On the Existence of an Extremal Function in the Delsarte Extremal Problem

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1 Mediterr. J. Math. (2020) 17: /20/ published online October 24, 2020 c The Author(s) 2020 On the Existence of an Extremal Function in the Delsarte Extremal Problem Marcell aál and Zsuzsanna Nagy-Csiha Abstract. This paper is concerned with a Delsarte-type extremal problem. Denote by P() the set of positive definite continuous functions on a locally compact abelian group. We consider the function class, which was originally introduced by orbachev, (W, Q) = { f P() L 1 () : f(0) = 1, supp f + W, supp f } Q where W is closed and of finite Haar measure and Q Ĝ is compact. We also consider the related Delsarte-type problem of finding the extremal quantity { } D(W, Q) = sup f(g)dλ (g) : f (W, Q). The main objective of the current paper is to prove the existence of an extremal function for the Delsarte-type extremal problem D(W, Q). The existence of the extremal function has recently been established by Berdysheva and Révész in the most immediate case where = R d.so, the novelty here is that we consider the problem in the general setting of locally compact abelian groups. In this way, our result provides a far reaching generalization of the former work of Berdysheva and Révész. Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 43A35, 43A40; Secondary 43A25, 43A70. Keywords. LCA groups, fourier transform, positive definite functions, Delsarte s extremal problem. 1. Introduction The Fourier analytic formulation of the so-called Delsarte extremal problem on R d incorporates the calculation of the numerical quantity sup f(0) 1 = sup f(x)dx, (2π) d 2 R d

2 190 Page 2 of 16 M. aál and Z. Nagy-Csiha MJOM provided that (i) f L 1 (R d ), f is continuous and bounded on R d, (ii) f(0) = 1, (iii) f(x) 0for x 2and (iv) f(y) 0. The last property (iv) can be interpreted as f being positive definite; see the precise definition of positive definiteness in the forthcoming section. The Delsarte extremal problem has generated broad interest because of its intimate connections to different problems from various branches of mathematics. First of all, the linear programming bound of Delsarte is useful in coding and design theory as well. Second, let us mention that relying on Delsarte s problem, upper bounds can be derived for the sphere packing density of R d [2,8,17,23,24]. Moreover, orbachev and Tikhonov [10] worked out a further concrete application of the Delsarte problem for the so-called Wiener problem. A few of years ago, Viazovska [22] solved the sphere packing problem in dimension 8, combining the Delsarte extremal problem with modular form techniques. Subsequently, in the paper [4], Cohn et al. resolved the problem also in dimension 24. Besides solving the Delsarte problem, further challenging and closely related questions come into picture. As for recent investigations in this direction, we refer to the seminal paper of Berdysheva and Révész [1]. They have pointed out the independence of the extremal constant from the underlying function class. Furthermore, they showed the existence of an extremal function in band-limited cases. The main objective of the current paper is to prove an analogous result for general LCA groups. Actually we discuss two proofs, the key difference being the use in the second one of a suggestion for which we thank our referee. 2. The Result Before moving on, we need some more preliminaries. In the first part of the section, we summarize the necessary background from the field of abstract harmonic analysis. Let be a locally compact abelian group (LCA group for short). The dual group of is denoted by Ĝ, by which we mean the set of continuous homomorphisms of into the complex unit circle T, the multiplication being the pointwise multiplication of functions. For a compact set K andanopensetu T, consider the set P (K, U) :={χ Ĝ : χ(k) U}. Then the compact open topology on Ĝ contains the sets P (K, U) as a subbasis. By this topology, Ĝ acquires an LCA group structure. The Pontryagin van Kampen Duality Theorem asserts that is isomorphic to Ĝ, both as groups and as topological spaces. In this case δ stands for the corresponding natural

