic reading of the sentence. 21

22 BIOLOGY Lesson plan example: year 9 Biology (based on log book and field notes from observations in class and talks with the involved teacher) The subject biology is highly theoretical in year nine, hence the students are expected to read and learn from texts. The biology teacher at Elsted School in the municipality of Aarhus, Michael, is a trained teacher, but since he is a science and PE-teacher, he has not received any specific training in language and literacy. Before the intervention, Michael would not teach how to read the texts in the textbook, but rather tell the students to read the texts at home on their own prior biology lessons, and then talk around and about the content in class. However, in Michael s experience, this approach to texts was not enough for a significantly large part of his class. Michael s first attempts with the R2L approach were fumbling, but even though both students and he found the lesson rather long-drawn and boring, the effects from especially the detailed reading activity were clear. The topic of the first R2L-lesson was rainforests, and weeks after the students still remembered and used the terms and expressions regarding fungus growth on the rain forest floor. Preparing before reading appealed to the biology teacher, but also in this case, he found it difficult to give a focused and precise introduction to the highly theoretical content in intelligible terms. However, convinced by the values of the strategies, Michael continued to develop lesson plans to use in class. The example quoted below shows how Michael has come to master the strategies, from choosing texts, analyzing texts and inventing new and relevant ways to reconstruct texts and content in new ways. Instead of choosing the next chapter in the Biology text book, Michaels has critically chosen well written and well-structured texts to work with which represent the content in a precise and comprehensive way. The lesson plan quoted below uses a text from netdoktor.dk (a website aimed at the general public written by doctors), it is a well-structured explanation about the blood circulation in humans. klasse 9.z Lærer Michael A. Villadsen 22

23 Undervisningsmål Økosystemer Genre Fagtekst om regnskoven som økosystem. Teksten er fra bogsystemet Ind i biologien Økosystemer Fælles Mål, trinmål Formålet med undervisningen i biologi er, at eleverne tilegner sig viden om organismer, natur, miljø og sundhed med vægt på forståelsen af grundlæggende biologiske begreber, biologiske sammenhænge og på vigtige anvendelser af biologi. Undervisningen skal give eleverne fortrolighed med naturvidenskabelige arbejdsformer og betragtningsmåder og indblik i, hvordan biologi - og biologisk forskning - i samspil med de andre naturfag bidrager til vores forståelse af verden. Stk. 2. Undervisningen skal anvende varierede arbejdsformer og i vidt omfang bygge på elevernes egne iagttagelser og undersøgelser, bl.a. ved laboratorie- og feltarbejde. Undervisningen skal udvikle elevernes interesse og nysgerrighed over for natur, biologi, naturvidenskab og teknik og give dem lyst til at lære mere. Stk. 3. Undervisningen skal bidrage til, at eleverne erkender, at naturvidenskab og teknologi er en del af vores kultur og verdensbillede. Elevernes ansvarlighed over for natur, miljø og sundhed skal videreudvikles, så de får tillid til egne muligheder for stillingtagen og handlen i forhold til spørgsmål om menneskets samspil med naturen lokalt og globalt. Fælles mål efter 9. klasse. Den levende organisme og dens omgivende natur - kende nogle økologiske forskelle på udvalgte danske og udenlandske økosystemer, herunder betydningen af klimaforhold, jordbundsforhold, økosystemets alder og årstider - gøre rede for udvalgte græsnings- og nedbryderfødekæder - beskrive den biologiske betydning af energistrømme samt udvalgte kredsløb i forskellige økosystemer - anvende viden om udvalgte organismer og deres livsytringer i forhold til deres placering i fødenet og tilpasning til levesteder. - 23

