Implementing the electric car in the greater Copenhagen area Policy implications of a techno-institutional and economic analysis

Størrelse: px
Starte visningen fra side:

Download "Implementing the electric car in the greater Copenhagen area Policy implications of a techno-institutional and economic analysis"

Transkript

1 Implementing the electric car in the greater Copenhagen area Policy implications of a techno-institutional and economic analysis Or: Why are these parking spaces empty? Nørrevoldgade, Copenhagen, May 2008 Aalborg University 2008 Kirsten Sophie Hasberg Maiken Mets

2 2

3 Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Department of Development and Planning Fibigerstræde Aalborg Øst Title: Implementing the electric car in the greater Copenhagen area. Policy implications of a techno-institutional and economic analysis Theme: Sustainable Energy Planning and Management in an Institutional and Societal Perspective Project period: Project group: 08em0807 Group members: Maiken Mets Kirsten Hasberg Supervisor: Dr. Frede Hvelplund External examiner: Anders Møller Reports printed: 4 Number of pages: 83 Number of appendices: 13 Abstract: This project analyzes the techno-institutional and economic setting of the electric car and develops a policy mix for the implementation of the electric car in the greater Copenhagen area. Based on the theories on institutional change, the project develops a theoretical frame consisting of a techno-structure and the institutional setting. Methodologically, the institutional analysis first identifies the barriers towards electric cars, by analyzing the historical and current situation of the electric car. Secondly, the private economic barriers are identified. Thirdly, the project creates incentives and identifies actors to overcome these barriers. This is done using different methods: literature research, economic data analysis, qualitative interviews, and the use of illustrative cases, reflecting the project s interdisciplinary and systemic approach, building on both institutional, economic and policy theory. The project concludes that the institutional lock-in of the existing transportation system based on the internal combustion engine requires active policies and facilitated partnerships to bring about institutional change of technology towards electric cars. The creation of five types of incentives are recommended: a congestion charging zone with free access for electric cars, creation of a efficiency-differentiated road pricing, provision of the opportunity for long distance traveling by car sharing and public transportation, availability of a plug with parking space and access to after-sale services. These incentives can be provided by cooperation among the actors identified in the framework of a facilitator. The policies recommended create an economic incentive for and reduce the non-monetary costs of electric cars in the two illustrative cases and are hence likely to bring about the institutional change of technology towards the electric car in the greater Copenhagen area.

4 Preface This project is written on the 8th semester of the Master Programme in Sustainable Energy Planning and Management at Aalborg University, Department of Development and Planning. The semester focus is the analysis of energy systems in an institutional and societal perspective. The reference system of this project follows the Chicago Style. Interviews and other personal communications are in accordance with the Chicago style not included in the reference list and are not given formal references but run into the text. In the appendix, a full list of interviews is found with dates. For readability, we limit the use of abbreviations and rather use the short terms (e.g. electric car for battery electric car). However, a list of abbreviations is found in the appendix. Footnotes are placed on each page and not as end-notes or appendixes to allow easy access to additional information. Thanks to our interview persons Per Møller Jørgensen, chair of the Danish Electric Car committee, Anne Vang, political spokesperson of The Danish Social Democrats in the Municipality of Copenhagen, Anders Foosnæs, consultant at the Danish Energy Association, Bjarke Fonnesbech, chairman of the Danish Car sharing fund and Bendt Iversen and Sune Grøntved, consultants at Drivegreen, the Danish Think importer. Also, we d like to thank Åsgeir Helland, Environmental Officer, Think Global, Norway, Benjamin Caun, Marketing Manager at Inventek Corporation, California, Karl Sperling, and Brian Vad Mathiesen, both Phd students at the Department for Development and Planning at Aalborg University, Clement Johan Ulrichsen, Economist at the Danish Competition Authority Maria Bugge Severinsen, Dong Energy and Birte Busch Thomsen, Environmental Protection Agency of the City of Copenhagen and Gustav Langdal, Municipality of Stockholm, for their comments and insights. Special thanks to our supervisor Dr. Frede Hvelplund for taking time and effort for long and fruitful discussions with us. It is our hope that the active involvement of actors and our focus on the concrete implementation and present technology makes the project and its policy recommendations relevant in the ongoing discussion about the future of the Danish energy system in general and the transportation system of the municipality of Copenhagen in particular. Maiken Mets Kirsten Sophie Hasberg

5

6 The table of content The table of content 1 1 Introducing the transportation sector and the role of the electric car Current problems of the transportation sector The electric car potential Using a hypothesis to define the research question Defining our institutional setting as researchers 6 2 Defining the theoretical approach and methodology Theoretical approach and definition of central concepts Defining the central concepts of institutional theory Institutions Applying institutional theory to the context of electric cars Methodology Project outline Tools and methods used Assumptions and delimitations 18 3 Identifying technological and institutional barriers Technical Background What is an electric car? Why electric vehicles? About The Think City Techno-Institutional Analysis Competition between ICE and EV creation of lock-in Six factors needed to overcome lock-in Electric car first attempt to unlock the market - history Implementation of electric cars behind the scenes What are the Main Barriers on a Way of Escaping from lock-in today? Conclusion of chapter three 35 4 Private transportation alternatives from a socio- and private economic point of view in the greater Copenhagen area Introduction: Transportation patterns Total costs of private transportation External costs of private transportation Private costs of private transportation The Jyllinge case family Copenhagen The private budgets of transportation of the two cases Conclusion of chapter Chapter 5 Establishing private person incentives for overcoming barriers in an actor framework 51 1

7 5.1 Solutions for overcoming barriers Access to parking spaces with plugs Free public parking No registration tax and ownership charge on electric cars Congestion Charging Zone with no charge for electric cars Efficiency-differentiated road pricing Access to after sale services Free membership of car sharing association - access to multiple different vehicles Discount on public transportation and access to shared cars in whole Denmark Electric cars in the car sharing fleet The role of facilitator Changes in the private budgets of transportation Jyllinge case: Costs of transportation alternatives after Copenhagen case: Costs of transportation alternatives after New transportation concepts induced by private person incentives The Jyllinge case after, the policies and relevant partnerships are established The Copenhagen case after, the policies and relevant partnerships are established Partial conclusion 64 6 Chapter 6 Discussion of strengths and weaknesses Strengths and weaknesses of theoretical approach Discussing excluded disciplines Discussing the interdisciplinary approach Strengths and weaknesses of central sources Research papers and evaluation reports Statistical data sources The six conditions for escaping institutional lock-in Articles, parliamentary debates, company information, internet resources and interviews Actor interviews Strengths and weaknesses of methodology Strengths and weaknesses of limitations and assumptions The transportation sector and the problem of general sustainability The technology chosen The temporal and geographical limitation The value of non-monetary costs and benefits Assumptions on change in behaviour Financial implications Strengths and weaknesses of suggested private person incentives Strengths Weaknesses Conclusion for chapter six 74 7 Conclusion Future perspectives 77 The role of an electric car in the future energy system 77 References 78 2

8 1 Introducing the transportation sector and the role of the electric car 1.1 Current problems of the transportation sector The transportation sector is often termed the most problematic concerning climate change and sustainability in general. Today, the transport sector of Denmark is almost 100 % oil dependent. Although Denmark is the only EU member state that is self-sufficient with energy today, the Danish oil- and gas production is decreasing, and the Danish import dependence on oil is showing an increasing trend. Also, oil and hence gasoline prices are increasing, indicating the increasing scarcity of fossil resources. Energy efficiency in the transportation sector is generally low. When looking at the well-to-wheel performance, the average conversion efficiency of internal combustion engine is only % (Jørgensen, 2008). At the same time, the energy use of the transportation sector has increased by 27,3 % compared to 1990 (Energistyrelsen 2007). Furthermore, local air and noise pollution, as well as congestion, are a significant problem caused by urban transportation. Today, Copenhagen has difficulties living up to the requirements set for air, concerning particles and nitrous dioxide (NO2), and noise, households are affected by exceeding noise levels (Københavns Kommune 2007). 800 annual cases of too early deaths in Copenhagen are caused by air pollution (Thomsen 2008). Furthermore, households are severely affected by noise levels (Thomsen 2008). 1.2 The electric car potential A long variety of reports and plans already today emphasize the potentials of the electric car in Denmark: - The report on alternative fuels for the transport sector, commissioned by the Danish government, describes electric cars as the greatest long-term potential, because they display the best energy efficiency and at the same time have great local environmental benefits in terms of less noise and no harmful local air emissions. Furthermore, the potential for interplay between electric cars and renewable energy, especially fluctuating wind power, is recognized. (Energistyrelsen 2008) 3