3 MJOM On the Existence of an Extremal Page 3 of isomorphism, that is, δ g (χ) :=χ(g), χ Ĝ and δ : Ĝ, g δ g which is usually called the Pontryagin map. Recall that a continuous function f C() is called positive definite (denoted by f 0) if the inequality c j c k f(g j g k ) 0 (1) k=1 holds for all choices of n N, c j C and g j for j =1,...,n. Throughout the paper, the set of continuous positive definite functions defined on will be denoted by P(). If λ is a (fixed, conveniently normalized) Haar measure on, then the condition (1) for continuous f is equivalent to f(g s)ϕ(g)ϕ(s)dλ (g)dλ (s) 0 for every ϕ L 1 () (see, for instance [6, Proposition ]). The next properties will be quite useful in the sequel. We have [12, 32.4.] Lemma 1. Let be an LCA group and denote by the convolution. (1) If f is a positive definite function on, then (a) f(g) f(0) = f for all g ; (b) fdλ 0. (2) If ϕ L 2 () and ϕ is defined as ϕ(g) :=ϕ( g) (g ), then the convolution square ϕ ϕ is a continuous positive definite function. For any f L 1 (), its Fourier transform f is defined on Ĝ as f(χ) = f(g)χ(g)dλ (g), χ Ĝ. The Inversion Theorem (cf. [20, Sect. 1.5]) asserts that if f belongs to [P() L 1 ()], the subspace generated by P() L 1 (), then f ) L (Ĝ 1 and the Haar measure λĝ on Ĝ can be normalized so that f(g) = f ( δg 1). We shall use this Haar measure ) (the so-called Plancherel measure) on the dual group Ĝ. Fork L (Ĝ 1, introducing the conjugate Fourier transform F as F (k)(g) := k(χ)δ g (χ)dλĝ(χ), g, Ĝ ( ) the Inversion Theorem can be rephrased as f = F f and is satisfied for every f [P() L 1 ()]. Another important tool in our study is the Plancherel Theorem ) which asserts that the Fourier transform F :[P() L 1 ()] L (Ĝ 2 canbeextended to a unitary equivalence U : L 2 () L ) (Ĝ 2. This unitary operator is called the Plancherel transform. We abuse notation and do not distinguish the usual Fourier transform and the latter extension.

4 190 Page 4 of 16 M. aál and Z. Nagy-Csiha MJOM Denote, as usual, x + := max(x, 0) and x := max( x, 0) for any x R, with similar notation for functions as well. In this paper, we consider the function class (W, Q) = { f P() L 1 () : f(0) = 1, supp f + W, supp f } Q, (2) where W is closed and of finite Haar measure and Q Ĝ is compact. It was originally introduced by orbachev [8] in connection with the Delsartetype problem of finding the extremal quantity { } D(W, Q) =sup f(g)dλ (g) : f (W, Q) (3) in the most immediate case where = R d, W = B = {x R d : x 1} and Q = rb with some real number r>0. In the very recent publication [1], Berdysheva and Révész analyzed in detail the aforementioned Delsarte-type extremal quantity. When = R d, they collect and work up extensive information, which were in part either folklore or just available in different unpublished sources, to clarify the existence of extremal functions f (W, Q) R d in certain band-limited cases, that is, when W is closed and of finite Lebesgue measure and Q is compact. Since the problem of existence of the extremal function makes sense also in case of general LCA groups, our objective is to obtain a completely analogous counterpart of the aforementioned result in the general setting of LCA groups. More precisely, we intend to prove the following. Theorem 2. Let be any LCA group. If W is closed with positive, finite Haar measure and Q Ĝ is compact, then there exists an extremal function f (W, Q) satisfying fdλ = D(W, Q). Note that the existence of an extremal function might be helpful in calculating or estimating the extremal constant itself. That explains the effort undertaken, for instance in [1,3,4,7 10,14,15], to prove the existence of extremal functions. As we will see, the argument of [1] cannot be directly copied here. Indeed, in [1], the authors use estimation of modulus of smoothness, Bessel functions and their decrease estimates, and σ-compactness of the underlying group R d ; however, for our general groups, all these are no longer available. 3. Preliminary Lemmata Recall that a Banach space X is called weakly compactly generated (WC for short) if it has a weakly compact subset whose linear span is dense in X. Fundamental examples of such spaces are separable normed spaces and reflexive Banach spaces.

