CAND.MERC.INT. COPENHAGEN BUSINESS SCHOOL NOVEMBER 2013 PROJECT LEADERSHIP. the Fuel of Project Management. Rasmus Gregers Sørensen

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1 CAND.MERC.INT. COPENHAGEN BUSINESS SCHOOL NOVEMBER 2013 PROJECT LEADERSHIP the Fuel of Project Management Rasmus Gregers Sørensen STU count: (77,4) Supervisor: Eric Guthey Department of Intercultural Communication and Management

2 Abstract I explore why the reality of project leadership differs from the project management and project leadership literature through a series of qualitative interviews. I find that leadership should be part of project management to a much greater extent than is the case in the current literature, as the reality of project leadership is more advanced than the literature. My research indicates that leadership plays an increasingly big part in projects as it helps project managers motivate team members and improve the results of the projects. The project management and project leadership literature give similar definitions of leadership in projects, as both perceive leadership to be when a leader creates a shared vision, motivates and engages others in order to achieve a desired outcome. Even though leadership is already a part of the literatures, the project management literature merely treats it as an afterthought with basic and practical leadership theories in the forefront. In the project leadership literature, leadership theories are more thoroughly described, but remain similar to the project management literature. Finally, I argue that leadership should be integrated with project management, making it more of project leadership, rather than just leadership in project management as a way of making sure the project management literature corresponds to the reality of project managers. 1

3 Table of contents ABSTRACT...1 TABLE OF CONTENTS...2 TABLE OF FIGURES...4 TABLE OF APPENDICES...5 INTRODUCTION...6 MOTIVATION...7 RESEARCH CONTEXT...7 RESEARCH QUESTION...9 DEFINITIONS...9 STRUCTURE METHODOLOGY PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE Critical realism EMPIRICAL DOMAIN A multiple case study Qualitative interviews VERIFICATION OF THE EMPIRICAL DOMAIN Validity Reliability LIMITATIONS OF THE QUALITATIVE METHOD THEORETICAL FIELDS Project management Project leadership Leadership THE CONTRIBUTION OF THIS THESIS LITERATURE REVIEW LEADERSHIP IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT LITERATURE Internal leadership roles External leadership roles Different roles Summary of leadership in project management literature PROJECT LEADERSHIP LITERATURE Project leadership defined Different roles Summary of project leadership literature LEADERSHIP LITERATURE Situational Leadership Theory

4 Transformational Leadership Theory Complexity Leadership Theory Summary of leadership literature FINDINGS INTRODUCTION TO THE CASE COMPANIES, THEIR PROJECT APPROACH AND PROJECTS Case companies Project approach in case companies Comparison of the different case companies Introduction to the different projects in the case companies PROJECT LEADERSHIP IN THE CASE COMPANIES Project leadership in general CONVERGENCES WITH THE LITERATURE Managing project stakeholders A clear vision Communicating openly and frequently with team members Motivating and engaging team members The professional nerd DIVERGENCES WITH THE LITERATURE Connecting the project to the organization Social aspect of projects One project manager two roles COMPARISON OF THE LITERATURE AND THE REALITY OF PROJECT MANAGERS WHY IS PROJECT LEADERSHIP IMPORTANT? LEADERSHIP IN GENERAL Leader-centered leadership Leadership vested in others than the leader A new approach to project leadership? SUMMARY OF FINDINGS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH REFERENCES APPENDICES

5 Table of figures Figure 1: Development of Project Leadership Literature 6 Figure 2: Structure of the thesis 10 Figure 3: Comparison of case companies 13 Figure 4: Experts 14 Figure 5: Case company interviews 17 Figure 6: Theoretical fields of the thesis 19 Figure 7: The contribution of the thesis 20 Figure 8: Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs 25 Figure 9: The development of project management literature 29 Figure 10: Situational Leadership Theory 36 Figure 11: PROMAL Model 43 Figure 12: Degree of formalization 44 Figure 13: Unaligned objectives vs. Aligned objectives 51 Figure 14: Comparison of theory and practice 63 4