9 - The Danish Technology Council also recommends electric cars and plug-in hybrids as a mean for reducing energy consumption from the transport sector by 25 % in (Teknologirådet 2007) - Also, the Danish Parliament priorities for electric cars are set in the agreement on energy, where 35 million DKK are set aside over the years for demonstration projects, and the registration tax exemption for electric cars is prolonged until 2012 (Folketinget 2008). - In the 2007 report on cleaner fuel technology for transportation, the municipality of Copenhagen presents a vision for 2035: The municipality of Copenhagen must be know as the environmental capital of Europe, where 100 % of the municipal vehicles are sustainable due to the use of biofuels, battery powered cars and hybrid electric vehicles, powered by batteries and hydrogen. (Københavns Kommune 2007b) - The Energy Plan of the The Danish Society of Engineers, sees that 20 % of all cars in 2030 are electric, and emphasizes the interaction with fluctuating wind power, since more than 2/3 of the electricity production in the plan is based on renewable energy sources. (Ingeniørforeningen i Danmark 2006). Other plans underline the need for action, concerning the present problems of the transportation sector: - The municipality of Copenhagen has set goals in its vision for 2015: a reduction of CO2-emissions by 20 % compared to 2007-levels, a reduction in noise levels, and air of a quality that does not damage the health of Copenhageners (Københavns Kommune 2007a). - Also the Danish Infrastructure Commission has a vision for the Danish transportation system of the future: (In 2030), the increase in transport is detached from the rise in CO2-emissions. Air pollution is reduced significantly, and noise levels are reduced. (Infrastrukturkommissionen 2008). Furthermore, the European Union has set requirements, with its goals, to reduce CO2-emissions by 20 pct., increase the share of renewables by 20 pct. and increase energy efficiency by 20 pct. by 2020 compared to 1990-levels and simultaneously10 pct. of the energy used in the transportation sector has to be renewable energy (assuming that the biofuels target is interpreted as a general renewable energy target). (European Commission 2008) Considering these reports, plans and policies, as well as the severity of the range of problems outlined in 1.1., the scene is set for the implementation of electric cars: The electric car can contribute with high efficiency (targeting both the CO2 and the efficiency goal) and the possibility to run on renewable energy (targeting both the renewable energy goal and the transportation sector goal). It has low noise levels and no local emissions. 4

10 However, none of these reports answer to the question of how electric cars are to be implemented into the existing transportation system. Both, on the research side as well as on the policy side, there is a gap in describing concrete solutions and actions. Hence, the purpose of this project is to fill this gap by answering the question of how. The range limitations of the electric car, however, also play a significant part in the literature and discourse on electric cars: Although Horstmann (2005) concludes that the users of the electric car in have been satisfied, both Jørgensen (2008), KFB (2000) and Københavns Kommune (2007b) put emphasis on hydrogen as the fuel of the future because of the inherent range limitations of the electric car, although the reports are aware of the lower well-to-wheel efficiency of hydrogen. In the Danish media, the company Project Better Place has gained attention because it seeks to overcome the range limitations of electric cars (the Israeli- Californian company has a business concept of providing a battery exchange infrastructure for electric cars, planning cooperation with Dong Energy), (Dong Energy 2008). Recognizing these range limitations of the electric vehicle, we develop a system of multi-modal transportation, combining the electric car with car sharing and public transport. Our motivation as researchers for choosing electric cars as the area of our research is furthered by the future perspectives that the electric car possesses: By using vehicle-to-grid technology it can provide the possibility for electricity grid stabilization in a system with increased shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Also, it can solve the problem of the lack of CO2-regulation of the transport sector on the EU-level, because the use of electricity in the transport sector simultaneously includes it in to the European Emissions Trading system. 1.3 Using a hypothesis to define the research question Our background hypothesis for choosing our research question is: A transportation system based on the electric car has lower external costs than the current system based on the internal combustion engine car. However, institutional barriers exist, and private person incentives are not great enough to overcome these barriers, since private costs and non-monetary costs of the electric car exceed those of the internal combustion engine car. If the institutional barriers are identified by looking at historical experience and analyzing the present situation, it is possible to overcome the barriers by providing a range of solutions. These solutions consist of the internalization of the external costs of transportation using the polluter pays principle, and the 5

11 cooperation of actors to reduce non-monetary costs. In this way, private person incentives are created and the institutional barriers towards electric cars can be reduced. Hence, the electric car is implemented into the transportation system. Therefore, our research question is: How can the creation of private person incentives reduce institutional barriers towards electric cars and lead to the implementation of electric cars in the greater Copenhagen area, in order to reduce the global and local environmental impact of transportation? This is answered using the following sub-questions: - What are the barriers to the institutional change of technology towards electric car usage historically and today? - What are the social costs (externalities) and private costs of private transportation in the greater Copenhagen area of the current internal combustion engine vehicle and of the electric car? - How can relevant actors provide incentives for the private person to choose an electric car? 1.4 Defining our institutional setting as researchers Institutional theory is not only about the object studied, but also about the way the object is studied and the pattern of thought of the researcher. As Hodgson (2006) puts it, institutions are simultaneously both objective structures out there and subjective springs of human agency in the human head. In the same way, institutional analysis is both out there, studying institutional structures of the researched field, and in the researchers head, requiring us to think in a broad manner. Hence, the perspective of the project is holistic and systemic. Our educational background frames the way we conceive the world. We are students from two separate directions of study, electric power engineering and economics respectively; our awareness as researchers towards institutional factors has been created by our current educational setting in an interdisciplinary master programme. Jamison (2008) distinguishes three types of processes studied: ongoing processes, finished processes and future processes. This project studies a process of the first type. The implementation of the electric car is an ongoing process, and hence, our understanding is research as intervention, or interactive assessment 6

12 (Jamison 2008). Jamison (2008) uses three metaphors to describe the researchers role: fly on the wall spider in the web or queen bee in the honey comb. This project is a combination of the two latter: We as researchers are facilitators and consultants, playing both a participatory and advisory role. Because of the interactive role of our research, this project can be grouped into what Jamison calls changeoriented research, and is a way of cultivating the hybrid imagination : From theory of science perspective, we base our research on positivism (when doing economic analysis), social constructivism (when analyzing the social construction of technological change) and critical theory (by including policy suggestions). Studying a technical subject using tools from economics in an institutional frame implies that this project is by definition interdisciplinary. The theoretical and methodological basis is presented in chapter 2, underlining the interdisciplinary character of the project. The central concepts of institutional theory, the logic behind the chosen structure and the delimitations of the project are introduced. 7

13 2 Defining the theoretical approach and methodology Beginning with a discussion on the use of theory in general, this chapter consists of three subchapters, describing and discussing the theoretical approach and the central concepts of institutional theory, the methodology and the line of argument, and the delimitations and assumptions of the project. Theory is an intrinsic part of our understanding, but the theoretical background evolves throughout problembased project work, and is not systematic and detailed in advance. We understand research as a recursive process: Theory and concrete analysis feed each other to create the theoretical framework developed for this exact problem formulation. This perception of the usefulness of theory is also reflected by the following quote: There is nothing as practical as a good theory (Lewin 1951). It says that the good theory is practical and we see the value on theory if it can be applied to solve real-life problems. We see ourselves as practical theorists, as we are looking for a solution for a practical problem by applying operationalized theories for creating the knowledge. We have chosen a problem formulation with practical and concrete relevance. Hence, we have to apply theories and adjust existing theories to our concrete context. Institutional theory poses a possible explanatory framework to answer our research question. This might seem contradictory to the theoretical nature of the institutional focus, but as we show in section 2.1, theories can be operationalized and applied to the concrete context, creating our own theory. 8