5 MJOM On the Existence of an Extremal Page 5 of An important property what we shall apply in our argument is that the unit ball of the dual space of a WC space is weak- sequentially compact (see [5], p. 148). For a general LCA group, it might be difficult to characterize when L 1 () turns to be a WC space; however, a sufficient condition for that is the σ-compactness of. This sufficiency can be seen by composing two wellknown results. First, note that the space L 1 (X, μ) is WC when the occurring measure μ is σ-finite on X (see [19], p. 36). Second, the Haar measure on the LCA group is σ-finite exactly when is σ-compact. Moreover, in that case, we have the duality ( L 1 () ) = L () of Banach spaces (see [13, Theorem ] and cf. [21], p. 11) because a σ-finite measure is decomposable. The proof of Theorem 2 rests heavily on a technical lemma. Lemma 3. Let W be closed and of finite Haar measure and let Q Ĝ be compact. Then the function class (W, Q) C() is relatively compact in the compact convergence topology. In the setting = R d, the above lemma has been a part of the proof of [1, 3.5. Proposition], and its proof is based on the Arzelá-Ascoli Theorem and on the estimation of the modulus of continuity. We are unable to carry out this argument in the general case of LCA groups. Thus, we will prove the LCA group counterpart in a slightly different way, involving some basic notions and properties from the theory of topological vector spaces, which are given in the forthcoming paragraphs. Let A X be any subset of a locally convex (Hausdorff) topological vector space X. Then, A is called totally bounded, whenever for every neighbourhood V of the origin, there is a finite subset S A such that A is contained in S + V. Obviously, this requirement can be equivalently assumed only for neighbourhoods belonging to a given neighbourhood base of X. A topological vector space X is called complete if every Cauchy net has a limit in X. Further for any locally convex topological space X, there is a unique (up to a linear homeomorphism) pair ( X,j) of a complete space X and a linear homeomorphic embedding j : X X such that j(x) is dense in X. If is an LCA group, then the relative compactness can be verified by using the following result from the theory of locally convex spaces (see, for instance [16, Theorem ]). Lemma 4. For every subset E of a locally convex topological vector space X, the following are equivalent. (1) E is totally bounded. (2) E is relatively compact in the completion of X. (3) Every sequence of E has a cluster point in the completion of X. Proof of Lemma 3. According to Lemma 4, we are going to show that (W, Q) is totally bounded. First note that in the space C() (equipped with the compact convergence topology) for any compact set K and any ε>0, the U(f; K, ε)-neighbourhood of the function f C() is defined as U(f; K, ε) ={h C() : h f C(K) <ε}.

6 190 Page 6 of 16 M. aál and Z. Nagy-Csiha MJOM This forms the defining neighbourhood base for compact convergence on C(). So, our aim is to show that for any ε>0 and any compact set K, there exists a finite set {f 1,...,f n } (W, Q) such that n (W, Q) U(f j ; K, ε). As by assumption, Q Ĝ is compact in the compact convergence topology, and Q is totally bounded as well. It means that there exists a finite set {χ 1,...,χ n } Q such that for every γ Q, we get that γ χ j C(K) <ε for some j {1,...,n}. Via the disjointization procedure, Q 1 :=U(χ 1 ; K, ε) Q, Q 2 :=U(χ 2 ; K, ε) (Q\Q 1 ),. Q n :=U(χ n ; K, ε) (Q\(Q 1... Q n 1 )), we obtain a partition {Q 1,...,Q n } of Q such that every Q j (j =1,...,n)isa Borel sets with compact closure, and for any γ Q j we have γ χ j C(K) <ε. Next, choose an element f (W, Q) and define F (g) := χ j (g) f(χ)dλĝ(χ) c j (f)χ j (g) Q j with c j (f) := Q j f(χ)dλĝ(χ), where c j (f) 0 because of the positive definiteness of f, and c j (f) = f(χ)dλĝ(χ) =f(0) = 1. Ĝ Note that f (W, Q) L 1 () and supp f Q implies f ) L (Ĝ p (1 p ). By the Inversion Theorem, we get for g K in view of f 0 that f(g) F (g) = (χ(g) χ j (g)) f(χ)dλĝ(χ) Q j ε f(0) = ε and so f F C(K) ε. Letm > n/ε be an integer, and define d j (f) := [m c j (f)]/m. Then we have c j (f)χ j d j (f)χ j 1 < m = n m <ε. C(K) It follows that f d j (f)χ j f F C(K) + F C(K) d j (f)χ j < 2ε. C(K)