6 Table of appendices Appendix 1: Executive Summary 82 Appendix 2: Interview guide case companies 83 Appendix 3: Interview guide experts 84 Appendix 4: Transcribed interview Alfa Laval (Caroline Renblad and Niels Hyldager) 86 Appendix 5: Transcribed interview Banedanmark (Alis Carøe and Nina Marxen) 94 Appendix 6: Transcribed interview Banedanmark (Bent Birger Ahlgren) 100 Appendix 7: Transcribed interview Banedanmark (Oana Krogh Nielsen) 105 Appendix 8: Transcribed interview COOP (Malene Kingo) 111 Appendix 9: Transcribed interview FLSmidth (Anders Skærlund Pedersen) 116 Appendix 10: Transcribed interview FLSmidth (Claus Hagen Jensen) 121 Appendix 11: Transcribed interview FLSmidth (Lars Rølmer Olsen) 127 Appendix 12: Transcribed interview Mannaz (Mogens Mikkelsen) 131 Appendix 13: Transcribed interview PEAK (Johnny Kim Jensen) 136 Appendix 14: Transcribed interview Valcon (Jan Christian Rasmussen) 141 5

7 Introduction Project management is a very common management tool applied in almost every company today, and in some companies it is the primary tool for the day-to-day operations. Project management has existed for many years, but has seen an increase in the usage over the past decades as organizations have been influenced by a phenomenon called: Projectification. Projectification covers the increasing tendency for organizations to create projects and use project management tools for tasks that would otherwise have been categorized as routine tasks (Aubry & Lenfle, 2012). This tendency has had the effect that an increasing number of people study project management, take project management certifications or take project management courses in order to learn the skills of an efficient project manager. Projectification also covers the tendency of organizations to increasingly formalize their project management approach the more they work with projects (Aubry & Lenfle, 2012), i.e. how organizations as they work more in projects and with project management, they also become more adept at project management and find it necessary to invent their own project management tools or make adjustments to the project management tools used in the company. Project leadership is not a new subject as it has received researchers attention for many years. However, with the increasing projectification in organizations, project leadership literature has seen a 50 % increase in the number of books written on the subject from 1998 until 2008 (see Figure 1). Figure 1: Development of Project Leadership Literature Source: Google ngram Leadership has been around for even longer than project management, but does not have a very prominent place in the project management literature. Nonetheless, leadership has always been a popular subject, even if management has been prevalent in organizations due to it its often less complex nature and its practicability for the daily work. However, in recent years project leadership 6

8 has received increased attention from both theorists and practitioners. This becomes clear in my motivation for choosing this topic, that I will elaborate on in the following section. Motivation My motivation for writing this thesis stems from having worked for a leadership- and management development company for the past few years. Here, I have seen a tendency for the project management courses and certifications offered to focus mainly on the management aspect of projects despite the inevitable fact that projects are made up of people and thus, strong leadership skills are necessary in order to achieve the best results (Bee & Bee, 1997; Jessen, 1992). However, in the spring of 2013, I was helping a colleague with the yearly project management day Årets Projektdag, and at this day different speakers were to give keynotes on different topics. One of the topics was leadership in projects, and I thought that sounded interesting and began looking more into the subject. 1. In my research, I found another Danish organization, Dansk Projektledelse (Danish Project Management) who once every 2-3 years hosts a project management symposium, with several different keynote speakers and exercises for the project managers attending 2. This year s symposium had several keynotes on leadership in projects which further inspired me to take up this subject and study it for my thesis (Dansk Projektledelse, 2013). Furthermore, the project management literature is in general very rationalized and technical, which is one of the aspects where leadership and project management are very different. However, leadership is a big part of projects and therefore also project management and provides a nice complement to the highly technical and rational project management literature (Müller & Turner, 2010). Therefore, I wanted to look at how practitioners portray project leadership compared to the literature. This I wanted to do in order to find out why leadership does not hold a prominent place in project management literature. Hereby, I hoped to be able to develop a better understanding of what project leadership is and why it is important to remember the leadership side to projects and project management. Research context The increased projectification of organizations in today s business world has meant an increase in the number of project managers as well as an increase in project management training and