14 2.1 Theoretical approach and definition of central concepts In this subchapter, the general theoretical background of institutional theory is defined; The theory is applied to our research question. Our own theoretical framework is created by introducing, using and critically reviewing the existing institutional research Defining the central concepts of institutional theory Institutions According to North (1990), institutions are the rules of the game in society, or as described by Campbell (2004), the foundations of social life. According to Scott, institutions consist of three pillars: the regulative, normative and cultural/cognitive pillar. However, these definitions are very broad. To be able to apply the theory of institutions, we need an adequate conception of what an institution is. As a definition, we will use the following, borrowing from Hodgson (2006): Institutions structure, constrain and enable individual behaviour. Furthermore, Hodgson (2006) argues that actor and institutional structure, although distinct, are thus connected in a circle of mutual interaction and interdependence. That is, our focus on the private person is no contradiction to institutional analysis on the contrary. Both quotes emphasize that institutions have to be seen in interaction with the individual actor. The term institutions, institutional setting and institutional barriers are used interchangeably in this project. When using the terms, we have the structuring, constraining and enabling features of the regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive societal setting in mind Technology and technological change According to Arthur, technology can be defined as method or knowledge imbedded in artefacts (Arthur, 1991, cited in Unruh (2006)). However, this narrow view of technology ignores the important systemic interrelations among individual technologies. (Unruh 2006) Therefore, our understanding of technology builds on the theory on social construction of technology within the field of science and technology studies, 9

15 and on the writings by Hughes on Large Technological Systems (Hughes 1983). Hughes provides a long, but useful definition of technology (Hughes 1987): Technological systems contain messy, complex, problem-solving components. They are both socially constructed and society shaping. Among the components in technological systems are physical artefacts ( ), organizations ( ), scientific ( ) (and) legislative artefacts (and) natural resources. If a component is removed from a system or if its characteristics change, the other artefacts in the system will alter characteristics accordingly. This verbal definition makes the complexity of the concept of technology clear and emphasized the interdependent nature of the components. However, it is difficult to operationalize the concept of technological systems and its underlying components in applied research. Therefore, a graphical definition is used for a more condensed and operationalized framework for understanding technology, using a modified version of the technology definition of Hvelplund (2005) shown in figure 2-1. Figure 2-1 Definition of technology, inspired by Hvelplund (2005) and Hughes (1987). From this figure, we derive our definition of technology: Technology consists components of technique, organization, profit, product, knowledge and natural resource, which are interrelated and interdependent, and embedded in an institutional setting. Furthermore, the graphical representation, figure 2-1, allows for an applied understanding of technological 10

16 change. Borrowing from Hvelplund (2005), it is defined in the following way: Institutional change of technology (technological change) takes place when more than one of the components is changed. Hvelplund s definition did not include the sixth component: the natural resources, which is seen as part of technology by Hughes (1987). As the natural resource(s) is central component for technology development and the institutional change will take place, if this component is changed, we have included it to definition of technology. In this project, the terms technology and technological system are used interchangeably; in each case, we refer to the described understanding of technology as consisting of the interrelated components of technique, organization, profit, product, knowledge and natural resource(s), embedded in an institutional setting. The terms, technological change and institutional change of technology are used interchangeably as well Path dependency and lock-in: The importance of history is central in institutional analysis. As Hodgson (2006) argues: Because institutions simultaneously depend upon the activities of individuals and constrain and mould them, through this positive feedback they have strong self-reinforcing and self-perpetuating characteristics. These characteristics have been termed path dependence in the academic literature on technological change. The central question is: Why are some technologies dominant and others not? The early founders of the theory of path dependency are David and Arthur see historical events as the central cause (Arthur (1989), David (1985). That is, the choices of the past are institutionalized and restrict the possibility of choices of the present, creating a lock-in of technologies already present. For our purposes, we have chosen the definition of path dependency and lock-in characterized by Meyer and Schubert (2007): 1. Actors are thought to behave rationally in the sense that they always choose the technology which is best suited for them. However, technological paths are the result of an emergent evolution behind the backs of the actors. 2. Increasing returns and lock-in are emergent processes, which are not and cannot be the result of deliberate planning and mindful action. 3. Once a path is locked-in, only external shocks can break it. The terms, path dependency, institutional barriers and lock-in are used interchangeably in this project. 11

17 Path creation: The theory on path dependency has resulted in a broad academic literature on how this path dependency can be overcome, and how lock-in can be broken. Garud and Karnøe (2001) have developed a theory of path creation. For our purposes, the stepwise definition, characterized by Meyer and Schubert (2007) is used: 1. Powerful actors can strategically influence the development of a path. They can shape the path, while over time they are themselves shaped by the path. 2. Increasing returns and lock-in are subject to deliberate actions and tied in with broader social dynamics. 3. The creation, but also the ending of a path may be caused by deliberate actions which do not necessarily have to be external. The terms, path creation, overcoming or escaping lock-in, overcoming or escaping path dependency and overcoming institutional barriers are used interchangeably. We use the term techno-institutional system as a synthesis of the outlined terms and concepts. Building on Unruh (2000), we define the techno-institutional system as a self-referential system, where technological systems and institutions are feeding each other. These techno-institutional infrastructures create persistent incentive structures that strongly influence system evolution and stability. 12

18 2.1.2 Applying institutional theory to the context of electric cars The theories outlined in are now combined into our own theoretical framework, shown in the following figure: Figure 2-2 The theoretical context of the project In the figure, the techno-institutional system as defined in section is separated into its parts: The institutional setting are the institutions, the technological system is imbedded in. The techno-structure is the technological components of the technological system. The techno-structure can be understood as the hardware, whereas the institutional setting is the software. The figure represents the theory that we have constructed as a synthesis of existing theories. In the following, we define what we mean by each component, proceeding from left to right: Techno-structure The techno-structure describes the technological structure that we create as a basis for our theory it does not reflect the technological situation today. The focus is on the transport need, which is split into long distance and short distance travelling. The electric car is implemented by using it for shorter commuting distances. In addition we introduce the shared car and the combination of public transport and car sharing as the solution to long distance travelling. The idea of combining the electric car with car sharing is also 13

19 proposed in Jørgensen (2007): A framework with a greater role to shared or rented cars at the expense of privately owned automobiles could probably provide better opportunities for electric vehicles and a framework with less use of the automobile We develop this inter-modal system to make it possible to reap the benefits of the electric car while avoiding its limitations with respect to range by using public transportation and car sharing: The disadvantage of the limited range of the electric car is turned into the advantage of a more flexible use of transportation means. The user can choose the means of transportation according to their need. The electric car can contribute to solving these different types of problems outlined in chapter 1. Depending on the residential location of a household, the electric car can be implemented in two ways: - Combined with car sharing in urban areas, the electric car can become part of the car sharing fleet, while public transportation takes care of the majority of commuting on a daily basis - Ownership of an electric car in extra-urban areas can be combined with car sharing of conventional cars, acting as a range extender to the electric car. For both, the electric car can also be used for long distance travelling if combined with rail transport. As part of a car sharing system, the electric car is available at train stations and provides the possibility for reaching the final destination away from the main rail lines. Our focus is on the need for transportation as a transportation service, not the need for a privately owned car for all possible trips Institutional setting Barriers: As described above, we use the term barrier interchangeably with other terms describing path dependency. In our context, we need a precise definition of barriers to be able to analyze them. Cowan and Hulten (1996) operationalize the analysis of technological change in the electric car industry by using six conditions for escaping lock-in: 1.) Crisis in the existing technology, 2.) Regulation, 3.) Technological break through, 4.) Changes in taste, 5.) Niche markets and 6.) Scientific results. (Cowan and Hulten 1996) These conditions are used for the techno-institutional analysis of the electric vehicles, and are described in more detail in chapter 3. The six conditions are used to explain and apply the concepts of path dependency and path creation: When the six conditions are not in place, institutional barriers are preventing technological change. When the six conditions are fulfilled, path dependence is overcome and opens the way for path creation. 14