24 Indhold sprog Regnskov, økosystem, plantemateriale, planteproduktion, plantestof, pr. ha, tons, nedbrydes, temperatur, luftfugtighed, termitter, jordboende, organisk materiale, svampe, bakterier, næringsstoffer, stofomsætning, genbrug, muldlag, dyrkning, rødder, mykorrhiza, fotosyntese, sukkerstoffer, hyfer, lokaliteten Titel på tekst uge 38 Frodig skov på ufrugtbar jord Forberedelse til læsning (Preparation for Reading) Baggrundsviden Teksten vi nu skal læse handler om regnskoven, men der indgår også en sammenligning af regnskoven med dansk skov. Det der fokuseres på i dette afsnit er næringsstofferne, planternes byggesten. Teksten forklarer hvor i regnskoven næringsstofferne befinder sig. Referat af tekst Teksten vi skal læse er en informerende fagtekst som beskriver stofomsætningen i regnskoven i sammenligning med en dansk skov. Omdrejningspunktet er næringsstofferne og deres placering i økosystemet. Teksten er delt op i 5 mindre afsnit. I det første afsnit får vi en kort beskrivelse af hvor meget plantemateriale regnskoven producerer. Mængden beskrives i tons pr. ha og angives til for regnskoven at være gennemsnitlig 22 tons plantestof. Til sammenligning produceres i en dansk skov 12 tons. I det andet afsnit gives en overordnet beskrivelse af hvordan stofomsætningen foregår i regnskoven. Der redegøres for hvordan dødt organisk materiale nedbrydes hurtigt og effektivt i regnskovens miljø som er fugtigt og med en høj temperatur. Baggrunden for denne effektive nedbrydning uddybes ved at der i regnskoven jordbund findes termitter og andre dyr som lever af og dermed omsætter det døde organiske materiale. Derudover findes der svampe og bakterier som ligeledes bidrager til nedbrydningen. Resultatet af nedbrydningen er frigivelse af næringsstoffer. Pga. den høje stofomsætning i regnskoven optages alle frigivne næringsstoffer hurtigt. I tredje afsnit beskrives stofomsætningen i den danske skov for at give et eksempel til sammenligning. Nedbrydningen foregår langsommere i den danske skov. Optaget af næringsstoffer er ikke fuldstændig hvilket bevirker at en større mængde næringsstoffer findes i muldlaget under skoven. 24

25 I fjerde afsnit problematiseres fældning af regnskoven. Da der er stor forskel på hvor næringsstofferne befinder sig i de skovtyper vil man med forskellig succes kunne udnytte jorden til landbrug efter fældning. I den danske skov er jorden rig på næringsstoffer vil derfor kunne bruges til landbrug. I regnskoven fjerner man næringsstofferne ved fældning plantestofferne da de fleste næringsstoffer er gemt her. Jorden fra regnskov vil derfor hurtigt blive udpint og være udyrkbar. Sidste afsnit beskriver et særligt samarbejde mellem visse træer og bestemte svampe. Dette samarbejde består i en udveksling af henholdsvis næringsstoffer og sukkerstoffer. Svampene modtager sukkerstoffer fra træerne som de har produceret ved fotosyntese. Til gengæld modtager træet næringsstoffer og vand fra svampene. Svampene optager næringsstofferne og vandet fra jorden ved hjælp af hyfer. Hyfer er lange hvide tråde som svampen består. Træernes rødder og svampene vokser ved dette samarbejde sammen og kaldes en mykorrhiza. Et samarbejde til gensidig fordel mellem to organismer kaldes også symbiose. Year Two Outputs Outline of Teacher Training Programs - Denmark The overall approach to the teacher training programme was action learning based with four interventions throughout the school year. Initially the teachers participated in a whole day seminar, either in Aarhus or Copenhagen, introducing Reading to Learn with a specific focus on detailed reading. Subsequently the teachers worked first collaboratively with the project group members and then individually in their respective classes constructing lesson plans. To develop the use of the method, each teacher has met with the project group member four times as a minimum throughout the year. Another part of the teachers qualification has been attendance at Danish National Cluster Meetings, at one of which David Rose was a keynote speaker. For the 25

26 teachers the function of the national meetings has been partly to inform them about the progress of the project, partly for them to present their own work and share their experiences with each other and the cluster in general. Another whole day seminar focusing on assessment was scheduled in April, but this was cancelled due to a major conflict between teachers and their employers, a national four week long lockout. When reading and considering the Danish results it must be taken into account that the above mentioned conflict has had a major impact on the outcomes of the project. In May and June, the focus of the teachers has primarily been to compensate for lost teaching time. Another consequence of this conflict was the postponement of our last national cluster meeting until November Time and place August th August Aarhus and Copenhagen August-September at the schools August-September at the schools 24th October Copenhagen Programme Collecting pre-texts and year plans Whole day seminar for the participant teachers Joint construction of lesson plans Project group: observation of teaching Conference: Danish Cluster. Copenhagen. Workshops and Dr. David Rose. October at the schools Independent construction of lesson plans. Project group observation of teaching January-February 2013 at the schools February-March 2013 at the schools 28th February 2013 Copenhagen Project group visits schools Project group visits schools Conference: Danish Cluster. Copenhagen 26