9 certifications (Aubry & Lenfle, 2012). However, a lot of the training and certifications do not focus on leadership in the projects. PRINCE2, a popular certification, does not focus on leadership, as PRINCE2 believes it is already covered by other existing theories. 3 This poses a problem as many project managers take a PRINCE2 certification and think they have a ready-made tool for success. So they follow it down to the last detail, and since PRINCE2 does not focus on leadership, the project managers will forget that leadership is an important aspect of project management as a consequence (Müller & Turner, 2010). Furthermore, it is important to include leadership in projects as leadership is a way of motivating project team members (Caldwell & Posner, 1998), and motivated employees are thought to be more efficient employees. 4 Hereby there is a better chance of project success if leadership is included. According to Müller and Turner it is very important that project managers have skills in both management and leadership. Both management and leadership competences are needed for sustainable success in a management position. A manager (or leader) showing only strengths in one of the two competence areas will find it difficult to maintain a high-performing team in the long run. (Müller & Turner, 2010, p. 3). Project leadership is not a new field of interest, but has seen an increase in interest over the past decade. This is due to the fact that leadership does not play a big part in the project management literature and from the quote below from Müller and Turner. This could pose a problem for project managers who want to deliver the best results in projects. We identified an under-representation of leadership literature in project management (Müller & Turner, 2010, p. 88). The general lack of leadership in the project management literature provided the context for this thesis. I wanted to find out how practitioners define project leadership and compare it to the definitions given by the project management literature as well as the project leadership literature. However, I found out when interviewing experts for the thesis early on in the process, that leadership played a bigger part in practice than in the literature. Therefore, I try to supplement the current body of literature on project management and project leadership with practical insights on how project managers define leadership as well as finding out why project leadership is perceived as important in practice when only mentioned as an afterthought in project management literature

10 Research question Research question - Why do project practitioners consider leadership an important aspect in projects when project management literature merely treats it as an afterthought? More specifically - How do project practitioners define leadership, and how does their understanding of the term relate to the project management and project leadership literature? Definitions In the following thesis, I use the terms project and project management. The Association for Project Management (APM) defines a project in the following way: A project is a unique, transient endeavor undertaken to achieve a desired outcome. (Association for Project Management, 2006, p. XV). This is the way this thesis defines a project in the following parts. APM Project defines project management as a: process by which projects are defined, planned, monitored, controlled and delivered such that agreed benefits are realized. Projects always carry an element of change and project management is recognized as the most efficient way of managing such change. (Association for Project Management, 2006, p. 2). Hereby project management entails everything that a project manager does in order to achieve the goals set out at the beginning of a project. Therefore, project management will be applied in the thesis as the overarching term that entails both management and leadership. The same applies to the term project manager which I use in situations where I talk of the overarching role of the project manager that entails both the management aspects as well as the leadership aspects. Project leader is applied further only when just the leadership aspects are meant. Leadership and project leadership will be defined in the literature review later in this thesis. 9

11 Structure Figure 2: Structure of the thesis Source: Author 10

12 Methodology In this part, I will present and discuss the methodology of the thesis. Furthermore, the epistemological standpoint of the thesis will be introduced along with a discussion of the possible implications of this standpoint. Finally, a presentation of the empirical domain of the thesis will be given as well as a brief introduction to the main theoretical frameworks applied in the thesis. Philosophy of science My research question signals a wish to understand how practitioners and theorists portray project leadership in order to find out why project leadership is an important aspect for practitioners when the project management literature barely mentions it. The starting point of the thesis is therefore to understand leadership s role in projects in theory and practice and from this discuss the relevance of project leadership. Even if conventional literature argues that researchers should stick closely to only one philosophy of science (Easterby-Smith, 2008; Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009), this thesis follows a less strict methodological approach to structuring the scientific research and hereby avoids a strong connection between the philosophy of science and the methodology. Nevertheless, critical realism is the main philosophical base of this thesis even if all of its characteristics are not adopted. The critical realist standpoint will be explained in further detail in the following section. To do this, a critical realist epistemological standpoint is helpful as it allows for interpretation and for generalization of the empirical data collected. I define and present critical realism in the following paragraph. Critical realism The core of critical realism is that there is a distinction between reality and how we see reality (Saunders et al., 2009). Hereby, this philosophy of science is based on the ontological understanding that the reality exists independently from the human mind (Saunders et al., 2009). The epistemological view of critical realism emphasizes that the knowledge we have of the reality is a result of social conditioning and hereby is not to be understood independently of the actors involved in the knowledge creation process (Saunders et al., 2009, p. 115). Critical realism argues that the researcher should have a context-driven and theory-laden approach to investigating the realities, hereby this approach is concerned with the mechanisms that are activated by powers and structures in society (Danermark, 2002). Critical theorists argue that our 11