20 Incentives: We define incentives as factors (monetary or non-monetary) that give the private person a motive for a particular action in our case, switching from driving conventional combustion engine car to electric and shared car. With this definition, we emphasize both the direct incentives affecting the private budget, as well as the non-monetary incentives, that can be understood as the embeddedness of the market in the existing institutional setting of the internal combustion engine. The terms private person incentives, policy suggestions, suggested solutions and first-mover advantage package are used interchangeably. With all these terms, we refer to the incentive-column in our theoretical framework. When developing incentives, we build our work on theories of externalities and policies. A short description of those theories is presented below. Externalities are the classic case of market failure. Following Hanley (2007), when market failure occurs, a wedge exists between what a private person does, given market prices, and what would be the socially optimal course of action. The table below shows how costs can be split into internal and external, variable and fixed and market and non-market. Costs Variable fixed Internal Fuel, parking, Vehicle operation and maintenance, accident risk, user travel time and stress Vehicle ownership, taxes, insurance, fixed parking, feeling of freedom and independence (unused range capacity of ICE), feeling of doing something good for the environment External Accident, congestion, air pollution, noise, barrier effect, effects on flora and fauna, waste (for BEV) Free parking, traffic planning and regulation, road infrastructure, fuel infrastructure, landuse (opportunity costs), land-use impacts (resulting from low-density, automobileoriented land use), social costs (inequality) Table 2-1. Fixed and variable internal costs and fixed and variable external costs. Source: Miljøstyrelsen (2001) and Litman (1997). Note: Italics indicates non-market. The true costs of the private person actions are not reflected in market prices, since market prices do not reflect the external cost of the private decision e.g. the costs of air pollution when driving a car. Because the individual does not have to pay for the externalities created, he or she lacks sufficient economic incentives to act in accordance with the true costs of their action. That is, there is a divergence between social and private costs of private action. To avoid this situation, externalities must be internalized. The polluter pays principle is a popular formulation of the theory on internalizing externalities: The private person must pay the full costs of their actions. 15

Bilag. Resume. Side 1 af 12

Bilag. Resume. Side 1 af 12 Bilag Resume I denne opgave, lægges der fokus på unge og ensomhed gennem sociale medier. Vi har i denne opgave valgt at benytte Facebook som det sociale medie vi ligger fokus på, da det er det største

Læs mere

Coalitions and policy coordination

Coalitions and policy coordination Coalitions and policy coordination This page intentionally left blank Mikkel Mailand Coalitions and policy coordination Revision and impact of the European Employment Strategy DJØF Publishing Copenhagen

Læs mere

Byg din informationsarkitektur ud fra en velafprøvet forståelsesramme The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)

Byg din informationsarkitektur ud fra en velafprøvet forståelsesramme The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) Byg din informationsarkitektur ud fra en velafprøvet forståelsesramme The Open Group Framework (TOGAF) Otto Madsen Director of Enterprise Agenda TOGAF og informationsarkitektur på 30 min 1. Introduktion

Læs mere

Baltic Development Forum

Baltic Development Forum Baltic Development Forum 1 Intelligent Water Management in Cities and Companies developing and implementing innovative solutions to help achieve this objective. Hans-Martin Friis Møller Market and Development

Læs mere

Bookingmuligheder for professionelle brugere i Dansehallerne 2015-16

Bookingmuligheder for professionelle brugere i Dansehallerne 2015-16 Bookingmuligheder for professionelle brugere i Dansehallerne 2015-16 Modtager man økonomisk støtte til et danseprojekt, har en premieredato og er professionel bruger af Dansehallerne har man mulighed for

Læs mere

INDUSTRIAL relations

INDUSTRIAL relations Carsten Strøby Jensen INDUSTRIAL relations indenmark - from conflict-based consensus to consensus-based conflict DJØF Publishing Industrial Relations in Denmark From conflict-based consensus to consensus-based

Læs mere

Virk.dk. A one-stop-shop for businesses. Peter Bay Kirkegaard, pbk@eogs.dk Special Advisor Danish Commerce and Companies Agency

Virk.dk. A one-stop-shop for businesses. Peter Bay Kirkegaard, pbk@eogs.dk Special Advisor Danish Commerce and Companies Agency Virk.dk A one-stop-shop for businesses Peter Bay Kirkegaard, pbk@eogs.dk Special Advisor Danish Commerce and Companies Agency Agenda Background Status Future 16-10-2007 2 Virk.dk 16-10-2007 3 Vision Political

Læs mere

PERSPECTIVES ON MARKETING OF GREEN ELECTRICITY:

PERSPECTIVES ON MARKETING OF GREEN ELECTRICITY: PERSPECTIVES ON MARKETING OF GREEN ELECTRICITY: MODELING CONSUMER ADOPTION, CHOICE BEHAVIOR AND CONSUMER SWITCHING By Yingkui Yang THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE

Læs mere

Userguide. NN Markedsdata. for. Microsoft Dynamics CRM 2011. v. 1.0

Userguide. NN Markedsdata. for. Microsoft Dynamics CRM 2011. v. 1.0 Userguide NN Markedsdata for Microsoft Dynamics CRM 2011 v. 1.0 NN Markedsdata www. Introduction Navne & Numre Web Services for Microsoft Dynamics CRM hereafter termed NN-DynCRM enable integration to Microsoft

Læs mere

To set new standards of lifting and transportation equipment for wind turbine components. Our product groups

To set new standards of lifting and transportation equipment for wind turbine components. Our product groups To set new standards of lifting and transportation equipment for wind turbine components. Our product groups Embracing the full life cycle of the wind turbine Liftra develops and supplies services to

Læs mere

BILAG 8.1.B TIL VEDTÆGTER FOR EXHIBIT 8.1.B TO THE ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION FOR

BILAG 8.1.B TIL VEDTÆGTER FOR EXHIBIT 8.1.B TO THE ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION FOR BILAG 8.1.B TIL VEDTÆGTER FOR ZEALAND PHARMA A/S EXHIBIT 8.1.B TO THE ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION FOR ZEALAND PHARMA A/S INDHOLDSFORTEGNELSE/TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 FORMÅL... 3 1 PURPOSE... 3 2 TILDELING AF WARRANTS...

Læs mere

Overblik Program 17. nov

Overblik Program 17. nov Overblik Program 17. nov Oplæg, diskussion og sketchnoting af artikler Pencils before pixels, Drawing as... og Learning as reflective conversation... Intro til markers Øvelser: Formundersøgelser & idegenerering

Læs mere

Projektledelse i praksis

Projektledelse i praksis Projektledelse i praksis - Hvordan skaber man (grundlaget) for gode beslutninger? Martin Malis Business Consulting, NNIT mtmi@nnit.com 20. maj, 2010 Agenda Project Governance Portfolio Management Project

Læs mere

BILAG 8.1.F TIL VEDTÆGTER FOR EXHIBIT 8.1.F TO THE ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION FOR

BILAG 8.1.F TIL VEDTÆGTER FOR EXHIBIT 8.1.F TO THE ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION FOR BILAG 8.1.F TIL VEDTÆGTER FOR ZEALAND PHARMA A/S EXHIBIT 8.1.F TO THE ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION FOR ZEALAND PHARMA A/S INDHOLDSFORTEGNELSE/TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 FORMÅL... 3 1 PURPOSE... 3 2 TILDELING AF WARRANTS...

Læs mere

how to save excel as pdf

how to save excel as pdf 1 how to save excel as pdf This guide will show you how to save your Excel workbook as PDF files. Before you do so, you may want to copy several sheets from several documents into one document. To do so,

Læs mere

POSitivitiES Positive Psychology in European Schools HOW TO START

POSitivitiES Positive Psychology in European Schools HOW TO START POSitivitiES Positive Psychology in European Schools HOW TO START POSitivitiES Positive Psychology in European Schools PositivitiES er et Comenius Multilateral europæisk projekt, som har til formål at

Læs mere

QUICK START Updated: 18. Febr. 2014

QUICK START Updated: 18. Febr. 2014 QUICK START Updated: 18. Febr. 2014 For at komme hurtigt og godt igang med dine nye Webstech produkter, anbefales at du downloader den senest opdaterede QuickStart fra vores hjemmeside: In order to get

Læs mere

Totallivsomkostning som vejen frem Hvorfor leverandører af udstyr til den maritime branche bør indtænke service i deres forretningsstrategier

Totallivsomkostning som vejen frem Hvorfor leverandører af udstyr til den maritime branche bør indtænke service i deres forretningsstrategier Totallivsomkostning som vejen frem Hvorfor leverandører af udstyr til den maritime branche bør indtænke service i deres forretningsstrategier Section for Engineering Design and Product Development Dér

Læs mere

Terese B. Thomsen 1.semester Formidling, projektarbejde og webdesign ITU DMD d. 02/11-2012