7 MJOM On the Existence of an Extremal Page 7 of For any choice of the function f (W, Q), one has d j (f) {0, 1/m,...,1}, whence the set m r j χ j : r j {0, 1/m,...,1} (4) forms a finite 2ε-net for (W, Q) on K with respect to the compact convergence topology. This holds for any base neighbourhood of the form U (0; K, 2ε). Therefore, we found a finite net (4) such that the respective translates of U (0; K, 2ε) cover (W, Q), so the function set (W, Q) is totally bounded. 4. First Proof of the Theorem In the sequel, we make crucial use of the following selection lemma. Lemma 5. Suppose that is σ-compact. Let (f n ) be a sequence in (W, Q). Then there exists a subsequence of (f n ) which converges to a function f (W, Q) uniformly on every compact set and also in a weak-* sense. Moreover, we have the inequality fdλ lim sup f n dλ. (5) Proof of Lemma 5. In the first part of the proof, we use the arguments given in [1]. Let (f n ) be a sequence in (W, Q). Using Lemmata 3, 4 and the completeness of C() with respect to the compact convergence topology, we conclude that there exists a subsequence of (f n ) which tends to some f C() uniformly on every compact set, and thus also in the pointwise sense. Without loss of generality, we may and do assume that (f n ) itself converges to f. Next, we intend to show that f (W, Q). Since the pointwise limit of positive definite functions is likewise positive definite, it follows that f 0 holds. As W is closed, we clearly have supp f + W = W, f(0) = 1 and f 1. Now, we are concerned with verifying that f belongs to L 1 (). Writing f = f + f and, in a similar fashion, f n =(f n ) + (f n ) one has (f n ) ± f ± in the pointwise sense. An application of Fatou s lemma gives us that f dλ lim inf (f n ) dλ. (6) For the positive parts, note that (f n ) + and f + are all supported in W,and (f n ) + (f n ) + (0) = 1, all the functions f n belonging to (W, Q). That is, (f n ) + 1 W, which is integrable because W has finite Haar measure. Therefore, the Lebesgue Dominated Convergence Theorem yields f + dλ = lim (f n ) + dλ. (7)

8 190 Page 8 of 16 M. aál and Z. Nagy-Csiha MJOM Note that then f dλ = because f + dλ + + lim inf (f n ) dλ = f dλ lim (f n ) + dλ +, (f n ) dλ 2 lim (f n ) + dλ 2λ (W ) ((f n ) + f n )dλ (f n ) + dλ for each n, for f ndλ 0inviewoff n 0. Therefore, we have also proved f L 1 (), that is, also f C() L 1 () L (), whence it belongs to L 2 (). In particular, f does exist, is continuous and belongs to L 2 (Ĝ). Note that by substracting (6) from(7), we immediately get (5), too: fdλ lim (f n ) + dλ lim inf (f n ) dλ g lim sup ((f n ) + (f n ) ) = lim sup f n dλ. It remains to show that supp f Q. Here, we need to argue in a different way than [1] does. Clearly, the linear functional ψ ρ (ϕ) := ϕρdλ, for ϕ L 1 () belongs to the unit ball in the dual space of L 1 () forρ = f n or ρ = f. Using that is σ-compact, we have that the space L 1 () iswc; moreover, ( L 1 () ) = L (). Thus, there is a subsequence of (f n ) (supposed to be itself (f n ) again) which converges to some f 0 L () in the weak- sense. It is not difficult to verify that f 0 must coincide with the locally uniform limit function f, that is, we have f n ϕdλ fϕdλ, for ϕ L 1 (). (8) Take any γ Ĝ\Q, and a small symmetric neighbourhood B of the unit element 1 of Ĝ with compact closure satisfying γbb Q =. Define the functions θ γ (χ) :=(1 B 1 B )(χγ 1 )andθ(χ) :=θ 1 (χ). Note that θ is compactly supported and θ(1) =(1 B 1 B )(1) =λĝ(b). Since B is symmetric, we get F (θ) = 1 2 B, by elementary properties of the L 2 -Fourier transform [20, Sect. 1.6.]. This immediately yields that F (θ) L 1 (). Indeed, one has F (θ) 1 = 1 2 B = 1 B 2 2 = λ Ĝ (B) < +, 2 because B has compact closure and the Haar measure is locally finite. Thus, we also have h(g) :=F (θ γ )(g) =γ(g) F (1 B 1 B )(g)