13 understanding of any social phenomena is to be perceived in accordance with the social structures that shape them (Saunders et al., 2009). Hereby, the social structures in the case companies serve to shape the social phenomena experienced. In this thesis, critical realism serves the purpose of inspiring the scientific lens applied to investigate the perceived reality in the case companies. Empirical domain The following section will contain a presentation of the empirical domain of the thesis. The empirical domain will help me explore and define project leadership from a practical standpoint. In total, 13 interviews were conducted with three expert consultants and 10 project managers from relevant case companies. These 13 interviews will form the empirical foundation for this thesis analysis of project leadership s practical standpoint. A multiple case study The research question necessitates a qualitative study of the phenomenon Project Leadership in a business context, as existing case studies with this focus are a rarity in the literature on project leadership. With four different case companies the basis of the thesis is a multiple case study (Andersen, 2010, p. 119). A case study is characterized by shedding light on a phenomenon within real life s setting that enables the researcher to illustrate the phenomena through different sources of information (Ibid.). By using four different case companies instead of one I benefit from several different perspectives and thus I get some analytical advantages (Yin, 2009, p. 61). At the same time, a multiple case study is regarded as being more generalizable than a single case study and this choice therefore strengthens the generalizations that I am able to do based on my conclusions of the findings (Ibid.). COOP Danmark A/S Alfa Laval Nordic A/S FLSmidth & Co. A/S Banedanmark The four companies operate within different industries COOP in retail and Alfa Laval, FLSmidth and Banedanmark in different parts of the engineering industry. Furthermore, they differ from one another in Alfa Laval being of Swedish origin, while COOP, FLSmidth and Banedanmark all being 12

14 of Danish origin. Finally, they also differ on their degree of globalization with COOP and Banedanmark only operating in Denmark, and Alfa Laval and FLSmidth operating in numerous countries worldwide. Figure 3 below illustrates the similarities and differences between the case companies. Figure 3: Comparison of case companies Source: Author These differences make it more challenging to say whether some of the initiatives taken by one company can be transferred directly to another company and make it difficult to conduct direct comparisons between the companies. On the other hand, the variety of the case companies makes the thesis useful to a broader target group and enables more companies to benefit from the research. Finally, as all interviews have been conducted in Denmark, the context of the companies remains Danish no matter the origin of the company. Hereby the choice of case companies causes the thesis to have a broad foundation and thorough insight in the different types of companies and industries. Qualitative interviews Interviews facilitate a better elaboration and allow for a better understanding of the interviewee s reality (Kvale, 2007, p. 1). Therefore, I have chosen the qualitative method to secure a thorough understanding of the companies and project managers use of leadership in projects as the basis of my empirical uncovering. 13