Terese B. Thomsen 1.semester Formidling, projektarbejde og webdesign ITU DMD d. 02/11-2012 Server side Programming Wedesign Forelæsning #8 Recap PHP 1. Development Concept Design Coding Testing 2. Social Media Sharing, Images, Videos, Location etc Integrates with your websites 3. Widgets extend

Læs mere

Omstilling af det danske energisystem til 100% vedvarende energi Scenarieanalyser i CEESA-projektet

Omstilling af det danske energisystem til 100% vedvarende energi Scenarieanalyser i CEESA-projektet Omstilling af det danske energisystem til 100% vedvarende energi Scenarieanalyser i CEESA-projektet Mandag Morgens Klimakonference 26. februar 2013 Poul Alberg Østergaard / Brian Vad Mathiesen Aalborg

Læs mere

Department meeting, 31 October 2012

Department meeting, 31 October 2012 Department meeting, 31 October 2012 Introduction and presentation of programme (by CT) Presentation and discussion of budget/fc 3 2012 and budget 2013 (by Martha Berdiin, Head of Finance, BSS) Presentation

Læs mere

Eco-Metropolis and Green Mobility in Copenhagen

Eco-Metropolis and Green Mobility in Copenhagen Eco-Metropolis and Green Mobility in Copenhagen Annette Kayser Project Manager, M. Sc. City of Copenhagen THE ØRESUND REGION IN EUROPE The Øresund Region 2.4 mio. Inhabitants in the Region. ¾ of these

Læs mere

How Al-Anon Works - for Families & Friends of Alcoholics. Pris: kr. 130,00 Ikke på lager i øjeblikket Vare nr. 74 Produktkode: B-22.

How Al-Anon Works - for Families & Friends of Alcoholics. Pris: kr. 130,00 Ikke på lager i øjeblikket Vare nr. 74 Produktkode: B-22. Bøger på engelsk How Al-Anon Works - for Families & Friends of Alcoholics Al-Anons grundbog på engelsk, der indfører os i Al- Anon programmet. Om Al-Anons historie, om forståelse af os selv og alkoholismen.

Læs mere

EVENT DESCRIPTION RES-e Regions

EVENT DESCRIPTION RES-e Regions EVENT DESCRIPTION RES-e Regions Title: Visions for Solar Energy & Sustainable Energy Systems for Cities Date & location: 18 April 2007, Copenhagen Organizer: SolarCity Copenhagen and DTI Number of Participants:

Læs mere

KEA The sky is the limit 20. November 2013

KEA The sky is the limit 20. November 2013 KEA The sky is the limit 20. November 2013 Agenda Kort om Dansk Standard og standarder Dansk Standard er den nationale standardiseringsorganisation i Danmark Omsætning DKK 194 mio.kr. 160 medarbejdere

Læs mere

Overfør fritvalgskonto til pension

Overfør fritvalgskonto til pension Microsoft Development Center Copenhagen, January 2009 Løn Microsoft Dynamics C52008 SP1 Overfør fritvalgskonto til pension Contents Ønsker man at overføre fritvalgskonto til Pension... 3 Brug af lønart

Læs mere

02/10/2014. Sociological methods Introduction and operationalization. Agenda The workshop

02/10/2014. Sociological methods Introduction and operationalization. Agenda The workshop Sociological methods Introduction and operationalization Jesper Lassen Consumption, Bioethics and Governance IFRO ANIMPACT Workshop sept. 2-3, 2014 Agenda The workshop, Tuesday afternoon (the WPs) Presenting

Læs mere

(Text with EEA relevance)

(Text with EEA relevance) 24.4.2015 EN Official Journal of the European Union L 106/79 COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DECISION (EU) 2015/646 of 23 April 2015 pursuant to Article 3(3) of Regulation (EU) No 528/2012 of the European Parliament

Læs mere

Trolling Master Bornholm 2013

Trolling Master Bornholm 2013 Trolling Master Bornholm 2013 (English version further down) Tilmeldingen åbner om to uger Mandag den 3. december kl. 8.00 åbner tilmeldingen til Trolling Master Bornholm 2013. Vi har flere tilmeldinger

Læs mere

Lithium Batterier til transport; perspektiver og status

Lithium Batterier til transport; perspektiver og status Lithium Batterier til transport; perspektiver og status Poul Norby Department of Energy Conversion and Storage Technical University of Denmark Norge: Mest solgte bil i: oktober 2013: Nissan Leaf september

Læs mere

Afbestillingsforsikring

Afbestillingsforsikring Afbestillingsforsikring Sygdomsafbestillingsforsikring ved akut sygdom, ulykke. Da afbestilling på grund af akut sygdom, ulykke m.m. ikke fritager deltagerne for betaling, kan det anbefales, at der tegnes

Læs mere

DIRF IR strategi og implementering. 15 Marts 2011, Michael von Bulow, IR, Danmark

DIRF IR strategi og implementering. 15 Marts 2011, Michael von Bulow, IR, Danmark DIRF IR strategi og implementering 15 Marts 2011, Michael von Bulow, IR, Danmark Agenda Vores værdier IR og organisationen Planning wheel IR politik Aktiviteter & Output & KPI Udfordringer 2 Our five values

Læs mere

Nyhedsbrev 15 Februar 2008

Nyhedsbrev 15 Februar 2008 Nyhedsbrev 15 Februar 2008 FTU Boghandel Halmstadgade 6, 8200 Århus N Tlf: 86 10 03 38 / Mail:ftu@ats.dk / Inet: www.ftu.dk Hvem er FTU Boghandel? FTU Boghandel er en specialboghandel indenfor teknik,

Læs mere

Kriterie for at bestå: Deltagelse i undervisningstiden, udarbejdelse af e-magasin, deltagelse i fælles fremlægning.

Kriterie for at bestå: Deltagelse i undervisningstiden, udarbejdelse af e-magasin, deltagelse i fælles fremlægning. 1. E-MAGASINER (Herning) Hvem kan deltage: Studerende i Herning Kriterie for at bestå: Deltagelse i undervisningstiden, udarbejdelse af e-magasin, deltagelse i fælles fremlægning. På kurset lærer du at

Læs mere

UFM-IT and its administrative systems

UFM-IT and its administrative systems UFM-IT and its administrative systems Vis hjælpelin placering af o 1. Højre klik u Gitter og hjæ 2. Sæt hak ve Vis tegnehjæ 3. Sæt hak ve og Fastgør o 4. Vælg OK ens titel, etc menulinjen, ed / Sidefod

Læs mere

Appendix. Side 1 af 13

Appendix. Side 1 af 13 Appendix Side 1 af 13 Indhold Appendix... 3 A: Interview Guides... 3 1. English Version: Rasmus Ankær Christensen and Hanne Krabbe... 3 2. Dansk Oversættelse - Rasmus Ankær Christensen og Hanne Krabbe...

Læs mere

CSR SOM SALGSPARAMETER

CSR SOM SALGSPARAMETER CSR SOM SALGSPARAMETER Hvordan skaber det værdi og hvad skal der til? Af Charlotte B. Merlin AGENDA Kort om Hartmann Sælgernes rolle og træning Værktøjer og serviceydelser Kunderne Regler for etisk markedsføring

Læs mere

Trolling Master Bornholm 2013

Trolling Master Bornholm 2013 Trolling Master Bornholm 2013 (English version further down) Tilmeldingerne til 2013 I dag nåede vi op på 77 tilmeldte både. Det er lidt lavere end samme tidspunkt sidste år. Til gengæld er det glædeligt,

Læs mere

Totally Integrated Automation. Totally Integrated Automation sætter standarden for produktivitet.