9 MJOM On the Existence of an Extremal Page 9 of = γ(g) F (1 B )(g) 2 = γ(g) 1 B (δ g ) 2, where the last equality follows from the symmetry of B. We see that h L 1 (). So we can take k := f h L 1 () for which we clearly have F(k) = fθ γ. Hence, we conclude from (8) via the Plancherel Theorem that k(s) = lim f n (g)h(s g)dλ (g) = lim f n (χ)δ s (χ)θ γ (χ)dλĝ(χ) =0 Ĝ in view of supp f n Q and {θ γ 0} Q = γbb Q =. Therefore, k(s) =0 holds for all s. Taking Fourier transform gives fθ γ 0, in particular, 0= f(γ)θ γ (γ) = f(γ)θ(1) = f(γ)λĝ(b). Thus, at any point γ outside the set Q, the function f vanishes. It follows that supp f Q and so f (W, Q) as wanted. From the definition it is clear that the restriction of a positive definite function to a subgroup remains positive definite on the subgroup as well. For the following fact, the reader can consult with [12, (a)]. Lemma 6. Let H beaclosedsubgroupof. If the function f : H C is continuous and positive definite, then so is its trivial extension f : C defined by { f(g) ifg H; f(g) = (9) 0 otherwise. Now, we are in a position to prove Theorem 2. Our strategy is the following. First we prove the theorem in the case where the underlying group is σ-compact, and then we reduce the general case after some technical preparation to the σ-compact one. ProofofTheorem2. At first, we suppose that is σ-compact. Using the definition of sup, there is an extremal sequence (f n ) (W, Q) such that f n dλ > D(W, Q) 1 n, n N+. (10) According to Lemma 5, there exists a limit function f (W, Q) such that a subsequence of (f n ) converges to f. Without loss of generality, we may and do suppose that (f n ) converges to f. We show that f is the extremal function in (W, Q),thatis, fdλ = D(W, Q). By using the definition of the extremal constant, inequality (5) and definition (10), we get D(W, Q) fdλ lim sup f n dλ D(W, Q) and thus we have equality everywhere in the last displayed chain of inequalities. This completes the proof when is σ-compact.

10 190 Page 10 of 16 M. aál and Z. Nagy-Csiha MJOM Assume now that is not σ-compact. Let 0 denote the open, σ- compact subgroup which is generated by W,thatis, V := W W, 0 := n N nv. Then, 0 is an LCA group and a Haar measure on 0 is given by λ 0 := λ 0. Define the sets Q,Q 0 as { } Q := γ Ĝ0 : all the extensions of γ to lie in Q { } Q 0 := γ Ĝ0 : χ Q such that χ 0 = γ. Claim 1. The set Q Ĝ0 is compact. Clearly, we have Q Q 0. The set Q 0 is the image of the compact set Q under the restriction map Φ:Ĝ Ĝ0, χ χ 0. Since 0 is open, according to Lemma [11, 24.5.] Φ is continuous. So Q is compact if and only if it is a closed subset of the compact set Q 0.Wecan write the complement of Q as (Q ) c ={ξ Ĝ0 : χ Ĝ, χ 0 = ξ, χ / Q} = ) {χ 0 } =Φ (Ĝ\Q, χ Ĝ\Q where the latter set is open because Φ is an open mapping, again by [11, Lemma 24.5.]. Similarly to (2) and (3), we consider the function class (W, Q ) 0 and the extremal quantity D(W, Q ) 0. Claim 2. We have h 0 (W, Q ) 0 have h (W, Q). if and only if for its extension h, we First, assume that h (W, Q). Since further properties of h 0 := h 0 are inherited to that of h, we intend to show that supp ĥ0 Q.Choosea γ Ĝ0 for which ĥ0 (γ) 0.Letχ Ĝ be any extension of γ such that χ 0 = γ. Ash L 1 () with supp h 0, there holds the computation ĥ 0 (γ) = h 0 (g)γ(g)dλ 0 (g) = h(g)χ(g)dλ (g) =ĥ(χ), (11) 0 whence ĥ(χ) 0 holds. It follows that every extension χ Ĝ of γ lies in Q, in other words γ Q. Thus, supp ĥ0 Q, as wanted. To see the converse, again from the computation (11) we see that ĥ(χ) 0 implies ĥ0 (γ) 0 whenever γ is the restriction of χ. By assumption and the definition of the set Q, the character χ lies in Q. So supp ĥ Q, and thus h (W, Q). Claim 3. We have D(W, Q) = D(W, Q ) 0.