15 All interviews were conducted on the basis of a semi-structured interview guide (Appendices 2 and 3), as the answers of the interviewees could not be anticipated and therefore I had to take into account any new ideas that might appear during the interviews. Therefore, my interview guide did not constitute a planned question guide, but had the form of a checklist that facilitated new questions for any new ideas suggested during the interviews. (Ibid., p. 51). At the same time, I had a specified structure to follow so I was sure to get answers to the most relevant questions (Ibid., p. 65). Hereby, I wanted to remain critical of any initial ideas I might have had prior to the interview and remain open for any new knowledge that might arise during the interview. Expert interviews I chose to supplement the above presented multiple case study by interviewing three consultants within project leadership. These interviews were conducted to gain deeper background knowledge about project leadership and will be used continuously to support and discuss relevant arguments made in the analysis. All three consultants work with project leadership and have been included in this thesis to get an outside look on project leadership compared to the inside look from the interviewees at the case companies that might be impacted by own interests and experiences. From here on out, these consultants will be named experts due to their expertise and experience in project leadership. The experts are introduced briefly in the table below (Figure 4). Figure 4: Experts Source: Author The selection criteria for the experts were a deep insight and practical experience with project leadership. The same interview guide was used for all three interviews (Appendix 3). Relevant quotations from the interviews have been transcribed and can be found in Appendices 12, 13 and 14, and in full length on the enclosed CD. 14

16 Case company interviews To get an insight into the thoughts behind and experiences with project leadership, I chose to conduct various interviews with project managers in the four different case companies. The purpose of the interviews was to uncover the general use of project leadership, the reason for using leadership and discover any discrepancies that might exist between practice and theory. I was made aware of some of the case companies, COOP and Banedanmark, through the interviews with the experts, as good examples of project leadership. The remaining two case companies, Alfa Laval and FLSmidth, I found in a brochure on a Project Leadership course by Mannaz which both companies had attended. Both before the interviews with the case companies, but in particular after the interviews, I continuously evaluated whether the case companies were a fit for this thesis and found each of the four companies to be relevant. I emphasized that all case companies could supplement each other through similarities and differences, both in terms of their structure, but especially in their use of project leadership. This causes each case company to contribute with something interesting and relevant while at the same time being comparable to the other case companies, e.g. that all companies are based in Denmark. Initially the head of project management for the two of the case companies, Banedanmark and FLSmidth was contacted via and asked if the case company was interested in participating with 2-4 project managers. The head of project management then sent the names of some relevant project managers who were interested in doing an interview. I am aware that this could influence the data collected as the head of project management could influence the results by choosing certain project managers over others. In the two other companies, I contacted the interviewees directly. All interviews were conducted as individual interviews, except for two interviews that due to logistics were performed as group interviews. However, these group interviews only consisted of two participants each and were thus not considered to pose radical implications on the results and findings of these two interviews. Before the interview, all interviewees received a brief on the topic of the thesis and hence the focus of the interviews, but did not receive any hints as to which questions would be asked as a measure to ensure a spontaneity in the answers on their part. In COOP, I conducted one interview with the Change Manager of a large IT project within COOP, Malene Kingo. The interview was conducted via telephone as requested by the interviewee due to time constraints. COOP is the only company to only have one interviewee included in this thesis, 15

17 but I chose to include the interview nonetheless, as they are comparable with the other case companies in terms of origin, type of project and therefore would be a good supplement to the other case companies that have more interviewees. In Alfa Laval, I interviewed two persons, Caroline Renblad and Niels Hyldager. The interview was conducted as a group interview as Caroline Renblad was only in Denmark for the day as she usually works at the Head Office of Alfa Laval in Sweden and therefore, she suggested doing the interview as a group interview at their premises in Copenhagen. In FLSmidth, I interviewed three project managers, Anders Skærlund Pedersen, Claus Hagen Jensen and Lars Rølmer Olsen. All interviews were conducted as individual interviews at FLSmidth s premises in Copenhagen. In Banedanmark, I interviewed four project managers, Alis Carøe, Nina Marxen, Bent Ahlgren and Oana Krogh Nielsen. Alis Carøe and Nina Marxen were interviewed together in a group interview at the suggestion of the head of project management as they work on similar projects. Bent Ahlgren and Oana Krogh Nielsen were both interviewed individually. All the interviews were conducted at Banedanmark s office in Copenhagen. The interviewees are listed in Figure 5 below, where the title, company and project management education is also included. It is interesting to note that all the interviewees had some sort of formal project management (PM) training, some with a full certification and others with some individual PM courses. Relevant quotations from the interviews have been transcribed and can be found in Appendices 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 and in full length on the enclosed CD. 16