Totally Integrated Automation. Totally Integrated Automation sætter standarden for produktivitet. Totally Integrated Automation Totally Integrated Automation sætter standarden for produktivitet. Bæredygtighed sikrer konkurrenceevnen på markedet og udnytter potentialerne optimalt. Totally Integrated

Læs mere

Læs venligst Beboer information om projekt vandskade - sikring i 2015/2016

Læs venligst Beboer information om projekt vandskade - sikring i 2015/2016 Læs venligst Beboer information om projekt vandskade - sikring i 2015/2016 Vi er nødsaget til at få adgang til din lejlighed!! Hvis Kridahl (VVS firma) har bedt om adgang til din/jeres lejlighed og nøgler,

Læs mere

ACADEMIC EDUCATION TO PROFESSIONS WITH A BACHELOR DEGREE - EXIT FROM OR BACK TO WORK AS HEALTH PROFESSIONAL

ACADEMIC EDUCATION TO PROFESSIONS WITH A BACHELOR DEGREE - EXIT FROM OR BACK TO WORK AS HEALTH PROFESSIONAL til Passata Light ACADEMIC EDUCATION TO PROFESSIONS WITH A BACHELOR DEGREE - EXIT FROM OR BACK TO WORK AS HEALTH PROFESSIONAL Berit Eika, professor, MD, Ph.D. r 2. linje i overskriften til Passata Light

Læs mere

The City Goods Ordinance. 1. Introduction. Web: www.citygods.dk. City Gods. Certificeret. E-mail: citygods@btf.kk.dk

The City Goods Ordinance. 1. Introduction. Web: www.citygods.dk. City Gods. Certificeret. E-mail: citygods@btf.kk.dk 1. Introduction Web: www.citygods.dk City Gods Certificeret E-mail: citygods@btf.kk.dk 2. The City Goods ordinance - main target City Goods ordinance: Vans and lorries over 2.500kg totalweigt must be 60%

Læs mere

Klimatilpasning og Skybrudsplan. Kan det betale sig? Case: Copenhagen and Frederiksberg. Arne Bernt Hasling. abh@cowi.dk

Klimatilpasning og Skybrudsplan. Kan det betale sig? Case: Copenhagen and Frederiksberg. Arne Bernt Hasling. abh@cowi.dk Aarhus, Regional Miljøkonference 2012.10.31 Klimatilpasning og Skybrudsplan Kan det betale sig? Case: Copenhagen and Frederiksberg Arne Bernt Hasling abh@cowi.dk 1 The basic assumptions Development in

Læs mere

Europaudvalget 2013-14 EUU Alm.del Bilag 575 Offentligt

Europaudvalget 2013-14 EUU Alm.del Bilag 575 Offentligt Europaudvalget 2013-14 EUU Alm.del Bilag 575 Offentligt Kære folketingsmedlem, medlem af Europaudvalget Hver gang vi har haft EU parlamentsvalg har det lydt: nu skal vi have borgerne til at interessere

Læs mere

Brugerdreven innovation

Brugerdreven innovation Det innovative potentiale Brugerdreven innovation Hvad er det, brugere kan se? Hvordan optager organisationer brugerviden? Om at skære ud i pap Cases: Fjernvarmeanlæg, rensningsanlæg, indeklima Jacob Buur

Læs mere

An Open-access Cost of Energy Calculation Tool for Wave Energy Projects The Danish Case Julia Fernández Chozas

An Open-access Cost of Energy Calculation Tool for Wave Energy Projects The Danish Case Julia Fernández Chozas An Open-access Cost of Energy Calculation Tool for Wave Energy Projects The Danish Case Julia Fernández Chozas N. E. Helstrup Jensen (Energinet.dk) J. P. Kofoed (Aalborg University) 4th Annual HMRC Economic

Læs mere

Information Systems ICT. Welcome to. Autumn Meeting Oct 2013, Copenhagen(DK)

Information Systems ICT. Welcome to. Autumn Meeting Oct 2013, Copenhagen(DK) Information Systems ICT Welcome to Autumn Meeting Oct 2013, Copenhagen(DK) Agenda Autumn Meeting 2013 Thursday 24:th of October 10:00 Velkomst. Status fra formanden og gennemgang af program for høstmødet

Læs mere

Recycling with care we think about the future

Recycling with care we think about the future Recycling with care we think about the future At RC Plastic, we recycle everything and have been doing so for 30 years RC Plast A/S was founded in 1984 with the aim of collecting factory waste from the

Læs mere

RentCalC V2.0. 2012 Soft-Solutions

RentCalC V2.0. 2012 Soft-Solutions Udlejnings software Vores udvikling er ikke stoppet!! by Soft-Solutions RentCalC, som er danmarks ubetinget bedste udlejnings software, kan hjælpe dig med på en hurtigt og simple måde, at holde styr på

Læs mere

Aktivitet Dag Start Lektioner Uge BASP0_V1006U_International Human Resource Management/Lecture/BASP0V1006U.LA_E15onsdag 11:40 3 36 41

Aktivitet Dag Start Lektioner Uge BASP0_V1006U_International Human Resource Management/Lecture/BASP0V1006U.LA_E15onsdag 11:40 3 36 41 Aktivitet Dag Start Lektioner Uge BASP0_V1006U_International Human Resource Management/Lecture/BASP0V1006U.LA_E15onsdag 11:40 3 36 41 BASP0_V1006U_International Human Resource Management/Lecture/BASP0V1006U.LA_E15tirsdag

Læs mere

Mobile Hospitals. A world on wheels

Mobile Hospitals. A world on wheels Mobile Hospitals A world on wheels 01 HMK bilcon presentation history, products, facts 02 Mobile Blood Donation Units 3D film Examples Standard specifications Fully custom made solutions Film preparing

Læs mere

Subject to terms and conditions. WEEK Type Price EUR WEEK Type Price EUR WEEK Type Price EUR WEEK Type Price EUR

Subject to terms and conditions. WEEK Type Price EUR WEEK Type Price EUR WEEK Type Price EUR WEEK Type Price EUR ITSO SERVICE OFFICE Weeks for Sale 31/05/2015 m: +34 636 277 307 w: clublasanta-timeshare.com e: roger@clublasanta.com See colour key sheet news: rogercls.blogspot.com Subject to terms and conditions THURSDAY

Læs mere

Transformering af OIOXML til OIOUBL og OIOUBL til OIOXML

Transformering af OIOXML til OIOUBL og OIOUBL til OIOXML Microsoft Development Center Copenhagen, July 2010 OIOXML / OIOUBL Microsoft Dynamics C5 Transformering af OIOXML til OIOUBL og OIOUBL til OIOXML Indledning Indledning... 3 Anvendelse af værktøjet... 3

Læs mere

User guide - For testing SFTP and HTTP/S data communication

User guide - For testing SFTP and HTTP/S data communication User guide - For testing SFTP and HTTP/S data communication with Nets Danmark A/S P. 1-9 Index General information... 3 Introduction... 3 Rights... 3 Limitations... 3 Prerequisites... 3 Preparations...

Læs mere

Vind Seminar Fredericia 4. april 2013 JOB2SEA

Vind Seminar Fredericia 4. april 2013 JOB2SEA Vind Seminar Fredericia 4. april 2013 JOB2SEA Rekrutteringsstrategi i et svært marked. Helle Drachmann Baggrund Job- & CV database Outplacement & transition management Koncern HR Selvstændig virksomhed

Læs mere

Healthcare Apps. OUH Odense University Hospital & Svendborg Hospital. Kiel, Germany, November 2013 1 05/12/13

Healthcare Apps. OUH Odense University Hospital & Svendborg Hospital. Kiel, Germany, November 2013 1 05/12/13 Healthcare Apps OUH Odense University Hospital & Svendborg Hospital Kiel, Germany, November 2013 1 05/12/13 Jesper Lakman Senior Consultant Digital InnovaGon (4 employees) IT Department (140 employees)

Læs mere

Mobile Marketing Solutions. meet the customers where they are

Mobile Marketing Solutions. meet the customers where they are Mobile Marketing Solutions meet the customers where they are Bliv centrum for opmærksomhed Med en trailer fra Event Carrier kan du køre dit brand direkte ind i folks bevidsthed og gøre det til en opsigtsvækkende

Læs mere

The Use of RFID transponders By Klaus Nissen kni@berendsen.dk

The Use of RFID transponders By Klaus Nissen kni@berendsen.dk The Use of RFID transponders By Klaus Nissen kni@berendsen.dk Page 1 Agenda Berendsen Textile Service who we are How do we use the transponders The future Page 2 You have most probably used our products,

Læs mere

Som mentalt og moralsk problem

Som mentalt og moralsk problem Rasmus Vincentz 'Klimaproblemerne - hvad rager det mig?' Rasmus Vincentz - November 2010 - Som mentalt og moralsk problem Som problem for vores videnskablige verdensbillede Som problem med økonomisk system