11 MJOM On the Existence of an Extremal Page 11 of The inequality D(W, Q) D(W, Q ) 0 is in fact easy to verify. Indeed, by the D(W, Q) -extremality of the sequence (f n )andfn 0 := f n 0 (W, Q ) 0 for every n N, weget D(W, Q ) 0 fndλ 0 0 = f n dλ > D(W, Q) 1 0 n for every n N +, as wanted. To see the converse, consider an extremal sequence (fn) 0 (W, Q ) 0 on 0 and extend it in the trivial way to a sequence ( f n )on. Then in virtue of (11), fn (χ) 0 implies f n(γ) 0 0 where γ = χ 0. The latter condition gives us that γ Q, so it follows directly that supp fn Q. Hence, f n (W, Q) and thus D(W, Q) f n dλ = fndλ 0 0 > D(W, Q ) n for every integer n 1 which implies D(W, Q) D(W, Q ) 0. Now, we can finish the proof of Theorem 2 quite easily. To do so, consider a D(W, Q ) 0 -extremal sequence (fn)on 0 0. Then according to Lemma 5, there is a subsequence of (fn) 0 which tends to a function f 0 (W, Q ) 0, and we have f 0 dλ 0 = D(W, Q ) 0 = D(W, Q). 0 For the trivial extension f of f 0, one has fdλ = f 0 dλ 0 = D(W, Q). 0 Since f (W, Q), the last displayed equality shows that the function f is D(W, Q) -extremal. Remark. It is apparent from the construction presented in the last part of the proof of Theorem 2 that the extremal function can be chosen to be supported in the open σ-compact subgroup of generated by W. 5. Second Proof of the Theorem Our original argument was the above proof with the somewhat heavy use of L 1 () = L () for WC spaces, allowing to conclude for σ-compact and then a somewhat involved argument to transfer the result from the σ-compact case to the general one. A simpler, more direct proof was, however, hinted by our anonymous referee, whose suggestion we gratefully acknowledge here. The key point is that instead of using weak-* convergence in the L () sense of f n in (8), it is available to use weak L 2 () convergence, too. Although this innocent-looking modification seems to provide only an equivalent version of the original argument, actually it gives a way to an essential simplification, too, because (e.g. referring to the Eberline Smulian Theorem, James Theorem etc., see in [18,