18 Figure 5: Case company interviewees Source: Author Verification of the empirical domain There are always variables you need to consider when working with the empirical domain in a thesis. These variables include the concepts of validity and reliability. These are not applied in the statistical sense, but in their original sense and will be described below as well as describing the measures taken to ensure verification. Validity Validity covers both the concepts of validity and relevance. Is there a general agreement between the theoretical concepts and the empirical variables, and are the empirical variables and concepts relevant for the thesis (Andersen, 2010, p. 83). The validity of interviews then refers to the degree of how true and correct the statements given in the interview are and is often defined by the question: Do I measure what I think I measure? (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009, p. 272). In the interview situation it is necessary to secure the validity of the interviews through simple measures. I have strengthened the validity of the interviews by asking the interviewee to confirm their interpretation and by asking follow up questions to make sure that I had gotten the right understanding of their statements (Kvale, 2007, p. 42). Furthermore, I evaluated how the interview 17

19 went in an effort to make sure the answers to my questions were relevant for the thesis as a measure to see if the interview guide needed correction. In the analysis process the validity question became even more strengthened by transcribing and using the direct quotations that serve as the basis for the interpretations. Hereby, I analyze as close to reality as possible. Reliability Reliability refers to the quality and reliability of the results achieved and to what degree these results would be replicable by other researchers in another study (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009, p. 352). Reliability is therefore apparent in a study when the collected data is sufficiently reliable and not registered or interpreted the wrong way (Andersen, 2010, p. 83). The situation therefore has to be the same for the interviewees. According to Kvale: The research interview is an inter-view where knowledge is constructed in the inter-action between the interviewer and interviewee (Kvale, 2007, p. 1). From this definition it will never be possible to recreate the interview situation as the social process depends on the persons and therefore is not possible to replicate (Ibid., p. 14). However, it is possible to take precautionary measures in a qualitative method and hereby ensure reliability as much as possible. In this case, I have taken this problem into account by having an interview guide. This has ensured that it is the same questions being asked with the same wording and therefore the same elements have been included in all the interviews. However, it has not been possible to recreate the exact same situation as the interviews were conducted on semi-structured manner and the follow up questions asked during the interviews therefore varied. Furthermore, I have given the same introduction of the thesis to all the interviewees. This strengthens the reliability by ensuring that all interviewees enter the interview with the same basic understanding. Limitations of the qualitative method The choice to opt for a qualitative method has its strengths as well as its limitations. Firstly, by using a qualitative method you limit yourself to analyze based on a small part of reality in this case four case companies. However, this has enabled a more thorough investigation and has made it possible to gain a deeper insight into the empirical domain. Hereby, I have tried to get as profound an understanding as possible rather than a superficial one. This causes my results to not be as generalizable as research based on a quantitative method. Furthermore, when doing qualitative studies the researcher cannot escape the risk of researcher bias as the qualitative method entails personal gathering and processing of information wherein interpretation is inevitable (Andersen, 2010, p. 209). I have tried to eliminate this limitation by remaining critical throughout the thesis and continuously see if any elements of the analysis might be influenced by my own assumptions. 18

20 Theoretical fields In order to answer the questions I set out to answer in the introduction, I need to draw upon several theoretical fields. In this thesis, I therefore draw upon literature on project management, project leadership and leadership. These three fields form the basis of the analysis of this thesis as illustrated in the figure below. Figure 6: Theoretical fields of the thesis Source: Author Project management Since project management literature forms the basis for project managers, I find it necessary to include project management as a theoretical field in this thesis because I wish to illustrate what part leadership plays in the project management literature. Hereby, project management forms the basic frames for the analysis. Hereby, it serves to illustrate where project leadership and leadership theories have something to add. Project leadership I draw on project leadership theories to understand what the difference between project leadership literature and project management literature is, and what the project leadership literature adds to the project management literature. Furthermore, it will help me to understand why project leadership has become a field on its own over the past few years. 19

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