Læs mere

Ilisimatusarfik HD Dimittender 2011

Ilisimatusarfik HD Dimittender 2011 HD dimittender 2011 Louise Langholz lol@ral.gl Forandringsledelse Fra forståelse til handling en planlagt organisationsforandring En undersøgelse af hvordan Royal Arctic Line A/S gennemfører etablering

Læs mere

Vejledning til brugen af bybrandet

Vejledning til brugen af bybrandet Vejledning til brugen af bybrandet Indhold Hvorfor bruge bybrandet? s. 3-4 Inspiration/ big idea s. 5-10 Syv former for bybranding s. 11-18 Brug af logoet s. 19-21 Find desuden flere cases, designelementer

Læs mere

Backup Applikation. Microsoft Dynamics C5 Version 2008. Sikkerhedskopiering

Backup Applikation. Microsoft Dynamics C5 Version 2008. Sikkerhedskopiering Backup Applikation Microsoft Dynamics C5 Version 2008 Sikkerhedskopiering Indhold Sikkerhedskopiering... 3 Hvad bliver sikkerhedskopieret... 3 Microsoft Dynamics C5 Native database... 3 Microsoft SQL Server

Læs mere

Arbitration in Denmark

Arbitration in Denmark Arbitration in Denmark Steffen Pihlblad Christian Lundblad Claus Søgaard-Christensen DJØF PUBLISHING Arbitration in Denmark Eds. Grith Skovgaard Ølykke Carina Risvig Hansen Steffen Pihlblad, Christina

Læs mere

Hvor er mine runde hjørner?

Hvor er mine runde hjørner? Hvor er mine runde hjørner? Ofte møder vi fortvivlelse blandt kunder, når de ser deres nye flotte site i deres browser og indser, at det ser anderledes ud, i forhold til det design, de godkendte i starten

Læs mere

PROGRAM 2010. Erfaring - Inspiration - Network - Idéer - Viden. HP Test Brugergruppe Brugerkonference. 11. november 2010

PROGRAM 2010. Erfaring - Inspiration - Network - Idéer - Viden. HP Test Brugergruppe Brugerkonference. 11. november 2010 PROGRAM Erfaring - Inspiration - Network - Idéer - Viden Hotel Scandic Copenhagen Vester Søgade 6 1601 København 09:00-09:30 Modtagelse og morgenmad 09:30-09:45 Velkomst og præsentation af konferencen

Læs mere

Climate adaptation in Denmarkand a groundwater dilemma

Climate adaptation in Denmarkand a groundwater dilemma Climate adaptation in Denmarkand a groundwater dilemma Rolf Johnsen www.regionmidtjylland.dk Challenges with water Denmark 10-40% Precipitation ½-1m Sea level change 5-15 % Increase in runoff 0-2 m Groundwater

Læs mere

MANCHESTER OG LIVERPOOL

MANCHESTER OG LIVERPOOL STUDIETUR FOR ØKONOMI UDVALGET TIL MANCHESTER OG LIVERPOOL 1.-5. OKTOBER 2014 FORMÅL, TEMA, PARALELLER OG FORELØBIGT PROGRAM http://manchestergazette.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/city_dusk_landscape.jpg

Læs mere

Masters Thesis - registration form Kandidatafhandling registreringsformular

Masters Thesis - registration form Kandidatafhandling registreringsformular Masters Thesis - registration form Kandidatafhandling registreringsformular Godkendelse af emne for hovedopgave af vejleder og undervisningskoordinator. Læs venligst retningslinjerne sidst i dette dokument

Læs mere

ATU Seminar 2014: Innova4on

ATU Seminar 2014: Innova4on ATU Seminar 2014: Innova4on Who are we? Professors and students from Innova&on and Business SDU Campus Sønderborg SDU Campus Sønderborg Approx. 1.000 Students Engineering, Social Science und Humani4es

Læs mere

Rentemarkedet. Markedskommentarer og prognose. Kilde, afdækning Dato 12. august 2014

Rentemarkedet. Markedskommentarer og prognose. Kilde, afdækning Dato 12. august 2014 Rentemarkedet Markedskommentarer og prognose Kilde, afdækning Dato 12. august 2014 Rentemarkedet DKK siden august og fremover 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 August 2013 NU Vores forventning til renteniveauet om 1 år

Læs mere

The New Line Copenhagen-Ringsted. Bentleyusers.dk 14 November 2011

The New Line Copenhagen-Ringsted. Bentleyusers.dk 14 November 2011 The New Line Copenhagen-Ringsted Bentleyusers.dk 14 November 2011 Rail transport in Denmark The history of rail transport in Denmark began in 1847 with the opening of a railway line between Copenhagen

Læs mere

Bilag 2. International evaluering af Det Tekniske Fakultets ph.d.-skole og vurdering af ph.d.-afhandlinger

Bilag 2. International evaluering af Det Tekniske Fakultets ph.d.-skole og vurdering af ph.d.-afhandlinger Bilag 2. International evaluering af Det Tekniske Fakultets ph.d.-skole og vurdering af ph.d.-afhandlinger Baggrund og valg af metode: TEK har valgt at gennemføre den internationale evaluering som en løbende,

Læs mere

Microsoft Dynamics C5. Nyheder Kreditorbetalinger

Microsoft Dynamics C5. Nyheder Kreditorbetalinger Microsoft Dynamics C5 Nyheder Kreditorbetalinger INDHOLDSFORTEGNELSE Indledning... 3 Uddybning af ændringer... 4 Forbedring vedr. betalings-id er... 4 Ændringer i betalingsmåder (kreditorbetalinger)...

Læs mere

LIFE projekt praktik fra Usserød Å Naturstyrelsens informationsmøde Odense 11. juni 2015

LIFE projekt praktik fra Usserød Å Naturstyrelsens informationsmøde Odense 11. juni 2015 LIFE projekt praktik fra Usserød Å Naturstyrelsens informationsmøde Odense 11. juni 2015 Case historien Usserød Å, kort Projektverdenen ifølge LIFE Kontrakten med LIFE Hvorfor er planen så vigtig? Hvad

Læs mere

Kapitalstruktur i Danmark. M. Borberg og J. Motzfeldt

Kapitalstruktur i Danmark. M. Borberg og J. Motzfeldt Kapitalstruktur i Danmark M. Borberg og J. Motzfeldt KORT OM ANALYSEN Omfattende studie i samarbejde med Økonomisk Ugebrev Indblik i ledelsens motiver for valg af kapitalstruktur Er der en optimal kapitalstruktur

Læs mere

Report on the 1 st National Workshop in Denmark

Report on the 1 st National Workshop in Denmark : Development of sustainable heat markets for biogas plants in Europe Project No: IEE/11/025/SI2.616366 Report on the 1 st National Workshop in Denmark Forbedret udnyttelse af varme fra Biogasanlæg Tirsdag

Læs mere

Facilitering af Kreativitet & Innovation i VELUX Gruppen. Line Louise Overgaard Concepts & Innovation Support

Facilitering af Kreativitet & Innovation i VELUX Gruppen. Line Louise Overgaard Concepts & Innovation Support Facilitering af Kreativitet & Innovation i VELUX Gruppen Line Louise Overgaard Concepts & Innovation Support Fordi lys skaber liv VELUX Gruppen Etableret i 1941 Mere end 10.000 ansatte globalt heraf 2.600

Læs mere

Factsheet. Microsoft Dynamics C5 Version 2008. eindkomst

Factsheet. Microsoft Dynamics C5 Version 2008. eindkomst Factsheet Microsoft Dynamics C5 Version 2008 eindkomst Indholdsfortegnelse Indledning... 3 Opsætning inden ibrugtagning... 3 Dan fil til eindkomst... 4 2 FACTSHEET EINDKOMST FOR MICROSOFT DYNAMICS C5 VERSION

Læs mere

Evalueringsformer i HCI Design & evaluering Design og evaluering integrerede aktiviteter (studér kundernes arbejde - designe - evaluér - iterér)

Evalueringsformer i HCI Design & evaluering Design og evaluering integrerede aktiviteter (studér kundernes arbejde - designe - evaluér - iterér) Evalueringsformer i HCI Design & evaluering Design og evaluering integrerede aktiviteter (studér kundernes arbejde - designe - evaluér - iterér) Teknikker til design omfatter: Opgave/arbejdsanalyser Brugerinddragelse,