12 190 Page 12 of 16 M. aál and Z. Nagy-Csiha MJOM and 2.8.9]) the modification allows us to get rid of the σ-compactness condition in Lemma 5. (In fact, for obtaining the assertion of Lemma 5 regarding weak-l 2 convergence instead of weak-* L convergence, in our case also a direct calculation works, avoiding references to deeper functional analysis results.) Thus we became enabled to deduce Theorem 2 shortly, without the heavy work for the transference of the result from the σ-compact case to the general one. At present, it seems that the original proof still has a little extra yield, which may justify its presentation in spite of the available shorter argument. Namely, the concluding Remark of the section is seen from this heavier work on transference, but is not immediate from the L 2 version. Therefore, we have decided to keep the above proof and describe the more direct L 2 version separately here. Lemma 7. Let (f n ) be a sequence in (W, Q). Then there exists a subsequence of (f n ) which converges to a function f (W, Q) uniformly on every compact set and also weakly in the L 2 sense. Moreover, we have the inequality fdλ lim sup f n dλ. (12) Proof of Lemma 7. The first part of the proof is the same as the proof of Lemma 5: we show that f C() L 1 () L (), whence it belongs to L 2 (). In particular, f does exist, is continuous and belongs to L 2 (Ĝ). Observe that (12) is exactly the formula (5) from Lemma 5. Although in the latter σ-compactness of was assumed, actually the proof of this formula did not use σ-compactness (which was only used later for L weak-* convergence). Therefore, this formula can be proved by repeating the respective argument in the proof of Lemma 5. Furthermore, once our sequence f n converges to f locally uniformly, it also converges weakly to the same limit function in L 2 (). Indeed, consider the linear functionals defined by our f n and f on L 2 (): we need to see that it holds that ϕf n dλ ϕfdλ (ϕ L 2 ()). (13) Let ε>0 be arbitrarily chosen, and take a compact subset K such that ϕ 2 L 2 () < K ϕ 2 dλ +ε, i.e. \K ϕ 2 dλ <ε. Further, take a sufficiently large index n 0 := n 0 (K) such that for n n 0 we have f f n L (K) <ε. Then for n n 0, we are led to ϕ(f n f)dλ ϕ(f n f)dλ + ϕ(f n f)dλ K \K ε 2 ϕ 2 L 2 () + 2ε, using also the Hölder inequality in the first and the uniform norm estimate f n f f n + f = 2 in the second term. It remains to show that supp f Q. As above, we take any γ Ĝ\Q, and a small symmetric neighbourhood B of the unit element 1 of Ĝ with

13 MJOM On the Existence of an Extremal Page 13 of compact closure, satisfying γbb Q =. Also, we consider the functions θ γ (χ) :=( B B )(χγ 1 )andθ(χ) :=θ 1 (χ), which are compactly supported, continuous functions with integrable inverse Fourier transform, giving rise to the construction of h := F (θ γ ) with h L 1 (). So we can take k := f h L 1 () for which we clearly have F(k) = fθ γ [20, Theorem 1.2.4]. It is also easy to see that h L 2 (), for it is the inverse Fourier transform of the continuous, compactly supported whence L 2 (Ĝ) function θ γ. Hence we can apply (13), followed by an application of the Plancherel Theorem [20, 1.6.2] to infer k(s) = lim f n (g)h(s g)dλ (g) = lim f n (χ)δ s (χ)θ γ (χ)dλĝ(χ) =0 Ĝ in view of supp f n Q and {θ γ 0} Q = γbb Q =. Therefore, k(s) =0 holds for all s. Via Fourier transform, we get fθ γ = k 0, as in the proof of Lemma 5, and we deduce mutatis mutandis supp f Q and f (W, Q) as wanted. Second proof of Theorem 2. Using the definition of sup, there is an extremal sequence (f n ) (W, Q) such that f n dλ > D(W, Q) 1 n, n N+. (14) According to Lemma 7, there exists a limit function f (W, Q) such that a subsequence of (f n ) converges to f uniformly on every compact set and also weakly in the L 2 sense. Without loss of generality, we may and do suppose that (f n ) converges to f. We show that f is the extremal function in (W, Q),thatis, fdλ = D(W, Q). By using the definition of the extremal constant, inequality (12) and definition (14), we get D(W, Q) fdλ lim sup f n dλ D(W, Q) and thus we have equality everywhere in the last displayed chain of inequalities. This completes the proof. Acknowledgements This research was partially supported by the DAAD-Tempus PPP rant titled,,harmonic Analysis and Extremal Problems. aál was supported by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office NKFIH Reg. No. s K and K , and also by the Ministry for Innovation and Technology, Hungary throughout rant TUDFO/ /2019- ITM. The authors gratefully acknowledge and offer their sincere thanks to Szilárd y. Révész for great discussions and encouragement. They also thank Elena Berdysheva for several useful comments and suggestions, and for the reference [3]. The help of Dávid Kunszenti-Kovács, who gave a useful comment on the earlier version of the paper, is also acknowledged. We are also