27 22th April 2013 Aarhus and Copenhagen Whole day seminar for the participant teachers Cancelled due to teacher lockout 16th May 2013 Copenhagen Conference: Danish Cluster. Copenhagen Postponed due to teacher lockout Outline of teacher training in DK The teacher training programme was initiated in August The Danish teachers were given a broad introduction to genre pedagogy with regards to history, context and different branches, thus provided with a framework and a contextualization of Reading to Learn. Initially there was a focus on sentence making, both in relation to fiction and nonfiction texts, and the teachers were taught how to make a lesson plan in their respective subjects and classes. It was also in this phase that an outline of the whole project was planned collaboratively, as the teachers related the work with reading to learns with the socalled year plans (which are compulsory in DK). Later on the teachers were introduced to other parts of the R2L-cycle, i.e. sentence making, preparing before reading. A well-functioning cluster of academics, researchers, teacher trainers, teachers and administrative people have been summoned four times during the project. They have taken part in some of the teacher training, and have thus qualified especially the teachers reflections on the method. Below is a plan providing an overview of the activities involving the participating teachers: Time and place Activitiy content Wednesday, August 22nd :00-15:00 UCC, Titangade 11, 2200 Kbh. N 1st seminar Information about the project, R2L in practice August/ september 2012 At the schools 1st school visit Planning on the intervention, Preparation of lesson plan, Collection of pre-intervention learner 27

28 Wednesday, October 24th 2012 Kl. 10:00 16:00 Titangade 11, 2200 Kbh. N October 2012 At the schools Inspiration with Australian researchers 2nd school visit texts Reading tests Mary Macken-Horarik, University of New England and David Rose. 1st intervention observation and evaluation November th Februar rd school visit National meeting with the cluster The teachers plan a detailed reading. Obvervation of something the teachers have planned themselves Exchange and discussions of the experiences so far through market place activities Master classes/ workshops on the following issues: Reflections before you start, Preparing before reading, detailed reading, joint construction, sentence making and paragraph by paragraph reading January Marts 2013 At the schools Monday April 22nd 9:00-15:00 UCC, Titangade 11, 2200 Kbh. N May 16th also cancelled due to conflict, postponed till Friday, 29th of November th and 5 th visit to schools 2.seminar Teachers and cluster group meeting/ seminar Observation, Q and A, collaborative planning Cancelled due to teacher conflict/ lockout Discussion of the reslults of the project 28

29 4. Sample classroom implementation sequences (Danish) Integrating the reading pedagogy with national curricula After taking part in the scheduled R2L-training and coaching by the national experts, the Danish teachers began developing and using their own lesson plans. The lesson plan below shows how this year-4 Danish teacher made use of the same texts and materials as she used before taking on the R2L-pedagogy and even integrating the pedagogy in ways, she did not think would be possible or even fruitful in the beginning. This particular teacher questioned if the pedagogy and especially the genre-theory would be applicable on some of the most read children s books in Denmark, as they are characterized by genre hybridity and intertextuality, aspects of the literary analysis that is not addressed in the training materials. This teacher used the pedagogy to show to read between and behind the lines, how to co-construct meaning as they read, and how to analyze the small poem-like texts square-stories who are linguistically very accessible for children, but structurally and philosophically very complex works of art. In the independent writing, the children showed how they had become to master this particular literary sub-genre. Udkast til detaljeret læsning på et udvalg af Louis Jensen hundrede historier. Charlotte Ipsen, Elsted Skole. Orientering Ramme: + formel En gang var der Titel: 100 historier En gang var der Antikomplikation HJEMME konkret plan omvendt Problem Løsning En munter bager, der lavede en særlig slags kager [ ] Bageren er ikke sur no, problem En munter bager bager kager, der synger, og gerne vil spises i en grad, så de leverer sig selv. Kagerne er meget spiselige no, problem 27n 29

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