Læs mere

Test-en-elbil Afslutningskonference 23. Juni 2014 Trafikstyrelsen

Test-en-elbil Afslutningskonference 23. Juni 2014 Trafikstyrelsen Test-en-elbil Afslutningskonference 23. Juni 2014 Trafikstyrelsen Jeannette Møller Jørgensen JMJ@energinet.dk Forskningskoordinator Energinet.dk Om Energinet.dk 23. juni 2014 Test-en-elbil 2 Et elsystem

Læs mere

Gearbox testing. Wednesday 23 rd May 2012. Members meeting at: SDU Auditorium SydDansk Universitet, Niels Bohrs Allé 1, 5230 Odense M

Gearbox testing. Wednesday 23 rd May 2012. Members meeting at: SDU Auditorium SydDansk Universitet, Niels Bohrs Allé 1, 5230 Odense M Medlemsmøde foråret 2012 Revision B 2011-04-24 Gearbox testing Wednesday 23 rd May 2012 Members meeting at: SDU Auditorium SydDansk Universitet, Niels Bohrs Allé 1, 5230 Odense M Midlertidigt Program/

Læs mere

Bæredygtig kørsel af genanvendeligt affald

Bæredygtig kørsel af genanvendeligt affald Rødovre Kommune Bæredygtig kørsel af genanvendeligt affald Slutrapport om projekt for anskaffelse og drift af en ellastbil Juli 2015 Indholdsfortegnelse Abstract... 2 Sammenfatning... 3 Problemstilling...

Læs mere

Trolling Master Bornholm 2013

Trolling Master Bornholm 2013 Trolling Master Bornholm 2013 (English version further down) Tilmeldingerne til 2013 I dag nåede vi op på 85 tilmeldte både. Det er stadig lidt lavere end samme tidspunkt sidste år. Tilmeldingen er åben

Læs mere

The Post Code in the Address. legal framework, maintenance processes and data registration of Danish post codes

The Post Code in the Address. legal framework, maintenance processes and data registration of Danish post codes The Post Code in the Address legal framework, maintenance processes and data registration of Danish post codes Adresseprogrammet 2 Nordisk Adressemøde, Kokkola 21.-22. maj 2014 Topics Background: Why postcodes

Læs mere

AARHUS UNIVERSITET 12. OKTOBER, 2009

AARHUS UNIVERSITET 12. OKTOBER, 2009 12. OKTOBER, 2009 FGE - partners Aalborg Universitet Aarhus Universitet AgroTech A/S Boeing Chr. Hansen A/S Danfoss A/S DI Energibranchen DONG Energy A/S Energinet.dk GridManager A/S Grundfos A/S Landbrug

Læs mere

Public-private partnerships in Urban Development

Public-private partnerships in Urban Development Public-private partnerships in Urban Development - lessons from Danish and international research Ole Helby Petersen Seniorforsker, ph.d. KORA (olhe@kora.dk) The challenge of PPPs 2 Public Private Partnership:

Læs mere

Afbestillingsforsikring

Afbestillingsforsikring Afbestillingsforsikring Sygdomsafbestillingsforsikring ved akut sygdom, ulykke. Da afbestilling på grund af akut sygdom, ulykke m.m. ikke fritager deltagerne for betaling, kan det anbefales, at der tegnes

Læs mere

Klædt på til fremtidens udfordringer?

Klædt på til fremtidens udfordringer? Klædt på til fremtidens udfordringer? Tema: Uddannelse med fokus på risiko og risikostyring. Institution: Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri & Anlæg Geografisk placering: Esbjerg Forfattere: Lars

Læs mere

WINDCHILL THE NEXT STEPS

WINDCHILL THE NEXT STEPS WINDCHILL THE NEXT STEPS PTC/user, 4. marts 2015 Jens Christian Jensen, Econocap Agenda Windchill the next steps Bliv opdateret og inspireret til at se hvor Windchill kan hjælpe dig med andet end blot

Læs mere

TILGANG Arbejdskraft 700 Befolkning 1.300 Boliger 500 Heraf singleboliger 200 Heraf familieboliger 300 Daginstitutionspladser 125

TILGANG Arbejdskraft 700 Befolkning 1.300 Boliger 500 Heraf singleboliger 200 Heraf familieboliger 300 Daginstitutionspladser 125 1 2 TILGANG Arbejdskraft 700 Befolkning 1.300 Boliger 500 Heraf singleboliger 200 Heraf familieboliger 300 Daginstitutionspladser 125 Fritidsordningspladser 200 Skolefaciliteter 250 Fig. 4.8 Š Basisscenarium,

Læs mere

4. Oktober 2011 EWIS

4. Oktober 2011 EWIS 4. Oktober 2011 EWIS EWIS 1.Hvad betyder EWIS 2.Historien bag bestemmelserne 3.Implementering i Part M / 145 4.Konklusion Hvad er EWIS Electrical Wiring Interconnection System Men i denne sammenhæng: Særlig

Læs mere

What s Love Got to Do With It?

What s Love Got to Do With It? What s Love Got to Do With It? Gram Grid Present Continuous Vi sætter verberne i ing-form, når vi vil beskrive at noget er i gang. Der er fire hovedkategorier af ing-form: 1 Den almindelige form (common

Læs mere

Københavns erfaringer med de første brintbiler.» Birte Busch Thomsen» Projektleder» Københavns Kommune

Københavns erfaringer med de første brintbiler.» Birte Busch Thomsen» Projektleder» Københavns Kommune Københavns erfaringer med de første brintbiler» Birte Busch Thomsen» Projektleder» Københavns Kommune København CO2 neutral i 2025 CPH 2025 Climate Plan Energy Consumption Energy Production Mobility City

Læs mere

DIRF. Medlemsmøde om Best Practice Disclosure policy and process. 22. Juni 2015

DIRF. Medlemsmøde om Best Practice Disclosure policy and process. 22. Juni 2015 Medlemsmøde om 22. Juni 2015 Realitet I (Extract) bewildering amount of firm news lower barriers to global investment increasingly competitive environment the value created by effectively communicating

Læs mere

Oplæg fra NHS`s baggrund for deres nye sundhedsprogram 2013-2016 - med fokus på ledelse. Oplægsholder: Inge Pia Christensen

Oplæg fra NHS`s baggrund for deres nye sundhedsprogram 2013-2016 - med fokus på ledelse. Oplægsholder: Inge Pia Christensen Oplæg fra NHS`s baggrund for deres nye sundhedsprogram 2013-2016 - med fokus på ledelse Oplægsholder: Inge Pia Christensen Improving the safety of patients in NHS 2013-16 The National Health Service (NHS)

Læs mere

DIRF Samspil mellem IR og øvrig ekstern kommunikation

DIRF Samspil mellem IR og øvrig ekstern kommunikation DIRF Samspil mellem IR og øvrig ekstern kommunikation Iben Steiness Director, Carlsberg Investor Relations Agenda Introduktion Ekstern kommunikation i Carlsberg IR vs medier Praktiske eksempler Page 2

Læs mere

Interkulturelle Markedsstudier

Interkulturelle Markedsstudier Udkast til Kandidatuddannelse Interkulturelle Markedsstudier Sprog, Kultur og Markeder KU og CBS 2016 Fælles kommissorium....universiteterne ønsker at udvikle en eller flere fælles kandidatuddannelser

Læs mere

Microsoft Development Center Copenhagen, December 2009. Factsheet. Microsoft Dynamics C5 2010. Web Services

Microsoft Development Center Copenhagen, December 2009. Factsheet. Microsoft Dynamics C5 2010. Web Services Microsoft Development Center Copenhagen, December 2009 Factsheet Microsoft Dynamics C5 2010 Web Services Indhold Indledning... 3 Integration til Krak... 4 Krak på debitor og kreditor... 4 Krak på løn...

Læs mere

Implementering af evidensbaseret viden lederskab som bærende faktor

Implementering af evidensbaseret viden lederskab som bærende faktor Implementering af evidensbaseret viden lederskab som bærende faktor Bianca Albers Familie og Evidens Center Fokus for oplægget Evidens Ledelse Implementering Outcome Evidensbaseret vs. evidensinformeret

Læs mere

Business Model Genertion

Business Model Genertion Business Model Genertion Some Business Model definitions Porter s the essence of formulating competitive strategy is relating a company to its environment BusinessModelGeneration A business model describes

Læs mere