14 190 Page 14 of 16 M. aál and Z. Nagy-Csiha MJOM indebted to the anonymous referee for providing us a very good suggestion which led to the second, shorter proof of the main theorem. Funding Open access funding provided by Eötvös Loränd University. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Publisher s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. References [1] Berdysheva, E., Révész, S.Z..Y.: Delsarte s Extremal Problem and Packing on Locally Compact Abelian roups, arxiv: [2] Cohn, H.: New upper bounds on sphere packings. II, eom. Topol (2002) [3] Cohn, H., onçalves, F.: An optimal uncertainty principle in twelve dimensions via modular forms. Invent. Math. 217, (2019) [4] Cohn, H., Kumar, A., Miller, S.D., Radchenko, D., Viazovska, M.: The sphere packing problem in dimension 24. Ann. Math. 185, (2017) [5] Diestel, J.: eometry of Banach Spaces, Lecture notes in mathematics, 485. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1975) [6] Dixmier, J.: C -algebras. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, New York-Oxford (1977) [7] onçalves, F., Oliveira e Silva, D., Steinerberger, S.: Hermite polynomials, linear flows on the torus, and an uncertainty principle for roots. J. Math. Anal. Appl (2017) [8] orbachev, D.V.: Extremal problems for entire functions of exponential spherical type, connected with the Levenshtein bound on the sphere packing density in R n (Russian), Izvestiya of the Tula State University. Ser. Math. Mech. Inform. 6, (2000) [9] orbachev, D.V., Ivanov, V.I.: Turán s and Fejér s extremal problems for Jacobi transform. Anal. Math. 44, (2018) [10] orbachev, D.V., Tikhonov, S.Y.: Wiener s problem for positive definite functions. Math. Z. 289, (2018) [11] Hewitt, E., Ross, K.A.: Abstract harmonic analysis, I, Die rundlehren der mathemtischen Wissenchaften in Einzeldarstellungen, vol Springer, Berlin, öttingen, Heidelberg (1963)

15 MJOM On the Existence of an Extremal Page 15 of [12] Hewitt, E., Ross, K.A.: Abstract harmonic analysis, II, Die rundlehren der mathemtischen Wissenchaften, vol Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Budapest (1970) [13] Hewitt, E., Stromberg, K.: Real and Abstract Analysis, A modern treatment of the theory of functions of real variable. Springer, New York, Heidelberg (1965) [14] Ivanov, V.I., Ivanov, A.V.: Turán problems for periodic positive definite functions. Ann. Univ. Sci. Budapest. Sect. Comp (2010) [15] Ivanov, V.I., Rudomazina, YuD: On the Turán problem for periodic functions with nonnegative Fourier coefficients and small support. Math. Notes 77, (2005) [16] Jarchov, H. : Locally convex spaces. Vieweg+Teubner (1981) [17] Levenshtein, V.I.: Bounds for packings in n-dimensional Euclidean space. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 245, (1979) [18] Megginson, R.E.: An introduction to banach space theory, graduate texts in mathematics, vol Springer, New York (1998) [19] Phelps, R.R.: Monotone Operators, Convex Functions and Differentiability, second edn, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Springer (1993) [20] Rudin,W.: Fourier analysis on groups. Intersci. Tracts Pure Appl. Math. 12. New York, London (1962) [21] Székelyhidi, L.: Discrete spectral synthesis. Springer, Berlin (2006) [22] Viazovska, M.: The sphere packing problem in dimension. Ann. Math. 185, (2017) [23] Yudin, V.A.: Packings of balls in Euclidean space, and extremal problems for trigonometric polynomials (Russian). Diskret. Mat. 1, (1989) [24] Yudin, V.A.: translation in Discrete Math. Appl. 1, (1991) Marcell aál Rényi Institute of Mathematics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Reáltanoda utca Budapest 1053 Hungary Zsuzsanna Nagy-Csiha Department of Numerical Analysis, Faculty of Informatics Eötvös Loránd University Pàzmány Péter sétány 1/C Budapest 1117 Hungary and Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Faculty of Sciences University of Pécs Ifjúság útja 6 Pécs 7624 Hungary Received: December 2, 2019.

16 190 Page 16 of 16 M. aál and Z. Nagy-Csiha MJOM Revised: September 10, Accepted: October 7, 2020.

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